Non-commercial phenotypic assays for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance: a systematic review

AbstractSeveral rapid non-commercial culture-based methods and assays for drug susceptibility testing (DST) ofMycobacterium tuberculosis have emerged over the last decades. The aim of the current review was to summarise evidence on the performance of microscopic observation of drug susceptibility (MODS), thin-layer agar (TLA) and colorimetric redox-indicator (CRI) assays for detection of resistance to first- and second-line anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs. Forty-three publications satisfying selection criteria were selected for data extraction. MODS and CRI assays demonstrated pooled sensitivity and specificity of> 93% for the detection of resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid and confirmed their utility for an accurate detection of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) in various settings. Sensitivity and specificity values for indirect DST for ethambutol (EMB) using CRI assays were 94.0% and 82.0%, respectively, suggesting that CRIs could be used to rule out resistance to EMB. Performance for other drugs varied more substantially across the reports. There was no sufficient evidence on the performance of the TLA assay for making any conclusion on its utility for DST. Our data suggests that non-commercial assays could be used for a rapid and accurate DST in settings where the use of commercial World Health Organization-endorsed assays could be limited due to a variety of reasons including limited resources, laboratory facilities or trained personnel. While inexpensive and easy-to-...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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This study is expected to report the performance of integrated TB/HIV treatment programs as regards their potential to uphold successful MDR-TB treatment outcomes in LMICs. Furthermore, the review will indicate patient-related and healthcare-related factors that should be addressed to improve on survival of patients with MDR-TB/HIV co-infection in LMICs.Systematic review registrationThis review has been registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews and the reference ID is CRD42020159745
Source: Systematic Reviews - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Conclusions: Delivery of granulysin by recombinant adenovirus to the infected lung could enhance the clearance of TB in vivo and might be a promising adjunct therapeutic vaccine for TB and MDR-TB.
Source: Theranostics - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Purpose of review Urinary tract infections (UTIs) belong to the most common community-acquired and nosocomial infections, but therapy of UTIs is limited by resistance of pathogens and nonoptimal using of antibacterials. Narrative review of recent (2020–2018) literature dedicated to antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) in urological infections has been done. Recent findings Analysis of recent 64 articles has shown following principles of AMS for UTIs: selecting the correct drug, correct dose, and shortest clinically effective duration of therapy whenever possible, is a base for optimal antimicrobial stewardship; sympt...
Source: Current Opinion in Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: INFECTION STEWARDSHIP IN UROLOGY: Edited by Benjamin Pradere and Richard K. Lee Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests an important role of oxidative stress as a major pathogenetic mechanism of riminophenazine-induced cardiac dysfunction. PMID: 33017766 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Biomedicine and pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine and pharmacotherapie - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Biomed Pharmacother Source Type: research
Source: Infection and Drug Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Infection and Drug Resistance Source Type: research
Conclusions: This first documentation of Rifampicin resistance patterns in MTB from Nigeria shows that a majority ofrpoB gene mutations occurred along codons 523 to 527, contrary to the widely reported codon 531 mutation and that multiple interventions such as combination therapy, with good compliance to treatment are needed to reduce both prevalence and development of TB drug resistance in the population.
Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a major public health threat; its management poses a significant economic burden. Treatment requires a programmatic approach with access to laboratory services, second-line medications, and adequate clinical resources. In recent years, we have seen rapid developments in diagnostic techniques with whole genome sequencing –based drug susceptibility prediction now in reach, an array of new drugs that transform treatment regimens to purely oral formulations, and a steady stream of multinational trials that inform us about most efficient combinations. Our hope is that...
Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
Microbial Drug Resistance, Ahead of Print.
Source: Microbial Drug Resistance - Category: Microbiology Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusions: This study offers important details of the epidemiological profile of XDR-TB in Peru, where there has been an increase in cases of primary XDR-TB; that is, cases with no prior history of disease. Furthermore, this form of tuberculosis has spread to a greater number of departments in the country. PMID: 32973891 [PubMed]
Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Panam Salud Publica Source Type: research
Authors: Seddon JA, Johnson S, Palmer M, van der Zalm MM, Lopez-Varela E, Hughes J, Schaaf HS Abstract Introduction An estimated 30,000 children develop multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) each year, with only a small proportion diagnosed and treated. This field has historically been neglected due to a perception that children with MDR-TB are challenging to diagnose and treat. Diagnostic and therapeutic developments in adults have improved paediatric management, yet further paediatric-specific research and wider implementation of evidence-based practices are required. Areas covered This review combines the ...
Source: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Respir Med Source Type: research
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