piRNAs: biogenesis and their potential roles in cancer

AbstractWith the length of about 26 –31 nt, PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) is a small non-coding RNA (ncRNA) that interacts with PIWI proteins to form the piRNA silencing complex (piRISC). PIWI is a subfamily of Argonaute, and piRNA must bind to PIWI to exert its regulatory role. Current studies indicated that piRNA and PIWI are sign ificantly abnormally expressed in gastric, breast, kidney, colon, and lung cancers, and are involved in the initiation, progression, and metastasis of cancers, which may be the potential diagnostic tools, prognostic markers, and therapeutic targets for cancers. By reviewing piRNA recent studies, thi s research summarized the mechanism of piRNA generation and the functions of piRNA/PIWI in gastric, breast, kidney, colon, and lung cancers, providing a reference value for further piRNA research.
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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Authors: Fung KY, Nguyen PM, Putoczki TL Abstract Interleukin (IL)-18, a member of the IL-1 family of cytokines, has emerged as a key regulator of mucosal homeostasis within the gastrointestinal tract. Like other members of this family, IL-18 is secreted as an inactive protein and is processed into its active form by caspase-1, although other contributors to precursor processing are emerging.Numerous studies have evaluated the role of IL-18 within the gastrointestinal tract using genetic or complementary pharmacological tools and have revealed multiple roles in tumorigenesis. Most striking among these are the diver...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
This article reviews and discusses the previous studies on CCL20 roles in cancers from the aspects of its specific effects on various cancers, its remodeling on tumor microenvironment (TME), its synergistic effects with other cytokines in tumor microenvironment, and the specific mechanisms of CCL20 signal activation, illustrating CCL20 signaling in TME from multiple directions. PMID: 32060846 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Results from this study recently published online in Addiction found primary care physicians providing smokers with a free, two week starter kit of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) increased quit attempts While sitting in the dentist's office, Hollings Cancer Center researcher Matthew Carpenter, Ph.D., of the Medical University of South Carolina, had a bright idea. As he received his goody bag with dental hygiene products, he wondered why not conduct a study and have primary care providers do the same thing for their patients who use tobacco. The bags would contain educational material, free lozenges and tobacco cessati...
Source: Dental Technology Blog - Category: Dentistry Source Type: news
AbstractCurrent laboratory models of lymphatic metastasis generally require either genetically modified animals or are technically challenging. Herein, we have developed a robust protocol for the induction of intralymphatic metastasis in wild-type mice with reproducible outcomes. To determine an optimal injection quantity and timeline for tumorigenesis, C57Bl/6 mice were injected directly into the mesenteric lymph duct (MLD) with varying numbers of syngeneic murine colon cancer cells (MC38) or gastric cancer cells (YTN16) expressing GFP/luciferase and monitored over 2 –4 weeks. Tumor growth was tracked via whole-anim...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Abstract Proton pump inhibitors, a major progress in gastro-enterology, are globally among the most widely prescribed drugs. But, due to their strong gastric acid inhibition, they can be responsible for side effects, particularly in cancer patients. They are involved in renal function impairment, bone fractures, digestive bacterial overgrowth, particularlyclostridium difficile infections, anemia and hypomagnesemia. Long term use can increase the risks of gastric, pancreatic and liver cancers. They decrease absorption of weak bases drugs, particularly tyrosine kinase inhibitors and capecitabine and are responsible ...
Source: Bulletin du Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Bull Cancer Source Type: research
This study aimed to investigate the effect of WD-3 on proliferation, glycolysis, and hexokinase 2 expression in breast cancer cells. Four breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, BT-549, MCF-7, and MCF-7/ADR-RES) were treated with different concentrations of WD-3 compared with blank control (phosphate-buffered saline). Each of the breast cancer cell lines was also divided into WD-3, paclitaxel, and blank control group. Cell proliferation and morphology were assessed by MTT assay, nuclear Hoechst 33258 staining, or immunofluorescence. Apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. High performance liquid chromatography was used for...
Source: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences - Category: General Medicine Tags: Bosn J Basic Med Sci Source Type: research
In conclusion, the patients with PTM had comparable outcomes with regard to mortality and cancer-specific mortality compared with those without PTM. This study showed that the patients with PTM can obtain an acceptable outcome after LDLT when carefully selected. PMID: 32023575 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: BioScience Trends - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Biosci Trends Source Type: research
AbstractDigestive system cancers are the most frequent cancers worldwide and often associated with poor prognosis because of their invasive and metastatic characteristics. Recent studies have found that the plasticity of cancer cells can impart cancer stem-like properties via the epithelial –mesenchymal transition (EMT). Cancer stem-like properties such as tumor initiation are integral to the formation of metastasis, which is the main cause of poor prognosis. Numerous markers of cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in many types of cancer. Therefore, CSCs, via their stem cel l-like functions, may play an imp...
Source: Surgery Today - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Conclusions Lynch syndrome should be suspected in families with familial pancreatic cancer, even in the absence of colon cancers. Specifically, our observation supports the association between the MSH6 c.2194C>T pathogenic variant and extracolonic tumours and it suggests that MSH6 pathogenic variants are associated with familial pancreatic cancer more frequently than assumed.
Source: European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Articles: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Evidence for the effectiveness of PEI plus TACE versus TACE in people with liver metastases is of very low certainty and is based on one small randomised clinical trial at high risk of bias. Currently, it cannot be determined whether adding PEI to TACE makes a difference in comparison to using TACE alone. Evidence for benefits or harms of PEI compared with no intervention, other ablation methods, or systemic treatments is lacking. PMID: 32017845 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research
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