IgG From HIV-1–Exposed Seronegative and HIV-1–Infected Subjects Differently Modulates IFN-γ Production by Thymic T and B Cells
No abstract available (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - November 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Plasma Cotinine Cutoff for Distinguishing Smokers From Nonsmokers Among Persons Living With HIV
No abstract available (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - November 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Exosomal MicroRNAs Associate With Neuropsychological Performance in Individuals With HIV Infection on Antiretroviral Therapy
Conclusions: Plasma exo-miRNA content differed between NP higher- and lower-performing PLWH. Several differentially expressed exo-miRNAs were predicted to be involved in inflammation and neurodegeneration pathways. Exo-miRNA in plasma may indicate cross-talk between the circulation and central nervous system and thus may be clinically relevant for neurocognitive dysfunction in PLWH. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - November 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Translational Research Source Type: research

Upregulation of IL-32 Isoforms in Virologically Suppressed HIV-Infected Individuals: Potential Role in Persistent Inflammation and Transcription From Stable HIV-1 Reservoirs
Conclusions: Our data report on the differential expression of IL-32 isoforms and highlight the potential role of IL-32, particularly the γ isoform, in fueling persistent inflammation and transcription of viral reservoir in HIV-1 infection. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - November 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Translational Research Source Type: research

Deep Learning Analysis of Cerebral Blood Flow to Identify Cognitive Impairment and Frailty in Persons Living With HIV
Background: Deep learning algorithms of cerebral blood flow were used to classify cognitive impairment and frailty in people living with HIV (PLWH). Feature extraction techniques identified brain regions that were the strongest predictors. Setting: Virologically suppressed ( (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - November 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Translational Research Source Type: research

Brief Report: Adipogenic Expression of Brown Fat Genes in HIV and HIV-Related Parameters
Conclusions: Key HIV-related parameters reflective of nonacute infection (increased duration of HIV and duration of antiretroviral therapy use) or relatively reduced immunologic function (lower CD4 count) were linked to reduced expression of brown and beige fat gene in the abdominal subcutaneous adipose depot. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT01098045. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - November 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Translational Research Source Type: research

Reduced Time to Suppression Among Neonates With HIV Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy Within 7 Days After Birth
Abstract: There are limited data on infants with HIV starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the neonatal period. We investigated the association between the timing of ART initiation and time-to-suppression among infants who tested HIV-positive and initiated ART within the first 28 days of life. The effect was estimated using cumulative probability flexible parametric spline models and a multivariable generalized additive mixed model was performed to test nonlinear associations. Forty-four neonates were included. Nineteen (43.2%) initiated ART within 7 days of life and 25 (56.8%) from 8 to 28 days. Infants treated withi...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - November 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Benzodiazepine Use Is Associated With an Increased Risk of Neurocognitive Impairment in People Living With HIV
Discussion: BZD use may elevate risk for NCI in PLWH, potentially through diffuse neurocognitive slowing and acute compromise of recall and higher-order capacities. These effects are robust to psychosocial and HIV-specific factors and occur in comparison with a tightly matched BZD− group. Prospective and interventional studies should evaluate causal associations between NCI and BZD use and explore treatment alternatives to BZDs in PLWH. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - November 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Association of HIV Infection and Antiretroviral Therapy With Sudden Cardiac Death
Background: HIV infection potentially increases coronary artery disease and heart failure risks. However, the association between HIV infection and sudden cardiac death (SCD) has not been extensively studied. This nationwide cohort study aimed to determine SCD risks in Taiwanese patients with and without HIV infection. Methods: Adult people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) since January 1, 2003, were identified from the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control HIV surveillance system. HIV-infected individuals were defined as positive HIV-1 Western blot. A control cohort without HIV infection, matched for age and sex, was select...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - November 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Left Ventricular Function, Epicardial Adipose Tissue, and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Children and Adolescents With Vertical HIV Infection
Background: Life expectancy of HIV patients has increased considerably as a result of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and cardiovascular (CV) disease has emerged as an important late concern. People with HIV infection could have an impaired systolic function; however data on diastolic function and markers of CV risk, such as epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and intima-media thickness (IMT), are lacking. Aim of this study is to evaluate left ventricular function, EAT, and IMT in children and adolescents with vertically acquired HIV infection. Methods: We enrolled 29 subjects on ART (13, 45% men; median age of 13.0, and in...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - November 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Definition of Immunological Nonresponse to Antiretroviral Therapy: A Systematic Review
Background: Terms and criteria to classify people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy who fail to achieve satisfactory CD4+ T-cell counts are heterogeneous, and need revision and summarization. Methods: We performed a systematic review of PubMed original research articles containing a set of predefined terms, published in English between January 2009 and September 2018. The search retrieved initially 1360 studies, of which 103 were eligible. The representative terminology and criteria were extracted and analyzed. Results: Twenty-two terms and 73 criteria to define the condition were identified. The most frequ...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - November 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

High Rates of Biomarker-Confirmed Alcohol Use Among Pregnant Women Living With HIV in South Africa and Uganda
Conclusions: Alcohol use was prevalent and under-reported among pregnant WLWH in South Africa and Uganda, similar to nonpregnant participants, and associated with depression. General health care and antenatal clinic settings present opportunities to provide integrated alcohol-based counseling and depression treatment. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - November 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Brief Report: Low Sensitivity of the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool in Young HIV-Infected Patients: Time to Revise Our Screening Strategy
Conclusions: FRAX lacks sensitivity to determine which HIV-infected patients aged 40–49 years should undergo BMD testing to identify reduced BMD. Its role should be limited to treatment decisions. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - November 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Dual Analysis of Loss to Follow-up for Perinatally HIV-Infected Adolescents Receiving Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Asia
Background: Perinatally HIV-infected adolescents (PHIVA) are an expanding population vulnerable to loss to follow-up (LTFU). Understanding the epidemiology and factors for LTFU is complicated by varying LTFU definitions. Setting: Asian regional cohort incorporating 16 pediatric HIV services across 6 countries. Methods: Data from PHIVA (aged 10–19 years) who received combination antiretroviral therapy 2007–2016 were used to analyze LTFU through (1) an International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) method that determined LTFU as>90 days late for an estimated next scheduled appointment wi...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - November 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Implementation Science Source Type: research

Brief Report: Incidence of HIV in a Nationwide Cohort Receiving Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention
Conclusions: HIV infection was rare in a nationwide cohort of PrEP users. Although most of the infections occurred during inconsistent PrEP use, infections during periods of high measured adherence were also observed. These findings highlight the importance of PrEP persistence during periods of risk. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - November 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Prevention Research Source Type: research

Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Uptake Among Older Individuals in Rural Western Kenya
No abstract available (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - October 29, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Efficacy and Safety of Doravirine/Lamivudine/Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (DOR/3TC/TDF) in Treatment-Naive Adults With HIV-1 and Transmitted Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Resistance Mutations
No abstract available (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - October 29, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Brief Report: Relationship Between: ABCC4: SNPs and Hepatitis B Virus Suppression During Tenofovir-Containing Antiretroviral Therapy in Patients With HIV/HBV Coinfection
Conclusions: We identified a novel association between ABCC4 rs11568695 SNP and poor HBV treatment response. If confirmed in further studies, ABCC4 genotyping could be used to identify individuals who may need intensified HBV therapy. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - October 29, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Translational Research Source Type: research

Brief Report: Yield and Efficiency of Intensified Tuberculosis Case-Finding Algorithms in 2 High-Risk HIV Subgroups in Uganda
Conclusions: Among patients new to care, POC CRP-based screening can improve ICF efficiency without compromising ICF yield, whereas symptom-based screening may be necessary to maximize ICF yield among patients engaged in care. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - October 29, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Translational Research Source Type: research

Targeting ABL1 or ARG Tyrosine Kinases to Restrict HIV-1 Infection in Primary CD4+ T‐Cells or in Humanized NSG Mice
Conclusions: We demonstrate a novel nuclear role for ABL1 and ARG in ex vivo infection experiments, and proof-of-principle use of dasatinib in a humanized mouse model of HIV-1 infection. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - October 29, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Basic Science Source Type: research

Hypertension Control and Retention in Care Among HIV-Infected Patients: The Effects of Co-located HIV and Chronic Noncommunicable Disease Care
Background: As the noncommunicable disease (NCD) burden is rising in regions with high HIV prevalence, patients with comorbid HIV and chronic NCDs may benefit from integrated chronic disease care. There are few evaluations of the effectiveness of such strategies, especially those that directly leverage and extend the existing HIV care system to provide co-located care for NCDs. Setting: Academic Model of Providing Access to Healthcare, Kenya, provides care to over 160,000 actively enrolled patients in catchment area of 4 million people. Methods: Using a difference-in-differences design, we analyzed retrospective cl...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - October 29, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Use of Modeling and Simulations to Determine Raltegravir Dosing in Neonates: A Model for Safely and Efficiently Determining Appropriate Neonatal Dosing Regimens: IMPAACT P1110
Conclusions: An adaptive design incorporating population pharmacokinetic modeling and simulations was used to select a developmentally appropriate neonatal raltegravir dosing regimen in the first 6 weeks of life. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - October 29, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Interruptions Are Associated With Systemic Inflammation Among Ugandans Who Achieved Viral Suppression
Background: Residual systemic inflammation, which is associated with non-AIDS clinical outcomes, may persist despite viral suppression. We assessed the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence interruptions on systemic inflammation among Ugandans living with HIV who were virally suppressed. Setting: We evaluated adults initiating first-line ART at a regional referral hospital clinic in Mbarara, Uganda. Methods: Plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), D-dimer, soluble sCD14, sCD163, the kynurenine/tryptophan (K/T) ratio, and CD8+ T-cell activation (HLA-DR+/CD38+ coexpression) were measured at baseline...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - October 29, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Extended Prophylaxis With Nevirapine Does Not Affect Growth in HIV-Exposed Infants
This study examines the impact of extended nevirapine prophylaxis from 6 weeks to 6 months on the growth of HEU infants followed for 18 months and also identifies correlates of incident wasting, stunting, underweight, and low head circumference in the HPTN 046 trial. Methods: Intention-to-treat analysis examined the effect of extended nevirapine exposure on: weight-for-age Z-score, length-for-age Z-score, weight-for-length Z-score, and head circumference-for-age Z-score. Multivariable linear mixed-effects and Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare growth outcomes between the study arms and identify correlat...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - October 29, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Brief Report: Association Between Low HIV-1 DNA and Western Blot Reactivity to HIV-1 Pol in Chronically Infected Individuals
Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether negative HIV-1 pol on Western blot (WB) was associated with low HIV-DNA in adults with chronic HIV-1 infection and suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Methods: Cross-sectional parent study of the APACHE trial, conducted in subjects with chronic infection, HIV-1 RNA 500 cells/µL screened for HIV-1 DNA. HIV-1 DNA was quantified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by real-time polymerase chain reaction and HIV-1 serostatus was tested by HIV Blot 2.2 WB assay. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with low HIV-1 DN...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - October 29, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Brief Report: Diagnostic Accuracy of Oral Mucosal Transudate Tests Compared with Blood-Based Rapid Tests for HIV Among Children Aged 18 Months to 18 Years in Kenya and Zimbabwe
Conclusions: Compared to national algorithms, OMT did not miss any HIV-positive children. These data suggest that OMTs are valid in this age range. Future research should explore the acceptability and uptake of OMT by caregivers and health workers to increase pediatric HIV testing coverage. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - October 29, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Implementation of a Community-Based Hybrid HIV Testing Services Program as a Strategy to Saturate Testing Coverage in Western Kenya
Conclusion: The Hybrid HTS program identified persons previously unaware of their HIV-positive status, thereby enabling linkage to care and same-day treatment and reducing onward transmission risk. An approach focused on identifying persons unaware of their HIV-positive status in combination with ascertaining the PUF has the potential to better target testing strategies to identify>90% of PLWH in a community. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - October 29, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Implementation Science Source Type: research

HIV Risk and Prevention Outcomes in a Probability-Based Sample of Gay and Bisexual Men in the United States
Conclusions: Our findings present a decidedly mixed picture regarding the success of the US National HIV/AIDS Strategy in meeting its stated goals of addressing HIV risk among the general population of GBM. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - October 29, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Prevention Research Source Type: research

Missed Study Visits and Subsequent HIV Incidence Among Women in a Predominantly Sex Worker Cohort Attending a Dedicated Clinic Service in Kampala, Uganda
Conclusion: Missing study visits was associated with increased subsequent HIV risk. Although several factors may underlie this association, the finding suggests effectiveness of targeted combination HIV prevention. But exposure to targeted interventions needs to be monitored, facilitated, and sustained in FSWs. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - October 29, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Implementing an Indeterminate Range for More Accurate Early Infant Diagnosis
No abstract available (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - October 17, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Pharmacologic Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders and Time With Unsuppressed HIV Viral Load in a Clinical HIV Cohort
Conclusions: PLWH with depressive and bipolar disorders, particularly when untreated, spent more time with unsuppressed VL than PLWH without a mood disorder. Treatment of mood disorders may be important for promoting sustained viral suppression. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - October 17, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Switching to Fixed-Dose Bictegravir, Emtricitabine, and Tenofovir Alafenamide (B/F/TAF) in Virologically Suppressed HIV-1 Infected Women: A Randomized, Open-Label, Multicenter, Active-Controlled, Phase 3, Noninferiority Trial
We report 48-week results from a phase 3 study evaluating switching to B/F/TAF, specifically in a globally distributed trial population of women. Methods: In this multicenter, randomized, open-label, active-controlled, noninferiority trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02652624), women living with HIV who were virologically suppressed (HIV-1 RNA levels (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - October 17, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Effectiveness of Transmitted Drug Resistance Testing Before Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Positive Individuals
Background: For people living with HIV, major guidelines in high-income countries recommend testing for transmitted drug resistance (TDR) to guide the choice of first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, individuals who fail a first-line regimen can now be switched to one of several effective regimens. Therefore, the virological and clinical benefit of TDR testing needs to be evaluated. Methods: We included individuals from the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration who enrolled (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - October 17, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Polypharmacy, Hazardous Alcohol and Illicit Substance Use, and Serious Falls Among PLWH and Uninfected Comparators
Conclusion: Benzodiazepines and muscle relaxants were associated with serious falls among PLWH. Non-ART medication count, hazardous alcohol and illicit substance use, and opioid prescriptions were associated with serious falls in both groups. Prevention of serious falls should focus on reducing specific classes and absolute number of medications and both alcohol and illicit substance use. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - October 17, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Increased Risk of Executive Function and Emotional Behavioral Problems Among Virologically Well-Controlled Perinatally HIV-Infected Adolescents in Thailand and Cambodia
Conclusion: Asian adolescents with PHIV remain at risk of cognitive and mental health problems despite HIV treatment. Selective risks are observed among HEU youth. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - October 17, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Clinical Consequences of Using an Indeterminate Range for Early Infant Diagnosis of HIV: A Decision Model
Conclusions: When implemented in settings where confirmatory testing is not universal, the benefits of classifying weakly positive results as “indeterminate” may outweigh the risks. Accordingly, the World Health Organization has recommended Ct values ≥33 be considered indeterminate for infant HIV diagnosis. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - October 17, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Use of an Indeterminate Range in HIV Early Infant Diagnosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Conclusions: Without the use of an indeterminate range, over 10% of infants could be incorrectly diagnosed as HIV positive if their initial test results are not confirmed. Use of an indeterminate range appears to lead to substantial improvements in the accuracy of early infant diagnosis testing and supports current recommendations to confirm all initial positive tests. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - October 17, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Brief Report: Zinc Supplementation and Inflammation in Treated HIV
Conclusions: In this pilot study, we found that zinc supplementation is effective at increasing circulating zinc levels. In addition, our findings provide novel data suggesting that zinc can affect a biological signature in people living with HIV and modulate biomarkers associated with clinical comorbidities. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - October 17, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

PrEP Discontinuation and Prevention-Effective Adherence: Experiences of PrEP Users in Ugandan HIV Serodiscordant Couples
Conclusions: These experiences highlight the challenges PrEP users in serodiscordant couples face in discontinuing PrEP for prevention-effective adherence. Flexible interventions that support individuals during this transition may increase comfort with discontinuing PrEP when alternative prevention strategies provide protection, such as a partner's consistent adherence to ART. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - October 17, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Prevention Research Source Type: research

PrEP Use Among Female Sex Workers: No Evidence for Risk Compensation
Conclusions: We observed no evidence of risk compensation, and a decrease in STI among FSW on PrEP. PrEP intervention may be an opportunity to control STI among FSW. Future studies should assess risk compensation with biomarkers of semen exposure when possible. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - October 17, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Prevention Research Source Type: research

Brief Report: Urine Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Concentrations Provide Markers of Recent Antiretroviral Drug Exposure Among HIV-Negative Men Who Have Sex With Men
This study sought to determine whether urine could provide a biomarker of adherence for currently approved pre-exposure prophylaxis and HIV treatment regimens. Methods: Urine and blood were collected from 34 HIV-negative men who have sex with men aged 18–49 years, enrolled in a clinical trial comparing 2 antiretroviral regimens. Specimens were collected 4 and 24 hours after a single oral dose of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC) (n = 10) or tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)/FTC/cobicistat (COBI)/elvitegravir (EVG) (n = 8), or after 4 and 10 days of daily oral TDF/FTC (n = 9) or TAF/FTC/COBI/EVG (n ...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - October 17, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Prevention Research Source Type: research

Antiretroviral Adherence Level Necessary for HIV Viral Suppression Using Real-World Data
Background: A benchmark of near-perfect adherence (≥95%) to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is often cited as necessary for HIV viral suppression. However, given newer, more effective ART medications, the threshold for viral suppression may be lower. We estimated the minimum ART adherence level necessary to achieve viral suppression. Settings: The Patient-centered HIV Care Model demonstration project. Methods: Adherence to ART was calculated using the proportion of days covered measure for the 365-day period before each viral load test result, and grouped into 5 categories ( (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immun...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - October 17, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Use of Recommended Preventive Health Care Services and Variations in HIV Care Among Women With HIV in the United States, 2013–2014: Opportunities for Expanded Partnerships in Support of Ending the HIV Epidemic
Background: Despite recommendations for preventive health services and routine HIV care for HIV-positive women, limited data are available regarding uptake of recommendations. Methods: We used data from the 2013–2014 data cycles of the Medical Monitoring Project. We calculated weighted estimates and used multivariable logistic regression with adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals to examine associations between preventive health screenings, routine HIV care [based on viral load (VL) and CD4 measures as proxies], and sociodemographic factors. Results: Of 2766 women, 47.7% were 50 years and ol...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - October 17, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

The Impact of Cumulative Depression Along the HIV Care Continuum in Women Living With HIV During the Era of Universal Antiretroviral Treatment
Background: Data are limited on cumulative impacts of depression on engagement in care and HIV outcomes in women living with HIV (WLWH) during the era of universal antiretroviral therapy (ART). Understanding the relationship of accumulated depression with HIV disease management may help identify benefits of interventions to reduce severity and duration of depressive episodes. Setting: A cohort of WLWH (N = 1491) from the Women's Interagency HIV Study at 9 sites across the US. Methods: This longitudinal observational cohort study (2013–2017) followed WLWH for a maximum of 9 semiannual visits. Depression was qu...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - October 17, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Chronic Distal Sensory Polyneuropathy Is a Major Contributor to Balance Disturbances in Persons Living With HIV: Erratum.
No abstract available (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - September 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Errata Source Type: research

“Impact of HIV Self-Test Distribution to Male Partners of ANC Clients: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial in Kenya: Erratum”
No abstract available (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - September 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Errata Source Type: research

Detecting Disengagement From HIV Care Before It Is Too Late: Development and Preliminary Validation of a Novel Index of Engagement in HIV Care: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - September 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Errata Source Type: research

Reply
No abstract available (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - September 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Rationing of Antiretrovirals. A Step Backward
No abstract available (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - September 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Evaluating HIV Transmission Rates for the US National HIV/AIDS Strategy, 2010–2015
No abstract available (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - September 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research