Circulating tumor DNA analysis in the era of precision oncology.

Circulating tumor DNA analysis in the era of precision oncology. Oncotarget. 2020 Jan 14;11(2):188-211 Authors: Said R, Guibert N, Oxnard GR, Tsimberidou AM Abstract The spatial and temporal genomic heterogeneity of various tumor types and advances in technology have stimulated the development of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) genotyping. ctDNA was developed as a non-invasive, cost-effective alternative to tumor biopsy when such biopsy is associated with significant risk, when tumor tissue is insufficient or inaccessible, and/or when repeated assessment of tumor molecular abnormalities is needed to optimize treatment. The role of ctDNA is now well established in the clinical decision in certain alterations and tumors, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation in non-small cell lung cancer and the v-Ki-ras2 kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutation in colorectal cancer. The role of ctDNA analysis in other tumor types remains to be validated. Evolving data indicate the association of ctDNA level with tumor burden, and the usefulness of ctDNA analysis in assessing minimal residual disease, in understanding mechanisms of resistance to treatment, and in dynamically guiding therapy. ctDNA analysis is increasingly used to select therapy. Carefully designed clinical trials that use ctDNA analysis will increase the rate of patients who receive targeted therapy, will elucidate our understanding of evolution of tumor biology and wi...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

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Conclusions The recent, first randomized clinical trial demonstrated overall and progression free survival benefits after SBRT to oligometastatic disease which supports prior retrospective case series (6). The spine is a common site of metastatic bone disease, and as high quality data continue to mature, along with completion of additional randomized clinical trials, it is expected that utility of SBRT to the spine will increase in the future. Spine SBRT is unique due to the requirement of sharp dose falloff to prevent serious neurologic morbidity. With recent advances in radiotherapy planning, robotic patient positionin...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusion and Future Perspectives This review illustrates our current knowledge of USP7, including its source and characterization, structure, binding partners and substrates in various biological processes. Besides, how USP7 regulates various aspects of a cell under both normal and pathological states are elaborated in detail. As the processes of ubiquitination and deubiquitination are extremely dynamic and context-specific, a series of studies have linked USP7 to different cancers. The biology, particularly the immune oncology mechanisms, reveal that USP7 inhibitors would be useful drugs, thus it is vital to develop hi...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Michal Yalon1†, Amos Toren1,2†, Dina Jabarin2, Edna Fadida3, Shlomi Constantini3 and Ruty Mehrian-Shai1* 1Pediatric Hemato-Oncology, Edmond and Lilly Safra Children's Hospital and Cancer Research Center, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan, Israel 2The Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel 3Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Dana Children's Hospital, Tel-Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel Pediatric brain tumors are the most common solid tumor type and the leading cause of cancer-related death in children. The immune system plays an important r...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusions and Future Perspectives It is now evident that NK/ILC family plays a pivotal role in the immune defenses. Recent studies in murine and human settings demonstrated that the expression of several inhibitory checkpoints, that may be detrimental in the tumor context, is not restricted to T lymphocytes, revealing an important, yet poorly appreciated, contribution of their expression on innate immune cells. Thus, in the recent years different immunotherapy approaches, based on the blockade of inhibitory NK cell receptors, have been developed in order to unleash NK cell cytotoxicity. This is particularly important in...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Markus Hartl* and Rainer Schneider Center of Molecular Biosciences (CMBI), Institute of Biochemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria The neuronal proteins GAP43 (neuromodulin), MARCKS, and BASP1 are highly expressed in the growth cones of nerve cells where they are involved in signal transmission and cytoskeleton organization. Although their primary structures are unrelated, these signaling proteins share several structural properties like fatty acid modification, and the presence of cationic effector domains. GAP43, MARCKS, and BASP1 bind to cell membrane phospholipids, a process reversibly regulate...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In this study, several biopsies from a patient-derived primary renal-cell carcinoma were analyzed by whole-exome sequencing and aligned to healthy tissue. Next to several shared mutations between different subclones, ca. 23% of the mutations were only found in specific regions of the tumor. Strikingly, a single biopsy of that same tumor only covered around 55% of the total mutational diversity, underlining the need for multi-region sampling. Tracing the order of mutations in different subclones revealed that they develop in a branching fashion from the primary tumor clone, harboring the driver mutation, rather than in a li...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: NRG1 fusions can be detected at a low incidence across multiple tumor types with significant heterogeneity in fusion partner. PMID: 30988082 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
We report a case of a 60-year-old female, suffering from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with refractory lower back pain, as expression of malignant psoas syndrome (MPS). MPS is a rare and difficult-to-treat cancer-pain syndrome, unresponsive to majority of analgesic therapy, related to psoas muscle metastasis; it is usually caused by different tumors such as uterus, ovary, bladder, prostate, colon-rectum, lymphoma, melanoma and sarcoma and represents an uncommon finding in NSCLC patients. PMID: 30968671 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Monaldi Arch Chest Dis Source Type: research
In this study, we extended our previous joint gene analysis framework to joint gene set analysis framework. Base on the assumption that similar disease tends to share similar disease-related genes and pathways (Carson et al., 2017; Qin and Lu, 2018), we developed two joint gene set analysis frameworks aiming at improving identification power of enriched gene sets by borrowing different levels of information from other similar diseases. Compared with previous joint gene analysis framework, we unified DE gene/pathway statistic modeling through a two-component beta-uniform mixture model of p-values and combined the model with...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
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