Automated White Matter Hyperintensity Segmentation Using Bayesian Model Selection: Assessment and Correlations with Cognitive Change

AbstractAccurate, automated white matter hyperintensity (WMH) segmentations are needed for large-scale studies to understand contributions of WMH to neurological diseases. We evaluated Bayesian Model Selection (BaMoS), a hierarchical fully-unsupervised model selection framework for WMH segmentation. We compared BaMoS segmentations to semi-automated segmentations, and assessed whether they predicted longitudinal cognitive change in control, early Mild Cognitive Impairment (EMCI), late Mild Cognitive Impairment (LMCI), subjective/significant memory concern (SMC) and Alzheimer ’s (AD) participants. Data were downloaded from the Alzheimer’s disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Magnetic resonance images from 30 control and 30 AD participants were selected to incorporate multiple scanners, and were semi-automatically segmented by 4 raters and BaMoS. Segmentations wer e assessed using volume correlation, Dice score, and other spatial metrics. Linear mixed-effect models were fitted to 180 control, 107 SMC, 320 EMCI, 171 LMCI and 151 AD participants separately in each group, with the outcomes being cognitive change (e.g. mini-mental state examination; MMSE), and B aMoS WMH, age, sex, race and education used as predictors. There was a high level of agreement between BaMoS’ WMH segmentation volumes and a consensus of rater segmentations, with a median Dice score of 0.74 and correlation coefficient of 0.96. BaMoS WMH predicted cognitive change in: control, ...
Source: Neuroinformatics - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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ConclusionMultimodal analysis conducted with various image data from PiB-PET/MRI scans showed differences in regional CBF, cortical volume, and neuronal networks in different regions, indicating that pathophysiologic and functional changes in the AD brain can be observed from various aspects of neurophysiologic parameters. Application of multimodal brain images using PET/MRI would be ideal for investigating pathophysiologic changes in patients with dementia and other neurodegenerative diseases.
Source: EJNMMI Research - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Conclusions: In this study, we observed in middle- and old-aged individuals with neither dementia nor alcohol-related disorders that moderate lifetime alcohol intake was associated with lower cerebral AB deposition compared to a lifetime history of not drinking. Moderate lifetime alcohol intake may have a beneficial influence on AD by reducing pathological amyloid deposition rather than amyloid-independent neurodegeneration or cerebrovascular injury. The Study in Context: Report: 35% of worldwide dementia cases could be prevented by modifying these 9 modifiable risk factors Study: Drinking up to 5–8 glasses of wine...
Source: SharpBrains - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Cognitive Neuroscience Health & Wellness Alzheimer-disease Alzheimers beer beta amyloid deposits brain protein dementia hard liquor mental acuity moderate drinking MRI neurodegeneration PET wine Source Type: blogs
Authors: Lotan E, Friedman KP, Davidson T, Shepherd TM Abstract BACKGROUND: The authors reviewed the two most common current uses of brain 18F-labeled fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) at a large academic medical center. For epilepsy patients considering surgical management, FDG-PET can help localize epileptogenic lesions, discriminate between multiple or discordant EEG or MRI findings, and predict prognosis for post-surgical seizure control. In elderly patients with cognitive impairment, FDG-PET often demonstrates lobar-specific patterns of hypometabolism that suggest particular underlyi...
Source: The Israel Medical Association Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: Isr Med Assoc J Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: We were able to achieve a high accuracy for machine learning technique in distinguishing BD from HV using a combination of multimodal neuroimaging and neurocognitive measures. Findings of this proof of concept study, if replicated in larger samples, could have potential clinical applications. PMID: 32143176 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Asian Journal of Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Asian J Psychiatr Source Type: research
Associations Between APOE Variants, Tau and α-Synuclein. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2019;1184:177-186 Authors: Rodriguez-Vieitez E, Nielsen HM Abstract Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the aggregation and deposition of misfolded proteins in the brain, most prominently amyloid-β (Aβ), tau and α-synuclein (α-syn), and are thus referred to as proteinopathies. While tau is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other non-AD tauopathies, and α-synuclein is the pathological feature of the spectrum of synucleinopathies including Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
by Jee Wook Kim, Min Soo Byun, Dahyun Yi, Jun Ho Lee, Kang Ko, So Yeon Jeon, Bo Kyung Sohn, Jun-Young Lee, Yu Kyeong Kim, Seong A Shin, Chul-Ho Sohn, Dong Young Lee, for the KBASE Research Group BackgroundAn emerging body of literature has indicated that moderate alcohol intake may be protective against Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia. However, little information is available regarding whether moderate alcohol intake is related to reductions in amyloid-beta (A β) deposition, or is protective via amyloid-independent mechanisms in the living human brain. Here we examined the associations of moderate alcohol intake with ...
Source: PLoS Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
This cross-sectional, longitudinal study of amyloid- β–positive individuals with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer disease dementia examines the factors associated with interindividual differences in brain and cognitive resilience to tau positron emission tomography load and to changes in global cognition over time.
Source: JAMA Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
ConclusionsCustomized FreeSurfer-based brain atlas for DARTEL tool is easy to create and useful for the analysis of PET and MR images with high adaptability and reliability for broad research purposes.
Source: Annals of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Brain 18F-FDG PET had an elevated performance in the early diagnosis of PPA variants and in the advanced PPA AD/FTD classification. QL clarified the development of AD or FTD in advanced PPA cases and supported the differential diagnosis of a PPA variant in a few early cases. QN 18F-FDG PET evaluation better contributed to the early diagnosis of an unclear metabolic pattern. To correctly identify all cases, patients with diffuse cortical hypometabolism were also included. Larger series are necessary to confirm these data. PMID: 32062656 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord Source Type: research
(Wiley) New findings published in the Scandinavian Journal of Medicine&Science in Sports reveal how physically active older adults benefit from reduced risks of early death, breast and prostate cancer, fractures, recurrent falls, functional limitations, cognitive decline, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and depression.
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
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