Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Failure With a Multiple Drug-Resistant HIV-1 Clade C Virus in Brazil
No abstract available (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - January 18, 2022 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

A Counseling and Monitoring Approach for Supporting Breastfeeding Women Living With HIV in Botswana
No abstract available (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - January 18, 2022 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

HIV-1 Treatment Failure, Drug Resistance, and Clinical Outcomes in Perinatally Infected Children and Adolescents Failing First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy in Western Kenya
Background: Long-term impact of drug resistance in perinatally infected children and adolescents living with HIV (CALWH) is poorly understood. We determined drug resistance and examined its long-term impact on failure and mortality in Kenyan CALWH failing first-line non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor–based antiretroviral therapy (ART). Setting: Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare, western Kenya. Methods: Participants were enrolled in 2010–2013 (timepoint 1) and a subsample re-enrolled after 4–7 years (timepoint 2). Viral load (VL) was performed on timepoint 1 sample...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - January 18, 2022 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Association of Poor Sleep With Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms by HIV Disease Status: Women's Interagency HIV Study
Conclusions: Poor sleep quality is highly prevalent, as is mental health symptom burden, among WLWH and HIV-uninfected controls. Future longitudinal studies are necessary to clarify the directionality of the relationship. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - January 18, 2022 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

High Burden of Adverse Drug Reactions to Isoniazid Preventive Therapy in People Living With HIV at 3 Tertiary Hospitals in Uganda: Associated Factors
Conclusion: The prevalence of suspected IPT-linked ADRs is high, and hepatotoxicity is the most commonly reported serious suspected ADR. Patients self-reported more suspected ADRs than those documented in clinical files by health care workers. Patient engagement could improve ADR detection and potentially strengthen the pharmacovigilance system. Patients with a high risk of ADR ought to be monitored regularly to enable early detection and management. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - January 18, 2022 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Associations Between Central Obesity and Lifelong Antiviral Therapy in Adults Living With HIV Acquired From Early Childhood
This study explores changes in body fat distribution in relation to ARV exposure. Methods: We conducted a prospective study of adults with perinatal HIV (n = 70) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and standard anthropometrics. Trunk to limb fat ratio and waist to hip ratio were compared cross-sectionally to 47 matched controls. Furthermore, changes in body composition and ARV exposure were evaluated longitudinally in a subset of 40 PLWH with a median follow-up of 7 years. Results: Cross-sectional comparisons of PLWH with controls revealed significantly higher waist to hip ratio, trunk to limb fat ratio, H...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - January 18, 2022 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Randomized, Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial of De Simone Formulation Probiotic During HIV-Associated Suboptimal CD4+ T Cell Recovery
Objective: To assess whether probiotic supplementation may reduce disease-linked systemic immune activation in people living with HIV with the immunologic nonresponder phenotype. Design: Phase 2b, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial. Methods: HIV-positive individuals with blood CD4+ T-cell counts (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - January 18, 2022 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Single Oral Doses of MK-8507, a Novel Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor, Suppress HIV-1 RNA for a Week
Conclusions: The robust antiviral activity, PK, and tolerability of MK-8507 support its continued development as part of a complete once weekly oral regimen for HIV-1 treatment; combination therapy could mitigate the emergence of resistance-associated variants. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - January 18, 2022 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

HIV Disease Dynamics and Markers of Inflammation and CNS Injury During Primary HIV Infection and Their Relationship to Cognitive Performance
Conclusions: Biomarkers of CNS inflammation, immune activation, and neuronal injury peak early and then decline during acute HIV infection, confirming and extending results of other studies. Neither plasma nor CSF biomarkers during acute infection corresponded to NP scores before or after sustained ART in this cohort with few psychosocial risk factors for cognitive impairment. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - January 18, 2022 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Brief Report: No Differences Between Lopinavir/Ritonavir and Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor–Based Antiretroviral Therapy on Clearance of Plasmodium falciparum Subclinical Parasitemia in Adults Living With HIV Starting Treatment (A5297)
Background: HIV protease inhibitors anti-Plasmodium falciparum activity in adults remains uncertain. Methods: Adults with HIV CD4+ counts>200 cells/mm3 starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) with P. falciparum subclinical parasitemia (Pf SCP) were randomized 1:1 to (step 1) protease inhibitor lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-based (arm A) or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (nNRTI)-based ART (arm B) for 15 days. In step 2, participants received nNRTI-based ART and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis for 15 days. P. falciparum SCP clearance was measured by polymerase chain reaction. The Fisher exa...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - January 18, 2022 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Effect of an Unsanctioned Safe Consumption Site in the United States on Syringe Sharing, Rushed Injections, and Isolated Injection Drug Use: A Longitudinal Cohort Analysis
Conclusion: SCS may show benefit in reducing high-risk injection practices, and legal sanctioning of an SCS may offer further advantages. SCS implementation should be considered to help reduce the spread of HIV, overdose mortality, and prevent other medical complications of injection drug use. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - January 18, 2022 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Implementation Science Source Type: research

DigiPrEP: A Pilot Trial to Evaluate the Feasibility, Acceptability, and Accuracy of a Digital Pill System to Measure PrEP Adherence in Men Who Have Sex With Men Who Use Substances
Conclusion: DPS are a feasible, acceptable, and accurate method of measuring PrEP adherence in MSM with substance use. Future investigations should incorporate DPS into behavioral interventions targeting nonadherence. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - January 18, 2022 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Prevention Research Source Type: research

Long-term HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Trajectories Among Racial & Ethnic Minority Patients: Short, Declining, & Sustained Adherence
Conclusion: Among racial and ethnic minorities, a plurality achieved sustained PrEP persistence. Access to clinics, insurance, and intersectional stigmas may be modifiable barriers to effective PrEP persistence; in addition, focus on younger users and beyond gay, cismale populations are needed. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - January 18, 2022 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Prevention Research Source Type: research

Material Hardship and Association With Sexual Risk Behavior Among Adolescent Sexual Minority Males in 3 US Cities—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance—Young Men Who Have Sex With Men, 2015
We examined the relationship between material hardship and sexual behavior among ASMMs aged 13–18 years residing in 3 US cities using 2015 data from CDC's National HIV Behavioral Surveillance among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men. Methods: Young men ages 13–18 years residing in 3 US cities were recruited through venue-based, respondent-driven, or Facebook sampling. We estimated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for condomless anal intercourse (CAI) with a male sex partner in the past 12 months and with having 4 or more male sex partners in the past 12 months. Result...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - January 18, 2022 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Prevention Research Source Type: research

Mental Health Mediates the Association Between Gender-Based Violence and HIV Treatment Engagement in US Women
Conclusions: GBV is associated with suboptimal engagement in care, which may be explained by mental health. Interventions should address women's mental health needs, regardless of food insecurity, when improving engagement in HIV care. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - January 18, 2022 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Human Immunodeficiency Virus transmission by HIV Risk Group and Along the HIV Care Continuum: A Contrast of 6 US Cities
Conclusion: These findings underline the importance of both early diagnosis and improved ART retention for ending the HIV epidemic in the United States. Differences in the sources of transmission across cities indicate that localized priority setting to effectively address diverse microepidemics at different stages of epidemic control is necessary. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - January 18, 2022 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Intimate Partner Violence and the HIV Care and Treatment Cascade Among Adolescent Girls and Young Women in DREAMS, South Africa
Conclusions: Addressing the role of IPV in undermining the treatment cascade for adolescent and young women is a critical issue for HIV programming. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - January 18, 2022 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Differential Associations Between BDNF and Memory Across Older Black and White Adults With HIV Disease
Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) shows consistent associations with memory across many clinical populations, including dementia. Less is understood about the association between BDNF and memory functioning in people living with HIV (PWH). Methods: A sample of 173 adults aged 50+ (n = 100 HIV+ and n = 73 HIV seronegative) completed a comprehensive neurobehavioral assessment and blood draw. Linear regressions predicting memory domains (learning, delayed recall, and recognition) were conducted including race (White vs. Black/African American), HIV status, BDNF, and their interactions. Results...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - January 18, 2022 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

An Epidemic of Pediatric HIV From Reuse of Infusion Equipment in Pakistan
Discussion: Private physicians reusing intravenous drip sets to treat outpatients seen in private practice were responsible for this HIV epidemic. Mapping and regulation of private practitioners were suggested. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - January 18, 2022 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Rapid Communication Source Type: research

Rapid Implementation of a Telemedicine Program in a Ryan White–Funded HIV Clinic During a Global Pandemic
No abstract available (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - December 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Low CD4 Counts Despite Effective ART in Hospitalized Malawian HIV+/COVID+ Coinfected Patients
No abstract available (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - December 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Brief Report: Polymorphisms in CAMKK2 may Influence Domain-Specific Neurocognitive Function in HIV+ Indonesians Receiving ART
Conclusions: Polymorphisms in CAMKK2 may influence neurocognitive outcomes in specific domains in HIV+ Indonesians receiving ART for 12 months. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - December 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Translational Research Source Type: research

Optimizing Dolutegravir Initiation in Neonates Using Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Simulation
Conclusions: Newborn DTG dosing requirements during the first few days of life depend on maternal DTG dosing history before delivery. These results may help the design of future clinical studies of DTG in the neonatal population. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - December 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Interferon Gamma Release Assay and Tuberculin Skin Test Performance in Pregnant Women Living With and Without HIV
Background: HIV and pregnancy may affect latent TB infection (LTBI) diagnostics. Tuberculin skin test (TST) and newer generation QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus (QFT-Plus) evaluations in pregnant women living with HIV (WLHIV) and without HIV are lacking. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, pregnant women underwent TST and QFT-Plus testing during antenatal care in Kenya. We estimated LTBI prevalence and TST and QFT-Plus performances. Diagnostic agreement was assessed with kappa statistic, participant characteristics associated with LTBI and HIV were assessed with generalized linear models, and QFT-Plus quantitative ...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - December 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Genital Mucosal Drug Concentrations and anti-HIV Activity in Tenofovir-Based PrEP Products: Intravaginal Ring vs. Oral Administration
Objective: To describe and compare systemic and local pharmacokinetics (PK) and cervicovaginal (CV) pharmacodynamics (PD) of oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in combination with emtricitabine (FTC) with tenofovir (TFV) intravaginal ring (IVR). Design: Phase I, randomized, parallel-group study. Women (n = 22) used TDF/FTC oral tablets daily or TFV IVR continuously and were assessed at baseline and 14 days. Methods: TFV and FTC concentrations were measured in plasma, CV fluid (CVF), and CV tissue. TFV-diphosphate and FTC-triphosphate were assessed in CV tissue. In vitro PD antiviral activities of TF...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - December 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Probiotics to HIV-Infected Immunological Nonresponders: Altered Mucosal Immunity and Microbial Diversity Restricted to Ileum
Background: HIV-infected immunological nonresponders (INRs) have increased risk of non-AIDS morbidity and compromised gut barrier immunity. Probiotics are widely used to improve health. We assessed the effects of probiotics in INRs with a comprehensive analysis of gut immunity and microbiome in terminal ileum and sigmoid colon. Methods: The study involved clinical intervention with five-strain probiotic capsules (1.2 × 1010 CFUs/d) for 8 weeks in 20 INRs with CD4+ T-cell counts (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - December 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Most Early-Treated Children With Perinatally Acquired HIV Have Preserved Lung Function at School Age
Background: Impaired lung function is common among older children with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV) who initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) late in childhood. We determined the prevalence of abnormal spirometry and cofactors for impaired lung function among school-age children with PHIV who initiated ART when aged 12 months or younger. Setting: Children who received early ART in the Optimizing Pediatric HIV-1 Therapy study in Kenya and underwent spirometry at school age. Methods: Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were measured. Abnormal spirometry was define...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - December 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Brief Report: HIV Is Associated With Impaired Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity Independent of Emphysema
Background: HIV is associated with accelerated decline in lung function and increased risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recently, there has been growing attention toward the impairment in the diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO), a marker of pulmonary gas exchange, observed among persons living with HIV. Although increased emphysema can contribute to the DLCO impairment observed, other factors may drive this association. Methods: Using cross-sectional data from the Study of HIV in the Etiology of Lung Disease, we studied the association between HIV and DLCO independent ...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - December 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Socioeconomic Status and Cognitive Function in Children With HIV: Evidence From the HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders in Zambia (HANDZ) Study
Background: Multiple previous studies have identified a detrimental effect of pediatric HIV on cognitive function. Socioeconomic status (SES) is one of the strongest predictors of cognitive performance and may affect the relationship between HIV and cognition. Methods: As part of the ongoing HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders in Zambia (HANDZ) study, a prospective cohort study, we recruited 208 participants with HIV and 208 HIV-exposed uninfected controls, all aged 8–17 years. A standardized questionnaire was administered to assess SES, and all participants had comprehensive neuropsychological testing...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - December 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Implementation Science Source Type: research

Forecasting HIV-1 Genetic Cluster Growth in Illinois,United States
Conclusion: Growth-based prioritization schemes can easily be automated in HIV surveillance tools and can be used by health departments to identify and respond to clusters where HIV transmission may be actively occurring. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - December 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Implementation Science Source Type: research

Seroadaptive Strategy Patterns of Young Black Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men in Atlanta, Georgia
Conclusions: YBMSM use various patterns of strategies to reduce their HIV transmission or acquisition risk. Our study highlights the need for targeted HIV prevention recommendations based on individual behaviors. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - December 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Prevention Research Source Type: research

Improving Quality of PrEP Counseling for Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Kenya With Standardized Patient Actors: A Dose–Response Analysis
Background: Health care worker (HCW) training using standardized patient actors (SPs) is an evidence-based approach for improving patient–provider interactions. We evaluated whether SP training among HCWs in Western Kenya improved the quality of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) counseling for adolescent girls and young women (AGYW). Methods: We conducted a 2-day SP training intervention among HCWs providing PrEP counseling for AGYW. Six trained SPs role played one encounter each with HCWs following scripts depicting common PrEP-seeking scenarios. SPs used checklists to report and discuss domains of adherenc...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - December 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Prevention Research Source Type: research

Characterization of the Population Affected by the 6-Month Recertification Criterion of the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program's AIDS Drug Assistance Program in Washington State, 2017–2019
Conclusions: Disenrollment after failure to recertify was the most common reason why PLWH lost ADAP coverage in Washington State. ADAP recertification procedures disproportionately affect Black, young, and uninsured PLWH and may contribute to disparities in HIV outcomes. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - December 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Stigma Determines Antiretroviral Adherence in Adults With HIV in Myanmar
Introduction: Understanding social and structural barriers that determine antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence can improve care. Assessment of such factors is limited in Myanmar, a country with high HIV prevalence and increasing number of people living with HIV initiating ART. Methods: Questionnaires were administered to adults with HIV across 4 Myanmar cities to estimate adherence and its potential determinants, including HIV knowledge, social support, barriers to care, enacted and internalized stigma, and engagement in peer-to-peer HIV counseling (PC). Associations were determined using logistic mixed-effect...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - December 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Association of the VACS Index With Hospitalization Among People With HIV in the NA-ACCORD
Background: People with HIV (PWH) have a higher hospitalization rate than the general population. The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index at study entry well predicts hospitalization in PWH, but it is unknown if the time-updated parameter improves hospitalization prediction. We assessed the association of parameterizations of the VACS Index 2.0 with the 5-year risk of hospitalization. Setting: PWH ≥30 years old with at least 12 months of antiretroviral therapy (ART) use and contributing hospitalization data from 2000 to 2016 in North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) w...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - December 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among People Living With HIV Compared With People Without HIV: Survey Results From the MACS-WIHS Combined Cohort Study
Conclusions: Despite similar SARS-CoV-2 testing and physical distancing profiles by HIV serostatus among MWCCS participants, PLWH who reported SARS-CoV-2 testing were more likely to have a positive test result. Additional studies are needed to determine whether and why PLWH are at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - December 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Rapid Communication Source Type: research

Switch to INSTIs, but Not Long-Term Stable INSTIs, Is Associated With Excess Weight Gain in People Living With HIV
No abstract available (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - November 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Predictors of Transition to Frailty in Middle-Aged and Older People With HIV: A Prospective Cohort Study
Background: People with HIV (PWH) have increased frailty risk at younger ages compared with the general population. Multimorbidity is associated with frailty, yet effects of specific comorbidities on transition to frailty in PWH are unknown. Setting: Prospective study of 219 PWH age 45 years or older in the National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium. Methods: Frailty status was categorized using Fried frailty phenotype criteria. Comorbidities [bone disease, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, liver disease, renal disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), hypertension, obesity...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - November 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Predicting, Diagnosing, and Treating Acute and Early HIV Infection in a Public Sector Facility in Eswatini
This study was conducted in Nhlangano outpatient department from March 2019 to March 2020. Methods: Adults at risk of AEHI underwent diagnostic testing for AEHI with the quantitative Xpert HIV-1 viral load (VL) assay. AEHI was defined as the detection of HIV-1 VL on Xpert and either an HIV-seronegative or HIV-serodiscordant third-generation antibody-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) result. First, the cross-sectional analysis obtained the yield of AEHI and established a predictor risk score for the prediction of AEHI using Lasso logistic regression. Second, diagnostic accuracy statistics described the ability of the...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - November 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Site-Randomized Controlled Trial of a Combined Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and a Medication Management Algorithm for Treatment of Depression Among Youth Living With HIV in the United States
Conclusions: A manualized, measurement-guided psychotherapy and medication management algorithm tailored for YLWH significantly reduced depressive symptoms compared with standard care at HIV clinics. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - November 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Prevalence of Advanced HIV Disease, Cryptococcal Antigenemia, and Suboptimal Clinical Outcomes Among Those Enrolled in Care in Vietnam
Background: People living with advanced HIV disease are at high risk of morbidity and mortality. We assessed the prevalence of cryptococcal antigenemia (CrAg) and clinical outcomes among patients newly presenting with CD4 ≤100 cells/μL in Vietnam. Setting: Twenty-two public HIV clinics in Vietnam. Methods: During August 2015–March 2017, antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve adults presenting for care with CD4 ≤100 cells/μL were screened for CrAg. Those who consented to study enrollment were followed up for up to 12 months and assessed for clinical outcomes. Results: Of 3504 pati...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - November 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Out-of-Facility Multimonth Dispensing of Antiretroviral Treatment: A Pooled Analysis Using Individual Patient Data From Cluster-Randomized Trials in Southern Africa
Conclusions: Three and 6-monthly out-of-facility MMD was non-inferior versus facility-based care for stable ART patients. Out-of-facility 6-monthly MMD should incorporate small group peer support whenever possible. ClinicalTrial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03238846 and NCT03438370. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - November 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Implementation Science Source Type: research

Pilot-Testing a Blended Learning Package for Health Care Workers to Improve Index Testing Services in Southern Malawi: An Implementation Science Study
The objective of this study was to develop and pilot test a blended learning capacity-building package to improve index testing implementation in Malawi. Methods: In 2019, a blended learning package combining digital and face-to-face training modalities was field tested at 6 health facilities in Mulanje, Malawi using a pre-/post- type II hybrid design with implementation and effectiveness outcomes. Health care worker (HCW) fidelity to the intervention was assessed via observed encounters before and after the training. Preliminary effectiveness was examined by comparing index testing program indicators in the 2 month...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - November 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Implementation Science Source Type: research

Brief Report: HCV Universal Test-and-Treat With Direct Acting Antivirals for Prisoners With or Without HIV: A Prison Health Care Workers–Led Model for HCV Microelimination in Thailand
Conclusions: HCV treatment using DAA among prisoners through universal test-and-treat approach led by prison health care workers is highly effective and safe, and such model can potentially help to facilitate the goals of HCV microelimination among prisoners in Thailand. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - November 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Implementation Science Source Type: research

Sociodemographic Correlates of Self-reported Discrimination in HIV Health Care Settings Among Persons With Diagnosed HIV in the United States, Medical Monitoring Project, 2018–2019
Conclusions: Interventions that address the sociocultural and structural factors associated with discrimination in all health care settings are needed to improve health outcomes among PWH and end the HIV epidemic in the United States. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - November 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Prevention Research Source Type: research

Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Use of HIV Care, Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence, and Viral Suppression: An Observational Cohort Study From Uganda
Conclusion: We document substantial gaps in HIV care after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in Uganda. This suggests that measures to improve access should be explored as the pandemic persists. However, ART adherence was unaffected for the subcohort for whom we measured electronic adherence. This suggests that some clients may have stockpiles of ART tablets from previous prescriptions that allowed them to keep taking their medication even when they could not visit the clinic for ART refills. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - November 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Machine Learning Algorithms Using Routinely Collected Data Do Not Adequately Predict Viremia to Inform Targeted Services in Postpartum Women Living With HIV
Conclusions: Using routinely collected data to predict viremia in>1300 postpartum women with HIV, we achieved moderate model discrimination, but insufficient to inform targeted adherence support. Psychosocial characteristics or objective adherence metrics may be required for improved prediction of viremia in this population. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - November 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Prevalence of COVID-19–Related Social Disruptions and Effects on Psychosocial Health in a Mixed-Serostatus Cohort of Men and Women
This study describes prevention behavior and psychosocial health among people living with HIV (PLHIV) and HIV-negative people during the early wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the United States. We assessed differences by HIV status and associations between social disruption and psychosocial health. Design: A cross-sectional telephone/videoconference administered survey of 3411 PLHIV and HIV-negative participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study/WIHS Combined Cohort Study (MWCCS). Methods: An instrument combining new and validated measures was developed to assess COVID-19 preven...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - November 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy Among PLWH in South India: Implications for Vaccination Campaigns
Discussion: These results highlight several challenges for vaccination efforts. Campaigns may benefit from using trusted sources, including antiretroviral therapy center staff, providing clear information about safety and efficacy and emphasizing the role of vaccines in preventing severe disease, hospitalizations and death, and the reduction of forward transmission to unvaccinated household members. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - November 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Rapid Communication Source Type: research

HIV Infection Is Associated With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
No abstract available (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - November 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research