Translating cancer genomics for precision oncology in biliary tract cancers.

Translating cancer genomics for precision oncology in biliary tract cancers. Discov Med. 2019 Nov-Dec;28(155):255-265 Authors: Haber PK, Sia D Abstract Biliary tract cancers (BTC), which include cholangiocarcinoma (both intra- and extrahepatic) and gallbladder, represent a heterogeneous group of malignancies with relatively low-incidence and poor prognosis. Therapeutic options for BTC patients at advanced stage are severely limited and palliative chemotherapy remains the maintreatment option. In the past decade, genome profiling via next-generation sequencing of large international cohorts has paved the way for precision oncology in BTC, identifying unique molecular subtypes, recurrent mutations, and genomic rearrangements. Targeted therapies directed against some of these aberrations are currently under investigation in phase 3 clinical studies and hold great promise to improve the prognosis of this disease. Thus, in the near term, the individual molecular alterations of the disease rather than the anatomic location will likely drive the design of clinical trials. In this review, we summarize recent molecular discoveries in BTC with a special emphasis on the most promising therapeutic targets, ultimately providing an update on current and future directions in the management of this disease. PMID: 32053766 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Discovery Medicine - Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

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Conditions:   Biliary Tract Cancer;   Extrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma;   Gallbladder Cancer Interventions:   Combination Product: Chemoradiation;   Other: Observation Sponsor:   Sun Yat-sen University Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Patients with biliary tract cancers (cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and gallbladder cancer (GBC)) have a poor prognoses and incidence is increasing. Most patients are diagnosed with advanced disease when options of treatment are limited to palliative approaches, mainly focused on chemotherapy. In recent years, novel treatment targets of relevance to biliary tract cancers, mainly present in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA), have been identified and are rapidly changing the field. These include fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) fusions and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-1 and -2 mutations which are each ...
Source: Journal of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Biliary tract cancer (BTC) comprises a group of rare and anatomically distinct epithelial cell tumours of the biliary tree, including gallbladder carcinoma (GBC), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHC) and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (EHC), which together account for approximately 1% of adult cancers worldwide [1]. Despite being rare, BTCs are an important cause of cancer-related mortality and display a dismal prognosis, even with sequential chemotherapy. Geographically, the incidence of GBC is highest in Southeast Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe and demonstrates a female preponderance [2,3].
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Anti-tumour Treatment Source Type: research
AbstractThe aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the mutational gene profile and recurrence in biliary tract cancers (BTC). A total of 103 specimens of patients with BTC, who underwent curative surgery in a single tertiary HPB surgery referral center from 1990 to 2012, were assessed for mutational status in 52 cancer-related genes. Considering the different types of BTC, the 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) rate was 16.7% (median RFS 7  months) in gallbladder cancer, 42.9% (median RFS 26.4 months) in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and 19.7% (median RFS 16.5 months) in p...
Source: Updates in Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Purpose of review Biliary tract cancers which include intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas and gallbladder cancer, are characterized by poor outcome. Therefore, identifying the molecular mechanisms of the disease has become a priority. However, such identification has to cope with extreme heterogeneity of the disease, which results from the variable anatomical location, the numerous cell types of origin and the high number of known genetic alterations. Recent findings Animal models can develop invasive and metastatic tumours that recapitulate as faithfully as possible the molecular features of the human t...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: BILIARY TRACT: Edited by Chantal Housset Source Type: research
Abstract Endobiliary radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a procedure performed widely to induce locoregional tumor control by the transfer of thermal energy to the lesion and subsequent tumor necrosis. A 72-year-old male with a prior history of acute calculous cholangitis and perforated cholecystitis was admitted to the Kyungpook National University Hospital complaining of fever and nausea. He had an indwelling percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PTGBD) catheter from the previous episode of perforated cholecystitis. An abdominal CT scan showed marked dilation of both the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile...
Source: Korean J Gastroenter... - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Korean J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Increasing awareness among patients and clinicians regarding BTC and the need for further research and treatment development may address some of the main challenges in BTC research. International collaboration is mandatory to progress the field. PMID: 31971102 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Medicinal Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Curr Med Chem Source Type: research
This study aimed to identify clinicopathologic features and prognosis of patients with ECC.MethodsPatients followed up and diagnosed with ECC between January 2014 and December 2016 at a tertiary hospital were included, whereas those with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder cancer, and ampullary cancer were excluded.ResultsA total of 83 patients were followed after the treatment (49 men and 34 women; median age 73.3 years). Cancer location was classified as distal common bile duct (25 patients), proximal common bile duct (24 patients), common hepatic duct (20 patients), and hilar (14 patients). About 14.5% of patie...
Source: Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Diseases International - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
Using a large population, we provided a detailed landscape about the DM mode of the advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC), found the survival differences among DM sites, and revealed the different chemotherapy efficacies in the BTC subtypes. The constitution and the survival of the DM sites varied significantly in different subtypes, and the chemotherapy efficacies manifested different among the subtypes. AbstractBackgroundThe distant metastasis (DM) mode and treatment efficacies in the advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC) were obscure, and a credible evaluation is urgently needed.MethodA total of 6348 advanced BTC patients (...
Source: Cancer Medicine - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 December 2019Source: European Journal of Surgical OncologyAuthor(s): Hannes Jansson, Martin Cornillet, Niklas K. Björkström, Christian Sturesson, Ernesto SparrelidAbstractIntroductionEstablished preoperative prognostic factors for risk stratification of patients with biliary tract cancer (BTC) are lacking. A prognostic value of the inflammation-based Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) and Modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS) in BTC has been indicated in several Eastern cohorts. We sought to validate and compare the prognostic value of the GPS and the mGPS for overall survival...
Source: European Journal of Surgical Oncology (EJSO) - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
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