Identification of essential oils with strong activity against stationary phase uropathogenic Escherichia coli.
In this study, we evaluated the activity of 140 essential oils against stationary phase uropathogenic E. coli UTI89 and identified 39 essential oils at 0.5% concentration, 8 essential oils at 0.25% concentration, and 3 essential oils at 0.125% concentration to have high activity against stationary phase E. coli. Among the top eight essential oils, Oregano showed higher activity than the known persister drug tosufloxacin. The other top four hits including Allspice, Bandit thieves, Cinnamon bark, and Syzygium aromaticum could eradicate stationary phase E. coli at a low concentration of 0.25% after three- or five-day exposure...
Source: Discovery Medicine - January 15, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Apoptosis of human kidney epithelial cells induced by high oxalate and calcium oxalate monohydrate is apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 pathway dependent and contributes to kidney stone formation.
Authors: Li L, Peng Y, Liu M, Wang Z, Wang Q, Ming S, Gao X, Sun Y Abstract Kidney stone formation is a very complex process. Multiple molecules and proteins are involved in its formation. High level of oxalate and calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM, 200 mg/ml) crystals are key elements for this process, but the exact mechanism needs to be defined. HOA has been shown to cause renal cell injury through oxidative stress, leading to potential crystal deposition in the kidneys, which induced apoptosis of kidney epithelial cells. Recent reports indicated that apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) is involved in DNA ...
Source: Discovery Medicine - January 15, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

A direct immunohistochemistry (IHC) method improves the intraoperative diagnosis of breast papillary lesions including breast cancer.
Authors: Dai W, Zhong L, He J, Zhao Y Abstract Tumors with the attributes of rapid growth, infiltration, and metastasis are the leading causes of death among cancer patients. Angiogenesis is essential to tumor nutrition support and tumor progression. Endoglin is a glycoprotein highly expressed on the endothelial cell membrane and is regarded as the most reliable marker of tumor vascular proliferation. In this review, we summarize recent advances in targeting endoglin for the imaging of cancer angiogenesis and the development of monoclonal antibodies and vaccines to inhibit cancer angiogenesis. In addition, we forec...
Source: Discovery Medicine - January 15, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Role of cardiac endothelial cells-derived microRNAs in cardiac remodeling.
Authors: Wang Y, Wang C, Ma J Abstract Cardiac remodeling refers to a series of compensatory changes in the size, shape, and function of the myocardium in response to heart injury. This process involves the permanent multiple cell types of the myocardium such as cardiomyocytes (CMs), cardiac fibroblasts (CFs), endothelial cells (ECs), and inflammatory cells. Dynamic communications among different cells, particularly the communication between ECs and CMs and between ECs and CFs, play an important role in cardiac remodeling. MicroRNAs, a class of short RNA molecules, have emerged recently as the novel elements of int...
Source: Discovery Medicine - January 15, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy secondary to immune checkpoint inhibitors in melanoma patients.
Conclusion and Relevance: This report illustrates that treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors can lead to CIDP that can be successfully treated with complete resolution of symptoms. CIDP secondary to checkpoint inhibitors may have unique features such as low-grade lymphocytic pleocytosis on CSF evaluation as well as severe neuropathic pain as an early presenting symptom. Additionally, it is interesting to note that both patients presented in this report remained melanoma-free on follow-up more than 16 months later. PMID: 31926582 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Discovery Medicine)
Source: Discovery Medicine - January 15, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Novel findings from determination of common expressed plasma exosomal microRNAs in patients with psoriatic arthritis, psoriasis vulgaris, rheumatoid arthritis, and gouty arthritis.
Authors: Gupta A, Elfiky A Abstract Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare but aggressive malignancy. Localized tumors can be treated successfully with surgical excision, but the presence of micrometastases, recurrence, and advanced disease are associated with high mortality rates, despite the use of chemotherapy with etoposide, doxorubicin, cisplatin (EDP), and mitotane. During the past decade, the characterization of ACC using genomic profiling and next-generation sequencing (NGS) has resulted in the proposed new targeted therapies for patients with advanced ACC. In 2018, the European Society of Endocrinology i...
Source: Discovery Medicine - January 15, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs regulatory pathways in the tumorigenesis and pathogenesis of glioma.
Authors: Wu Y, Qian Z Abstract A number of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified to play an important role in the initiation and progression of glioma, including the stemness, survival, apoptosis, invasion, and drug resistance. However, the complex regulatory mechanisms of lncRNAs have not been well understood in glioma. Emerging evidence has confirmed that lncRNAs may act as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) or a molecular sponge in modulating microRNAs (miRNAs), and the miRNAs negatively regulate target mRNA expression through complementarity binding to the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of their t...
Source: Discovery Medicine - January 15, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Network pharmacology-based analysis of mechanisms of the anti-hepatocellular carcinoma effect by dihydroartemisinin.
This study will provide a scientific basis for the elucidation of the mechanisms of DHA in anti-HCC from the angle of glycosylation. PMID: 31926585 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Discovery Medicine)
Source: Discovery Medicine - January 15, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

The Easy Liver Fibrosis Test (eLIFT) for predicting advanced liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B.
CONCLUSIONS: eLIFT as a novel index can predict advanced liver fibrosis with a moderate sensitivity and accuracy in CHB patients. eLIFT, though having similar diagnostic values of advanced liver fibrosis compared to more complex existing tools such as APRI, FIB-4, GPR, and RPR in CHB patients, has the advantage of clarity of generation and ease of application and has the potential of being widely used by hepatologists. PMID: 31926586 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Discovery Medicine)
Source: Discovery Medicine - January 15, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Identification of hub genes and regulators associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma based on integrated gene expression profile analysis.
Authors: Shang M, Zhang L, Chen X, Zheng S Abstract Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal malignancies without effective screening strategy during the early stage. Therefore, a novel screening panel was identified based on potential biomarkers associated with PDAC using the gene expression profile. The dataset GSE15471, which was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, included matching pairs of normal and tumor tissue samples from the resected pancreas of 39 pancreatic cancer patients. We used the online tool GEO2R to screen and pick out the differentially expressed ...
Source: Discovery Medicine - January 15, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Towards a new understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cardiovascular disease.
Authors: Reis AH Abstract In this article, we review a process put forward in former publications by which fatty acid micelles and vesicles with an acidic core can develop, and the physiological manifestations of such process in the human body. The process allows the understanding of arterial calcification, why coronary arteries, aorta, and carotids are the most affected vessels, and the preferential distribution of plaques on the areas of the endothelium where shear stress is lower. Also reviewed are the role of systemic buffers in the control of blood pH, and the effects of pollutants, namely heavy metals, diet, ...
Source: Discovery Medicine - January 15, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Trk receptor tyrosine kinases in metastasis and cancer therapy.
Authors: Regua AT, Doheny D, Arrigo A, Lo HW Abstract Tropomyosin receptor kinases (TRKs) were first identified in 1986 when NTRK1 was discovered as part of an oncogenic fusion gene in colorectal cancer and the discovery of NTRK2 and NTRK3 followed shortly after. In the decades since their discovery, TRKs have been implicated in a number of cancer types due to their canonical roles in promoting cell proliferation and survival. Studies have shown that increased expression and/or activity of TRKs can be indicative of metastatic potential, suggesting that TRKs can be therapeutic targets in aggressive cancers. While pr...
Source: Discovery Medicine - January 15, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reduce suicidal ideation and depression.
CONCLUSION: Only 1-2% of an oral NSAID dose reaches the brain. We have proposed a new route of administration for drugs to treat neuropsychiatric illnesses: Trans-spinal delivery by transdermal patch over the back-of-neck/cervical spine. The drug would diffuse from the patch through the intervertebral spaces, penetrate the dura, and enter the CSF, where it would reach the brain. NSAIDs might be valuable agents for treating depression and suicide, as is supported by this study, especially if they can reach the brain at a higher concentration. Further studies of NSAIDs in these conditions are warranted. PMID: 31928628 [P...
Source: Discovery Medicine - January 15, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Infection with persister forms of Staphylococcus aureus causes a persistent skin infection with more severe lesions in mice: failure to clear the infection by the current standard of care treatment.
Authors: Yee R, Yuan Y, Shi W, Brayton C, Tarff A, Feng J, Wang J, Behrens A, Zhang Y Abstract Staphylococcus aureus can cause persistent infections and is known to develop persister cells in vitro. However, the in vivo significance of in vitro persisters in general is largely unclear. Here, we evaluated S. aureus stationary phase cultures and biofilm bacteria enriched in persister bacteria in comparison with actively growing log phase bacteria in terms of their ability to cause disease in a mouse skin infection model. We found that mice infected with the stationary phase and biofilm bacteria, which were enriched w...
Source: Discovery Medicine - August 31, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Mechanisms and importance of histone modification enzymes in targeted therapy for hepatobiliary cancers.
Authors: Fu W, Gao L, Huang C, Yao J, Lin Y, Bai B, Yue P, Liu Y, Meng W, Qiao L, Li X Abstract Hepatobiliary cancers have poor prognosis due to their high level of invasiveness, distant metastasis, and chemotherapy resistance. Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common type of hepatobiliary cancers representing the fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide. There is an urgent need to identify the molecular drivers of hepatobiliary cancers to improve the therapeutic outcomes and patient prognosis. Histone modification is an important biological process that is critical in the regulation of epigenetic maintena...
Source: Discovery Medicine - August 31, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

A direct immunohistochemistry (IHC) method improves the intraoperative diagnosis of breast papillary lesions including breast cancer.
Authors: Liu M, Zhao SQ, Yang L, Li X, Song X, Zheng Y, Fan J, Shi H Abstract AIMS: The goal of this study is to evaluate a novel direct immunohistochemistry staining method on frozen tissues for the intraoperative diagnosis of breast papillary lesions. METHODS AND RESULTS: Keratin 5 (CK5) and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMHC) antibodies were labeled with horseradish peroxidase polymers and used for direct immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining on frozen sections of breast tissues during surgical operations. The results from direct IHC on 102 cases of breast papillary lesions were compared with those obtain...
Source: Discovery Medicine - August 31, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Abnormal glucose metabolism and galactose-deficient immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) synthesis: a possible mechanism of IgA nephropathy.
Authors: Lai L, Liu T, Yan M, Shang D, Qian J, Hao C, Xue J Abstract BACKGROUND/AIMS: It is widely accepted that a possible etiopathogenic factor associated with IgA nephropathy is the glycosylation of IgA1 molecule O-glycans. The present study aimed to determine if galactose-deficient IgA1 is related to glucose metabolism. METHODS: IgA nephropathy was identified from the renal biopsies of 108 adult patients enrolled in our study with 60 healthy controls. The concentration of serum lactose, galactose, and lactase was measured. The relationship between glucose metabolism, proteinuria, and renal pathological chan...
Source: Discovery Medicine - August 31, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Novel findings from determination of common expressed plasma exosomal microRNAs in patients with psoriatic arthritis, psoriasis vulgaris, rheumatoid arthritis, and gouty arthritis.
CONCLUSION: (1) Both immune disorder and bone metabolic dysregulation could be the shared mechanism in the development of PsA, PV, RA, and GA. (2) Immune dysfunction is involved in GA. Our study may shed new light on the diagnosis and treatment strategy of these autoimmune diseases and GA, which warrants further studies. PMID: 31465725 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Discovery Medicine)
Source: Discovery Medicine - August 31, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: enhancement patterns and quantitative parameters.
CONCLUSION: CEUS is feasible to be applied to the nasopharynx region. The use of CEUS makes it possible to observe vascular permeability of NPC. Our results suggest that the quantitative parameter PI of nasopharyngeal carcinoma is significantly different from T stages. Thus, PI may serve as a potential noninvasive radiological prognostic indicator for NPC. PMID: 31421691 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Discovery Medicine)
Source: Discovery Medicine - August 21, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Current state of biomarkers for the diagnosis and assessment of treatment efficacy of prostate cancer.
Authors: Liu J, Li Y, Yang D, Yang C, Mao L Abstract In recent years, with the westernization of lifestyle, reduced physical activity and increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, the incidence of prostate cancer (PCa) has risen significantly in developing countries. Currently, PSA is the only PCa biomarker applied clinically, but it does not perform well in the early diagnosis and distinguishing between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. With the advances in deep sequencing technology, a series of new PCa biomarkers have been recently proposed to improve the diagnostic value of PSA, such as...
Source: Discovery Medicine - August 21, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Current perspectives on the origin theory of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.
Authors: Li W, Ni Y, Lu H, Hu L, Wang D Abstract Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is a histopathologically benign and highly vascular neoplasm, which is mainly seen in young adolescent men. It is a rare tumor, accounting for 0.05% of all head and neck neoplasms. The etiology of JNA has always been a controversial topic. Some researchers believe that it is a genuine tumor. Others consider that it is the result of vascular malformation caused by the non-absorption of artery residues in the first branchial arch during development, and that hormone and genetic effects are also related to its etiology. In addi...
Source: Discovery Medicine - August 21, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

A prognostic scoring model to determine which patients with metastatic extensive-stage small cell lung cancer could benefit from local radiotherapy: a large population-based study.
Authors: Shan Q, Li Z, Lin J, Wang Z, Wang H Abstract OBJECTIVE: Our study was performed to clarify which patients with metastatic extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC) could gain survival benefit from local radiotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A chi-square test was used to compare baseline characteristics of different groups. Kaplan-Meier method was applied to analyzing the survival difference. The prognostic factors for cancer-specific survival (CSS) in patients receiving radiotherapy were analyzed by the Cox proportional hazard model. According to the above information, we established a prognostic ...
Source: Discovery Medicine - August 21, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

A mechanisms of endometrial fibrosis and the potential application of stem cell therapy.
Authors: Bai X, Liu J, Cao S, Wang L Abstract Fibrosis diseases result from excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins which lead to normal tissue being replaced by fibrotic tissue or scar and eventually cause organ failure. Endometrial fibrosis is defined as the physiological endometrium becoming fibrosed, also known as intrauterine adhesions (IUA) or Asherman's syndrome, which progressively impairs endometrial function. On the basis of the fibrosis pathology, prevention of endometrial fibrosis is fundamental for IUA treatment, and elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying endometri...
Source: Discovery Medicine - August 21, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Prospects of and limitations to the clinical applications of genistein.
Authors: Tang H, Wang S, Li X, Zou T, Huang X, Zhang W, Chen Y, Yang C, Pan Q, Liu HF Abstract Genistein is an isoflavone derived from soy-rich products, which is known to exhibit several beneficial biological effects, such as anti-tumor activity, improvement of glucose metabolism, and reduction of the frequency of peri-menopausal hot flashes, and thus has potential for clinical application. Certain limitations and side effects, such as low bioavailability, biological estrogenic activity, and detrimental effects on thyroid function, have restricted its clinical applications to some extent. Recently, it has been rep...
Source: Discovery Medicine - August 1, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

NAD+ inhibits the metabolic reprogramming of RPE cells in early AMD by upregulating mitophagy.
Authors: Wei Q, Hu W, Lou Q, Yu J Abstract Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness and is becoming a global crisis, with the number of affected people expected to reach 288 million by 2040 worldwide. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) performs a number of highly diverse functions that are essential to maintaining the normal health and function of the retina. Alterations to retinal metabolism and remodeling are an early feature of AMD. The pathology of AMD is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitophagy is vital to promote a metabolic shift towards glycolysis that is required for...
Source: Discovery Medicine - August 1, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Can ulcerative colitis be cured?
Authors: Pravda J Abstract Ulcerative colitis is a life-long, chronic, relapsing and remitting inflammatory disease of the large intestine with an unpredictable course characterized by debilitating gastrointestinal symptoms accompanied by healthcare and emotional burdens that reduce the quality of life and the ability to work, attend school, and be productive. Ulcerative colitis affects millions of people worldwide and is now considered a global disease. Although some form of primary immune abnormality is thought to underlie this illness, extensive laboratory research conducted since the mid-20th century has largel...
Source: Discovery Medicine - August 1, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Cross-regulation between exosomal and autophagic pathways: promising therapy targets in disease.
Authors: Lin J, Lu X, Liao S, Chen X, Wang S, Zhao C, Li X, Xu YZ, Liu HF, Pan Q Abstract Exosomes are vesicles secreted by a variety of cell types. They can release their cargo into the extracellular environment or transfer their contents to other cells, as a form of intercellular communication. Therefore, exosomes are vital to both physiological and pathological functions. Autophagy is a process of intracellular degradation of unnecessary or dysfunctional cellular components such as damaged organelles and misfolded proteins. It is initiated by various environmental stressors and mediated by lysosomes. Under physi...
Source: Discovery Medicine - August 1, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Skeletal-related adverse events during bone metastasis of breast cancer: current status.
Authors: Yang M, Liu C, Yu X Abstract Skeletal-related events are severe problems in patients with breast cancer. Bone metastasis and endocrine therapy are closely related to skeletal morbidity and mortality. Skeletal-related events during breast cancer tumorigenesis lead to the exacerbated poor life quality of patients. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the characteristics of skeletal-related events during bone metastasis of breast cancer, especially on the major cause of skeletal-related events, early diagnosis and threshold of anti-absorption treatment. Finally, we highlight novel ap...
Source: Discovery Medicine - August 1, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Predictive ability of DWI/ADC and DCE-MRI kinetic parameters in differentiating benign from malignant breast lesions and in building a prediction model.
Authors: Allarakha A, Gao Y, Jiang H, Wang GL, Wang PJ Abstract OBJECTIVES: To analyze DWI/ADC and DCE-MRI kinetic parameters on breast MRI between benign and malignant lesions, to obtain independent predictors of malignancy, and to build a possible future predictive model. METHODS: 121 patients (151 breast lesions) were evaluated by 3.0T breast MRI. Based on their post-operative histopathology, we divided them into two groups, benign and malignant. We processed their DCE-MRI images to obtain size of lesions and several kinetic parameters like Time Intensity Curve (TIC), Time To Peak (TTP), Area Under Curve (AU...
Source: Discovery Medicine - May 17, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Protective effects on age-related macular degeneration by activated autophagy induced by amyloid- β in retinal pigment epithelial cells.
This study was performed to detect the activation of autophagy in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells treated with Aβ, aiming to investigate the potential protective mechanism of RPE cells against Aβ stress. Human ARPE-19 cells were treated with soluble Aβ1-42 oligomer. Transmission electron microscopy was used to assess the formation of autophagic compartments; immunofluorescence was used to detect the subcellular localization of LC3; and western blot was used to detect the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and the expression of p62. Activated autophagy in Aβ-treated ARPE-19 cells was detected by three ...
Source: Discovery Medicine - May 17, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

The virology of breast cancer: viruses as the potential causative agents of breast tumorigenesis.
Authors: Lehrer S, Rheinstein PH Abstract Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in women. The cause of sporadic cases is usually difficult to ascertain. Viruses that might be related to breast cancer are human papillomaviruses and herpes viruses. Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) has also been a suspect. MMTV is a milk-transmitted beta retrovirus, a form of single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus that inserts a copy of its genome into the DNA of a host cell, thus altering the cell's genome. MMTV DNA sequences have been found in 36% of human breast tumor samples and 24% of non-cancerous breast tissue. The ...
Source: Discovery Medicine - May 17, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Molecular diagnostics and targeted therapies in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): an update.
In this report, we discuss some of these updates. PMID: 31095926 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Discovery Medicine)
Source: Discovery Medicine - May 17, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Stationary phase persister/biofilm microcolony of Borrelia burgdorferi causes more severe disease in a mouse model of Lyme arthritis: implications for understanding persistence, Post-treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome (PTLDS), and treatment failure.
Authors: Feng J, Li T, Yee R, Yuan Y, Bai C, Cai M, Shi W, Embers M, Brayton C, Saeki H, Gabrielson K, Zhang Y Abstract Although most patients with Lyme disease can be cured with a 2-4 week antibiotic therapy, about 10-20% of patients continue to suffer prolonged persistent symptoms, a condition called post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). The cause for PTLDS is unclear and hotly debated. Borrelia burgdorferi develops morphological variants under stress conditions but their significance is not clear. Here we isolated the biofilm-like microcolony (MC) and planktonic (spirochetal form and round body) (SP) var...
Source: Discovery Medicine - April 6, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Genetic association and interaction of PD1 and TIM3 polymorphisms in susceptibility of chronic hepatitis B virus infection and hepatocarcinogenesis.
Authors: Li F, Fan X, Wang X, Deng H, Zhang X, Zhang K, Li N, Han Q, Lv Y, Liu Z Abstract The PD1 (rs2227982, rs41386349, rs6710479, rs7421861, and rs7565639) and TIM3 (rs11134551, rs11742259, rs246871, rs25855, and rs31223) polymorphisms were examined in 362 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, 91 HBV infection resolvers, and 158 healthy controls. Univariate logistic regression was carried out by SNPstats to detect the associations. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) analysis was performed to explore interactions between PD1 and TIM3 polymorphisms. Associations of polymorphisms with cli...
Source: Discovery Medicine - April 3, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Modulation of cancer immunotherapy efficacy by gut microbiota.
Authors: Huo S, Liu L, Liu J, Li Q, Wang J Abstract The microbial community is present abundantly in mucosal organs including the intestine, the oral cavity, and the vagina, and is referred to as the microbiota. The microbiota is composed of commensal bacteria and other microorganisms. Intestinal colonization by commensal microorganisms is essential for host physiological functions from the maintenance of barrier homeostasis locally to the regulation of metabolism, hematopoiesis, inflammation, immune development, and other functions systemically. Evidence is growing that the gut microbiota can modulate the host res...
Source: Discovery Medicine - April 3, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis: progress on disease mechanisms and treatment modalities.
Authors: Guo YY, Li HX, Zhang Y, He WH Abstract Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common and destructive inflammatory condition of the pancreas. Hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis (HTG-AP) has become the second major cause of AP. Although the association between HTG and AP is well established, HTG as a risk factor of AP in the general population is not well identified. In this review, we summarize recent progress in our understanding of the pathogenesis of HTG-AP and clinical management of this disease. The mechanism responsible for HTG-AP is related to high-level free fatty acid (FFA), microcirculatory dis...
Source: Discovery Medicine - April 3, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

How thyroid hormone works depends upon cell type, receptor type, and hormone analogue: implications in cancer growth.
Authors: Davis PJ, Lin HY, Hercbergs AA, Keating KA, Mousa SA Abstract The classical molecular mechanism of thyroid hormone involves the intranuclear interaction of 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) with thyroid hormone-specific nuclear proteins and consequent specific gene expression. This mechanism prevails in normal cells. What we emphasize here is that how thyroid hormone acts depends upon the types of cell or cell-like structure, e.g., platelet, under consideration, and that cancer cells, dividing endothelial cells, phagocytes, and platelets respond to the liganding of L-thyroxine (T4) by plasma membrane integri...
Source: Discovery Medicine - April 3, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppresses pain-related and proinflammatory mediators in the subacromial bursa in rotator cuff tendinopathy.
In this study, we first examined the histological features of subacromial bursa from patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy who had symptoms of pain, and investigated the expression of pain mediators, proinflammatory cytokines, metalloproteinases, growth factors, and alarmins in diseased tendon and bursa tissue by real-time PCR, western blot, and/or immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence staining. Then we investigated whether epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) could reduce the expression of pain mediators and proinflammatory cytokines in human primary bursa cells and explored the paracrine effect of these EGCG-treated bur...
Source: Discovery Medicine - March 4, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Synovial fluid alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone may act as a protective biomarker for primary knee osteoarthritis.
CONCLUSIONS: Reduced SF α-MSH expression may be a characteristic of OA patients. Attenuated α-MSH level in SF may serve as a potential biomarker for disease severity of knee OA, and further studies are needed to identify its potential application for monitoring the course of the disease and the efficacy of therapies in OA patients. PMID: 30721648 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Discovery Medicine)
Source: Discovery Medicine - February 7, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Targeting cyclin-dependent kinases in gastrointestinal cancer therapy.
Authors: Zhang J, Su G, Lin Y, Meng W, Lai JKL, Qiao L, Li X, Xie X Abstract Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) play an important role in cell-cycle progression. CDKs are positively modulated by regulatory mitotic cyclins and negatively controlled by endogenous CDK inhibitors (CDKIs) cyclically as cells progress through different cell cycles of transitions. When activated by cyclins, cyclin-CDK complexes were able to facilitate the transition of cell cycle from one phase to the next, e.g., from G1 to S or from G2 to M. DNA damages may cause inhibition of CDKs leading to cell-cycle arrest, while unrepairable DNA damage...
Source: Discovery Medicine - February 7, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Transspinal delivery of drugs by transdermal patch back-of-neck for Alzheimer's disease: a new route of administration.
Authors: Lehrer S, Rheinstein PH Abstract NSAIDs may prevent Alzheimer's disease (AD) but have failed as a treatment, possibly because only 1-2% of an oral NSAID dose reaches the brain. This minuscule dose is enough to have a preventative effect on Alzheimer's disease but not to treat it. We propose a new route of administration for drugs to treat AD: transspinal delivery by transdermal patch over the back-of-neck/cervical spine. The drug would diffuse from the patch through the intervertebral spaces, penetrate the dura, enter the CSF, and reach the brain. For example, diclofenac from a transdermal patch over the b...
Source: Discovery Medicine - February 7, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Advances in the techniques and methodologies of cancer gene therapy.
Authors: Sun W, Shi Q, Zhang H, Yang K, Ke Y, Wang Y, Qiao L Abstract Cancer is the second leading cause of mortality worldwide after cardiovascular diseases, predominantly due to the lack of early symptoms and early diagnosis, and high relapse rate after radical surgery and conventional therapies. Therefore, novel approaches such as gene therapy have raised hope to significantly improve the survival rate of patients with cancers. This review aims to provide up-to-date information concerning gene therapy including improved vectors, suicide genes, cancer suppressor genes, anti-tumor angiogenesis, gene silencing, onc...
Source: Discovery Medicine - February 7, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Prediction and prognosis of biologically aggressive breast cancers by the combination of DWI/DCE-MRI and immunohistochemical tumor markers.
Authors: Allarakha A, Gao Y, Jiang H, Wang PJ Abstract Breast cancer (BC) research has been evolving tremendously on all fronts, whether it being for imaging, pathology, oncology, pharmacology, or genetics. Regarding medical imaging, dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) are now both universally recognized and widely used modalities in multiparametric MRI (mp-MRI) to diagnose and stage BC, to assess post-chemotherapy response, and to differentiate between scar tissue and recurrent tumor. Meanwhile, pathologists have provided evidence of BC being heterogeneous and having severa...
Source: Discovery Medicine - January 31, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Application of high frequency ultrasound in dermatology.
Authors: Bhatta AK, Keyal U, Liu Y Abstract High frequency ultrasound (HFUS) refers to the ultrasound probe frequency of more than 10 MHz. HFUS has shorter wavelengths, is absorbed more easily, and is therefore not as penetrating. This explains its use for superficial structures and hence its increasing application in the field of dermatology. HFUS is a simple, reliable, and noninvasive technique that is being used along with the physical examination for the assessment, diagnosis, and management of many dermatologic conditions. In addition, it can also be used for the evaluation of normal skin structure. In the pre...
Source: Discovery Medicine - January 31, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Two novel heterozygous mutations in the CYP17A1 gene in a Chinese patient with 17 α-hydroxylase 17,20-lyase deficiency.
In conclusion, we discovered two novel heterozygous CYP17A1 mutations Ile381Thr (c.1142T>C) and Ser168del (c.503_505delCCT) in a Chinese patient with 17-OHD. PMID: 30695673 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Discovery Medicine)
Source: Discovery Medicine - January 31, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Modulation of aldosterone levels by aldosterone synthase promoter polymorphism and association with eGFR decline in patients with chronic kidney disease.
Authors: Qian J, Zhong J, Yan M, Shi H, Hao C, Gu Y, Lai L Abstract To determine whether -344T/C CYP11B2 promoter polymorphism affects serum aldosterone levels and whether this polymorphism is an indicator of eGFR decline in patients with chronic kidney disease. -344 C/T CYP11B2 gene polymorphism analysis was performed in 96 adults with stages 1-5 CKD by using polymerase chain reaction. Serum aldosterone levels were measured at baseline and at 1.5-year follow-up. The primary outcome was the annual eGFR decline and the secondary outcome was the occurrence of cardio-cerebrovascular events. The genotype distribution o...
Source: Discovery Medicine - January 31, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Bringing wearable devices into oncology practice: fitting smart technology in the clinic.
Authors: Menta AK, Subbiah IM, Subbiah V Abstract The new way of acquiring data is at its inception in our ever-changing world. There are now a plethora of opportunities to acquire data; from the data, trends can be calculated, validated, and utilized to solve current problems. Wearable technology has been widely adopted in our society, acquiring roles in many aspects of daily life. With each iteration of a wearable platform, devices are further miniaturized with greater integration of sensors that continually collect and store vast amounts of data. The commercialization of these wearable technologies brings to lig...
Source: Discovery Medicine - January 31, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

MicroRNAs in peritoneal fibrosis: a systematic review.
Authors: Yanai K, Ishii H, Aomatsu A, Ishibashi K, Morishita Y Abstract Peritoneal fibrosis is a crucial complication of long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD). Peritoneal fibrosis contributes to the development of peritoneal membrane failure, which leads to withdrawal from PD. No specific biomarkers or therapies have yet been established for peritoneal fibrosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that can inhibit the translation of target messenger RNAs. Previous studies have shown that miRNAs play pivotal roles in the development of peritoneal fibrosis, indicating that they may represent potential biomarkers...
Source: Discovery Medicine - January 31, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

MiR-212-5p exerts a protective effect in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
In this study, the expression level of miR-212-5p and miR-223 decreased significantly in COPD patients compared to healthy controls. In vitro experiments showed that cigarette smoke extract (CSE) induced NCI-H292 cell apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation. Inflammation and COPD related genes were also upregulated by CSE, while miR-212-5p inhibited the overexpression of these genes. Furthermore, miR-212-5p promoted cell proliferation and inhibited IGFBP3 expression which was induced by CSE. The expression of p-Akt was also inhibited by CSE, while miR-212-5p significantly promoted the phosphorylation of Akt. In summary,...
Source: Discovery Medicine - January 31, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research

Metabolic syndrome relates to high risk in hepatocellular carcinoma: a meta-analysis.
Authors: Li Y, Shi J, Liu X, Deng Q, Huang Y, Yang Z Abstract Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been linked to the development of cancer. The relationship between MetS and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains controversial. Studies up to September 2017 of MetS and HCC were systematically identified and meta-analyzed. Ten studies (nine cohorts and one case-control) were included in this meta-analysis. It was found that MetS patients are significantly more likely to develop HCC (RR = 1.60, 95%CI = 1.12-2.28, P = 0.01). Additionally, when only cohort studies were included, MetS is a potential risk factor for HCC occurre...
Source: Discovery Medicine - January 31, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research