Transmission Networks of HCV Genotype 1a Enriched With Pre-existing Polymorphism Q80K Among HIV-Infected Patients With Acute Hepatitis C in Poland: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - April 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Fatty Liver: The Perfect Storm or a Storm in a Teacup?
No abstract available (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - April 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

HIV, Elevated Transaminases, Fatty Liver: The Perfect Storm?
No abstract available (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - April 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

PD-1+ and TIGIT+ CD4 T Cells Are Associated With Coronary Artery Calcium Progression in HIV-Infected Treated Adults
No abstract available (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - April 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

The Effect of Switching to Maraviroc + Darunavir/Ritonavir Dual Therapy in Virologically Suppressed Patients on the Progression of Liver Fibrosis: Findings From a Randomized Study
No abstract available (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - April 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Cost of an HIV Medical Care Coordination Program in Los Angeles County
No abstract available (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - April 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Cytomegalovirus Viremia in HIV-1 Subtype C Positive Women at Delivery in Botswana and Adverse Birth/Infant Health Outcomes
Conclusions: Approximately 1 in 6 HIV-positive women in Botswana had detectable CMV DNA in blood at delivery. The presence of maternal CMV viremia had a borderline association with adverse birth outcomes but not with 24-month morbidity or mortality in HIV-exposed uninfected children. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - April 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Translational Research Source Type: research

Brief Report: Real-World Performance and Interobserver Agreement of Urine Lipoarabinomannan in Diagnosing HIV-Associated Tuberculosis in an Emergency Center
Conclusion: There is no diagnostic accuracy advantage in laboratory-performed versus point-of-care–performed urine LAM tests in emergency care centers in high-burden settings. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - April 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Brief Report: Kidney Dysfunction Does Not Contribute Significantly to Antiretroviral Therapy Modification in Treatment-Naive PLWH Receiving Initial ART
Background: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) durability, time to modification or cessation, has declined. The study objective was to determine whether kidney dysfunction is contributing to reduced durability. Methods: This retrospective follow-up study of CNICS evaluated treatment-naive PLWH initiating ART between 2007 and 2014. Regimen modification was defined as cessation/modification of any part of the 3-drug ART regimen. We evaluated the role of kidney dysfunction in initial regimen modification as both a mediator and effect measure modifier. Associations of the variables with the ART modification were examined using ...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - April 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Brief Report: Response to Hepatitis A Virus Vaccine in HIV-Infected Patients Within a Retrospective, Multicentric Cohort: Facing Hepatitis A Outbreaks in the Clinical Practice
Conclusions: HIV-infected patients should be encouraged to undergo HAV-V with 2 standard doses 6 months apart; a single dose achieves a high rate of seroconversion in those patients with favorable response factors and may be enough to limit future outbreaks in case of HAV-V shortage until supply is reestablished. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - April 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Insomnia as an Independent Predictor of Incident Cardiovascular Disease in HIV: Data From the Veterans Aging Cohort Study
Background: Insomnia is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the general population and is highly prevalent in people with HIV. The CVD risk conferred by insomnia in the HIV population is unknown. Methods: Using the Veterans Aging Cohort Study Survey Cohort, insomnia symptoms were measured and dummy coded with the item, “Difficulty falling or staying asleep?” (5-point scale from no difficulty to bothers a lot). Incident CVD event ICD-9 codes (acute myocardial infarction, stroke, or coronary artery revascularization) were identified with the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and ...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - April 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

High Plasma Soluble CD163 During Infancy Is a Marker for Neurocognitive Outcomes in Early-Treated HIV-Infected Children
We examined the relation between monocyte activation markers and early and long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes in early-treated HIV-infected children. Setting: Prospective study of infant and child neurodevelopmental outcomes nested within a randomized clinical trial (NCT00428116) and extended cohort study in Kenya. Methods: HIV-infected infants (N = 67) initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) at age (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - April 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Metabolic Syndrome and Neurocognitive Deficits in HIV Infection
Conclusions: The present findings underscore the need for early identification of PLHIV at risk for MetS and the implementation of preventive and treatment approaches to lessen the development of MetS and neurocognitive impairment among PLHIV. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - April 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Liver Enzyme Elevation in Pregnant Women Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in the ANRS-French Perinatal Cohort
Background: High rates of liver enzyme elevation (LEE) in women receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) during pregnancy have been reported, but causes remain unclear. We estimated the prevalence and risk factors of LEE in a national prospective multicenter cohort. Methods: We studied 5748 pregnant women living with HIV enrolled in the French Perinatal Cohort 2005–2014, treated with ART, with no active hepatitis B or C coinfection. Adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) was estimated using Cox models with ART as time-dependent variable, separately for women on ART at conception and those initiating ART during pregnancy. ...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - April 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Brief Report: Cocaine Use and Pre-exposure Prophylaxis: Adherence, Care Engagement, and Kidney Function
Conclusions: Cocaine use decreases PrEP adherence and care engagement. Comprehensive approaches are needed to reduce cocaine use and enhance engagement along the PrEP care continuum. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - April 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Brief Report: Validation of a Urine Tenofovir Immunoassay for Adherence Monitoring to PrEP and ART and Establishing the Cutoff for a Point-of-Care Test
Background: Current pharmacologic adherence monitoring for antiretrovirals involves expensive, labor-intensive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based methods. Antibody-based assays can monitor and support adherence in real time. We developed a tenofovir (TFV)-based immunoassay and further validated it in a directly observed therapy (DOT) study. Design: Pharmacologic DOT study of TFV disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC) administered to HIV-noninfected volunteers. Methods: The TARGET study provided directly observed TDF 300 mg/FTC 200 mg 7 (high adherence), 4 (moderate), and 2 doses/...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - April 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Characterizing the Influence of Structural Determinants of HIV Risk on Consistent Condom Use Among Female Sex Workers in Senegal
Conclusions: Taken together, these data highlight the role of structural risk determinants on condom use among FSWs in Senegal. Moreover, these results highlight the need for structural interventions, including safe working spaces and violence mitigation programs, to support condom negotiation and access. Combined with condom distribution programs, structural interventions could ultimately increase condom use among FSWs in Senegal. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - April 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Prevention Research Source Type: research

Changes in Disparities in Estimated HIV Incidence Rates Among Black, Hispanic/Latino, and White Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) in the United States, 2010–2015
Background: During 2008–2015, the estimated annual HIV incidence rate in the United States decreased for each transmission risk category, except for men who have sex with men (MSM). Racial/ethnic disparities exist, with higher incidence rates for Black and Hispanic/Latino MSM. Setting: This analysis examines changes, 2010–2015, in disparities of HIV incidence among Black, Hispanic/Latino and White MSM. Methods: We compared results from the rate ratio, rate difference, weighted and unweighted index of disparity, and population attributable proportion. We calculated incidence rates for MSM using HIV surve...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - April 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Prevention Research Source Type: research

Brief Report: Changes in Behavior After PrEP Initiation Among Australian Gay and Bisexual Men
Introduction: HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been increasingly adopted by gay and bisexual men (GBM). Little is known about whether individual GBM change their sexual behavior after PrEP initiation. Methods: Following Lives Undergoing Change (Flux) is a national, online, prospective observational study among Australian GBM. Using McNemar statistics, we compare rates of sexual behaviors before and coincident with PrEP initiation among 1518 non–HIV-positive men recruited between August 2014 and July 2017 who had not commenced PrEP at baseline and who completed at least one 6-monthly follow-up surveys by J...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - April 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Prevention Research Source Type: research

The Use of the Restricted Mean Survival Time as a Treatment Measure in HIV/AIDS Clinical Trial: Reanalysis of the ACTG A5257 Trial
Conclusions: Although the RMST-based analysis is an alternative measure of efficacy in HIV/AIDS, clinical trials such an analysis can be strongly impacted by departures from the PH assumption. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - April 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Elevated Microparticle Tissue Factor Activity Is Associated With Carotid Artery Plaque in HIV-Infected Women
Conclusions: Our findings suggest a link among HIV infection, innate immune system perturbation, coagulation, and atherosclerosis. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - April 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

How Can Programs Better Support Female Sex Workers to Avoid HIV Infection in Zimbabwe? A Prevention Cascade Analysis
Conclusions: HIV prevention programming among female sex workers in Zimbabwe could consider increasing awareness of PrEP alongside supply, alcohol use interventions, and approaches to engaging younger women. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - April 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

HIV-Related Deaths in Nairobi, Kenya: Results From a HIV Mortuary Surveillance Study, 2015
Background: Death is an important but often unmeasured endpoint in public health HIV surveillance. We sought to describe HIV among deaths using a novel mortuary-based approach in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Cadavers aged 15 years and older at death at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and City Mortuaries were screened consecutively from January 29 to March 3, 2015. Cause of death was abstracted from medical files and death notification forms. Cardiac blood was drawn and tested for HIV infection using the national HIV testing algorithm followed by viral load testing of HIV-positive samples. Results: Of 807 eligible cada...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - April 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Risk Factors for Low CD4+ Count Recovery Despite Viral Suppression Among Participants Initiating Antiretroviral Treatment With CD4+ Counts > 500 Cells/mm3: Findings From the Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Therapy (START) Trial
Background: Low CD4+ recovery among HIV-positive individuals who achieve virologic suppression is common but has not been studied among individuals initiating treatment at CD4+ counts of>500 cells/mm3. Setting: United States, Africa, Asia, Europe and Israel, Australia, Latin America. Methods: Among participants randomized to immediate antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Therapy trial, low CD4+ recovery was defined as a CD4+ increase of (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - April 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Brief Report: Clinical Outcomes of Young Black Men Receiving HIV Medical Care in the United States, 2009–2014
Conclusions: Viral suppression among young black men during 2009–2014 was lower than that among the overall population receiving HIV care in 2013 (36% vs. 68%). Increasing viral suppression is essential to improve health and reduce HIV transmissions in this key population. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - April 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Brief Report: Onward Transmission of Multiple HIV-1 Unique Recombinant Forms Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Beijing, China
Conclusions: We introduced a new method to provide evidence for onward transmission of URF strains by examining the absence of intersubtype coinfection among early infected individuals. Onward transmission of multiple URFs was found among MSM in Beijing, China. Our findings call for a program of continuous molecular surveillance and have implications to prevention programs among MSM in China. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - April 9, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Potential Relationship Between HIV Criminalization and Structural Stigma Related to Sexual Orientation in the United States
No abstract available (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - March 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Heterogeneous HIV-1 Reactivation Patterns of Disulfiram and Combined Disulfiram+Romidepsin Treatments
Conclusions: Exclusive reactivation effects of disulfiram in myeloid latency cell lines suggest that disulfiram could be a potential LRA for this neglected reservoir. Moreover, distinct reactivation profiles pinpoint heterogeneity of the latent reservoir and confirm that the mechanisms that contribute to HIV latency are diverse. Importantly, disulfiram+romidepsin treatments are not potent ex vivo and most likely do not represent an effective drug combination to achieve high levels of latency reversal in vivo. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - March 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Translational Research Source Type: research

Cryptococcosis-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Is Associated With Dysregulation of IL-7/IL-7 Receptor Signaling Pathway in T Cells and Monocyte Activation
Background: Systemic levels of interleukin (IL)-7 at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation have previously been shown to be predictive of HIV-linked paradoxical cryptococcosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (C-IRIS). We therefore explored IL-7/IL-7 receptor (IL-7/IL-7R) signaling pathway dysfunction, with related alterations in immune function, as a mechanism underlying C-IRIS. Method: HIV-infected patients with cryptococcal meningitis who experienced C-IRIS (n = 27) were compared with CD4+ T-cell count-matched counterparts without C-IRIS (n = 27), after antifungal therapy and pre-ART initiat...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - March 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Translational Research Source Type: research

Brief Report: Higher Levels of Angiopoietin-1 Are Associated With Early and Sustained Viral Suppression in Children Living With Vertically Acquired HIV
Background: Systemic inflammation, platelet dysfunction, and endothelial activation persist in people living with HIV despite sustained virologic suppression (SVS) with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and may lead to complications such as atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) is a key regulator of angiogenesis and endothelial activation and has been studied as an objective biomarker in disease states such as atherosclerosis, sepsis, and severe malaria. Setting: Eight pediatric HIV care centers across Canada. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 61 children living with vertically acq...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - March 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Translational Research Source Type: research

Brief Report: Syphilis Coinfection Is Not Associated With an Increased Risk of Virologic Failure Among HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex With Men on Antiretroviral Therapy
Background: Incidence of syphilis continues to increase among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in Ontario. Our objective was to determine the effect of acute syphilis on virologic failure (VF) among virally suppressed HIV-positive MSM taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) and determine if the relationship is confounded by drug use. Setting: The OHTN Cohort Study is a voluntary cohort of people receiving HIV care in Ontario. Syphilis and viral load (VL) data were retrieved via linkage with the provincial laboratory. Methods: Analyses included 2632 MSM from 2008 to 2015, on ART, with ≥1 questionnaire and...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - March 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Does Changing Antiretroviral Therapy in the First Trimester of Pregnancy for Safety Concerns Have an Impact on Viral Suppression?
Objective: To determine whether changing antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy because of concern about fetal risks led to poorer virological outcomes. Methods: All pregnancies in women with HIV-1 infection enrolled in the national multicenter prospective French Perinatal cohort at 14 week gestation or more were included between January 2005 and December 2015, if the mother was on ART at conception with a plasma viral load (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - March 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Chronic Distal Sensory Polyneuropathy Is a Major Contributor to Balance Disturbances in Persons Living With HIV
Conclusions: cDSPN contributes to balance problems in PLWH. Assessments of cDSPN in older PLWH should be a clinical priority to identify those at risk and to aid in fall prevention and the ensuing consequences, including bone fractures, subdural hematoma, hospital admissions, and fatal injury. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - March 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

HCV Screening and Treatment Uptake Among Patients in HIV Care During 2014–2015
This study aims to characterize the continuum of HCV screening and treatment among PWH in HIV care. Setting: Adult patients enrolled at 12 sites of the HIV Research Network located in 3 regions of the United States were included. Methods: We examined the prevalence of HCV screening, HCV coinfection, direct-acting antiretroviral (DAA) treatment, and SVR-12 between 2014 and 2015. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify characteristics associated with outcomes, adjusted for site. Results: Among 29,071 PWH (age 18–87, 74.8% male, 44.4% black), 77.9% were screened for HCV antibodies; 94.6% of t...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - March 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Factors Associated With Sex-Related Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Adherence Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in New York City in HPTN 067
Conclusions: This analysis identified populations of MSM who might benefit from additional support to optimize PrEP adherence, including those who are younger, unemployed, or opiate users. MSM with lower PrEP behavioral skills may benefit from targeted interventions. Further study is needed to assess racial and ethnic disparities in PrEP adherence, which may reflect broader social and economic inequalities not captured in this study. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - March 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Prevention Research Source Type: research

The Invisible Product: Preferences for Sustained-Release, Long-Acting Pre-exposure Prophylaxis to HIV Among South African Youth
Conclusions: Narrative explanations for preferences converged thematically around different dimensions of “invisibility” including invisibility to oneself, one's partner and household members, and community members. End-user preferences can be used to inform product development of long-acting HIV prevention approaches formulated as injections or implants to optimize adherence and impact. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - March 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Prevention Research Source Type: research

STD Partner Services to Monitor and Promote HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Use Among Men Who Have Sex With Men
Conclusions: Integrating PrEP referrals into STD PS is an effective population-based strategy to link MSM at high HIV risk to PrEP. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - March 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Prevention Research Source Type: research

Brief Report: PrEP Eligibility Among At-Risk Women in the Southern United States: Associated Factors, Awareness, and Acceptability
Conclusions: Extremely low PrEP awareness and use despite a high proportion of eligibility and acceptability signify a critical need to enhance PrEP education and delivery for women in this region. Supplementing CDC eligibility criteria with questions about history of sexual violence and HIV risk self-assessment may enhance PrEP screening and uptake among US women. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - March 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Prevention Research Source Type: research

Brief Report: Comparing Sexual Risk Behavior in a High-Risk Group of Men Who Have Sex With Men and Transgender Women in Lima, Peru
Conclusions: TW and MSM exhibited distinct risk profiles, suggesting that interventions specifically targeted to each group may provide new opportunities for more effective HIV prevention programs. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - March 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Drivers of HIV Infection Among Cisgender and Transgender Female Sex Worker Populations in Baltimore City: Results From the SAPPHIRE Study
Objective: To determine and compare risk factors for HIV infection among cisgender female sex workers (CFSWs) and transgender female sex workers (TFSWs). Design: Baseline data from a cohort study (SAPPHIRE) of street-based CFSW and TFSW in Baltimore, MD. Methods: Women were queried about individual (eg, drug use), interpersonal (eg, sexual abuse), and structural (eg, housing) risk factors and questioned on their sex work risk environment. Women were tested for HIV/sexually transmitted infections. We used logistic regression to identify key risk factors for prevalent HIV in each population. Results: We recruited ...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - March 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Cost-Effectiveness of Accelerated HIV Response Scenarios in CĂ´te d'Ivoire
Conclusions: According to commonly used thresholds, accelerating the HIV response can be considered very cost-effective for all scenarios. However, when balancing epidemiological impact, cost-effectiveness, and affordability, scenarios that sustain both high condom use and rates of viral suppression among KP and CFSW seem most promising in Côte d'Ivoire. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - March 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Pregnancy Incidence and Fertility Desires Among Couples by HIV Status in Rakai, Uganda
Conclusions: There are many drivers of fertility desires and pregnancy rates, and HIV does not diminish the desire for more children. Unmet need for family planning was evident and highlighted the need to understand and meet the contraceptive needs of couples. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - March 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Female Genital Schistosomiasis and HIV: Research Urgently Needed to Improve Understanding of the Health Impacts of This Important Coinfection
Abstract: Evidence suggests that there are important interactions between HIV and female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) that may have significant effects on individual and population health. However, the exact way they interact and the health impacts of the interactions are not well understood. In this article, we discuss what is known about the interactions between FGS and HIV, and the potential impact of the interactions. This includes the likelihood that FGS is an important health problem for HIV-positive women in Schistosoma-endemic areas potentially associated with an increased risk of mortality, cancer, and infertil...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - March 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Critical Review Source Type: research

High Yield of Home-Based TB Diagnosis Among Newly Diagnosed Patients With HIV
No abstract available (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - February 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Peripheral Blood Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number Obtained From Genome-Wide Genotype Data Is Associated With Neurocognitive Impairment in Persons With Chronic HIV Infection
Background: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number varies by cell type and energy demands. Blood mtDNA copy number has been associated with neurocognitive function in persons without HIV. Low mtDNA copy number may indicate disordered mtDNA replication; high copy number may reflect a response to mitochondrial dysfunction. We hypothesized that blood mtDNA copy number estimated from genome-wide genotyping data is related to neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in persons with HIV. Methods: In the CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) study, peripheral blood mtDNA copy number was obtained from genome-wide ge...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - February 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Translational Research Source Type: research

Diagnostic Accuracy of Noninvasive Markers of Steatosis, NASH, and Liver Fibrosis in HIV-Monoinfected Individuals at Risk of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD): Results From the ECHAM Study
Conclusions: In HIV-monoinfected patients, MRI-PDFF and FibroScan/CAP are highly accurate for the diagnosis of steatosis. The alanine aminotransferase level and APRI should be considered for the detection of NASH and fibrosis. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - February 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Virological Outcome of Patients With HIV Drug Resistance Attending an Urban Outpatient Clinic in Uganda: A Need for Structured Adherence Counseling and Third-Line Treatment Options
Conclusion: Two years after initial virological failure, most patients followed up by this study had a successful virological outcome. However, a significant proportion either continued to fail or died or was lost to follow-up. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - February 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Etiology and Severity of Liver Disease in HIV-Positive Patients With Suspected NAFLD: Lessons From a Cohort With Available Liver Biopsies
Conclusions: Among HIV-positive patients with elevated transaminases, a surprisingly high number of patients had nonsignificant changes or even normal histological findings. The prevalence of NAFLD was lower than reported in other series. Use of noninvasive tools with a high NPV for significant fibrosis can help reduce the number of required biopsies. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - February 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Antiretroviral Drug Concentrations in Breastmilk, Maternal HIV Viral Load, and HIV Transmission to the Infant: Results From the BAN Study
Background: Concentration of antiretroviral (ARV) drug found in plasma, and amounts of drug excreted into breastmilk, may affect HIV viral load and potentially perinatal HIV transmission. Methods: In this cohort study with 2-phase sampling, we included mothers randomized to postpartum maternal ARVs or daily infant nevirapine during 28 weeks of breastfeeding in the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study. Among these, we included all mothers who transmitted HIV to their infants between 2 and 28 weeks and 15% of mothers who did not (n = 27 and 227, respectively). Spearman correlation coefficients (r2) were u...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - February 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Nadir CD4 Is Negatively Associated With Antinuclear Antibody Detection in HCV/HIV-Coinfected Patients
Conclusions: ANA and aSMA detection remain frequent in HCV/HIV-coinfected patients during the post–combined antiretroviral therapy era, despite fair immune restoration. These results advocate for a close monitoring of ANA before immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy in these patients with greater caution for those with a low nadir CD4 T-cell count. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - February 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research