Similarities and spatial variations of bacterial and fungal communities in field rice planthopper (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) populationsh

This study investigated the bacterial and fungal community compositions of Chinese wil d rice planthoppersLaodelphax striatellus andSogatella furcifera using parallel 16S rRNA gene amplicon and internal transcribed space region sequencing. The bacteria varied significantly between the species and were partitioned significantly by sexes, tissues and host environments in each species. The majority of bacteria were affiliated with the generaWolbachia,Cardinium,Rickettsia andPantoea. The abundance ofWolbachia was negatively correlated with that ofCardinium in both planthopper species. Compared with bacteria, the abundance and diversity of fungi did not differ between sexes but both were enriched in the gut. The bacterial community as a whole showed no significant correlation with the fungal community. The majority of fungi were related toSarocladium,Alternaria,Malassezia,Aspergillus andCurvularia. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that these fungi were closely related to botanic symbionts or pathogens. Our results provide novel insights into the bacteria and fungi of rice planthoppers.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Source: Insect Science - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

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Filamentous fungi are important organisms in traditionally prepared amylase and alcohol-producing dry starters in India. We collected 40 diverse types of amylase and alcohol-producing starters from eight states in North East India viz. marcha, thiat, humao, hamei, chowan, phut, dawdim, and khekhrii. The average fungal population was 4.9 × 105 cfu/g with an average of pH 5.3 and 10.7%, respectively. In the present study, 131 fungal isolates were isolated and characterized based on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics and were grouped into 44 representative fungal strains. Based on results of morphological chara...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
With limited therapeutic options and associated severe adverse effects, fungal infections are a serious threat to human health. Innate immune response mediated by pattern recognition proteins is integral to host defense against fungi. A soluble pattern recognition protein, Surfactant protein D (SP-D), plays an important role in immune surveillance to detect and eliminate human pathogens. SP-D exerts its immunomodulatory activity via direct interaction with several receptors on the epithelial cells lining the mucosal tracts, as well as on innate and adaptive immune cells. Being a C-type lectin, SP-D shows calcium- and sugar...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This study suggested that wild R. pseudostellariae was able to resist or tolerate disease by increasing soil microbial diversity, and reducing the accumulation of soil-borne pathogens.
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusions. The emergence of azole-resistant A. fumigatus infections in STAT3-deficiency dramatically impacts both curative and prophylactic antifungal strategies. Physicians following patients with primary immune-deficiencies should be aware of this emerging problem as it complicates management of the patient. PMID: 32459615 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research
Abstract The human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus causes life-threatening invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals. Adaptation to the host environment is integral to survival of A. fumigatus and requires the coordination of short- and long-distance vesicular transport to move essential components throughout the fungus. We previously reported the importance of MyoE, the only class V myosin, for hyphal growth and virulence of A. fumigatus. Class V myosins are actin-based, cargo-carrying motor proteins that contain unique binding sites for specific cargo. Specific cargo carried by myos...
Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research communications - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Biochem Biophys Res Commun Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2020Source: Process BiochemistryAuthor(s): Noel Dungog Roble, James Ogbonna, Hideo Tanaka
Source: Process Biochemistry - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to determine the performance of the recently released IMMY sona Aspergillus LFA when testing serum samples. The study took the form of a retrospective, anonymous case/control study comprising 179 serum samples from 136 patients with invasive fungal disease, previously documented using recently revised internationally accepted definitions. The LFA was performed following the manufacturer’s instructions using a cube reader to generate a galactomannan index (GMI). Performance parameters were determined, and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to identify an optimal th...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Mycology Source Type: research
Abstract Filamentous fungi play an important role in the production of a range of useful extracellular hydrolytic enzymes for wide industrial applications. The Western Ghats region is known for its rich microbial biodiversity and could be a potential source of several useful fungi that could be exploited for the production of industrially important enzymes. From this soil, we aimed at the isolation of multienzyme producing fungi, optimization of the culture conditions using solid-state fermentation (SSF), partial purification of enzymes and characterization by zymography. Out of seven fungal strains, two isolates,...
Source: Current Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research
Azole resistance of the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus is an emerging problem. To identify novel mechanisms that could mediate azole resistance in A. fumigatus, we analyzed the transcriptome of a mitochondrial fission/fusion mutant that exhibits increased azole tolerance. Approximately 12% of the annotated genes are differentially regulated in this strain. This comprises upregulation of Cyp51A, the azole target structure, upregulation of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily and major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporters and differential regulation of transcription factors. To study their impact on azole tole...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)-based film packaging enriched with plant-sourced cinnamaldehyde (CIN) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) of simple synthesis were prepared in this work. Then, the physico-mechanical and barrier properties and antifungal activities of CMC-based films, including pristine CMC, CIN/CMC, ZnONPs/CMC, ZnONPs/CIN/CMC were investigated. The results indicated that the ZnONPs incorporation produced a nanocomposite film with low transparency, good flexibility and high mechanical resistance. Furthermore, the water barrier capacity and antifungal performance of CMC-based films were signi...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Int J Biol Macromol Source Type: research
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