Metformin: review of epidemiology and mechanisms of action in pancreatic cancer
AbstractPancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma continues to be a lethal disease, for which efficient treatment options are very limited. Increasing efforts have been taken to understand how to prevent or intercept this disease at an early stage. There is convincing evidence from epidemiologic and preclinical studies that the antidiabetic drug metformin possesses beneficial effects in pancreatic cancer, including reducing the risk of developing the disease and improving survival in patients with early-stage disease. This review will summarize the current literature about the epidemiological data on metformin and pancreatic cancer...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - June 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Correction to: Cutting the edge between cancerogenesis and organogenesis of the pancreatic endocrine lineage allocation —comprehensive review of the genes Synaptotagmin 13 and 533041C22 Rik in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition
A Correction to this paper has been published:https://doi.org/10.1007/s10555-021-09978-y (Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews)
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - June 10, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Checkpoint inhibitor therapy for metastatic triple-negative breast cancer
AbstractImmunotherapy has become a mainstay of cancer treatment in many malignancies, though its application in breast cancer remains limited. Of the breast cancer subtypes, triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are characterized by immune activation and infiltration and more commonly express biomarkers associated with response to immunotherapy. Checkpoint inhibitor therapy has shown promising activity in metastatic TNBC. In 2019, the US FDA granted accelerated approval of atezolizumab, a programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitor, in combination with nab-paclitaxel for unresectable locally advanced or metastatic PD-L1-p...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - June 8, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Decoding human cancer with whole genome sequencing: a review of PCAWG Project studies published in February 2020
AbstractCancer is underlined by genetic changes. In an unprecedented international effort, the Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes (PCAWG) of the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) sequenced the tumors of over two thousand five hundred patients across 38 different cancer types, as well as the  corresponding healthy tissue, with the aim of identifying genome-wide mutations exclusively found in cancer and uncovering new genetic changes that drive tumor formation. What set this project apart from earlier efforts is the use of whole genome sequencing (WGS) that enabled to exp...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - June 7, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Platelets as messengers of early-stage cancer
AbstractPlatelets have an important role in tumor angiogenesis, growth, and metastasis. The reciprocal interaction between cancer and platelets results in changes of several platelet characteristics. It is becoming clear that analysis of these platelet features could offer a new strategy in the search for biomarkers of cancer. Here, we review the human studies in which platelet characteristics (e.g., count, volume, protein, and mRNA content) are investigated in early-stage cancer. The main focus of this paper is to evaluate which platelet features are suitable for the development of a blood test that could detect cancer in...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - June 1, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Biography - James E.  Talmadge
(Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews)
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - June 1, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Artificial intelligence —cogito, ergo sum
(Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews)
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - May 24, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Informing the new developments and future of cancer immunotherapy
AbstractThe application of cancer immunotherapy (CIT) in reinforcing anti-tumor immunity in response to carcinogenesis and metastasis has shown promising advances, along with new therapeutic challenges, in the landscape of cancer care. To promote tumor growth and metastasis, cancer cells aim to manipulate their microenvironment by mediating a crosstalk with various immune cells through the secretion of chemokines, cytokines, and other associated factors. Understanding this crosstalk is the key to discovering the best targets for improved immunotherapies and clinical strategies in cancer treatment. Here, we review the tumor...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - May 18, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Preface
(Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews)
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - May 11, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The multifaceted roles of the chemokines CCL2 and CXCL12 in osteophilic metastatic cancers
AbstractBreast and prostate cancers have a great propensity to metastasize to long bones. The development of bone metastases is life-threatening, incurable, and drastically reduces patients ’ quality of life. The chemokines CCL2 and CXCL12 and their respective receptors, CCR2 and CXCR4, are central instigators involved in all stages leading to cancer cell dissemination and secondary tumor formation in distant target organs. They orchestrate tumor cell survival, growth and migration, tumor invasion and angiogenesis, and the formation of micrometastases in the bone marrow. The bone niche is of particular importance in ...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - May 11, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Prognostic and therapeutic role of tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte subtypes in breast cancer
AbstractIncreased levels of total tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are generally associated with good prognosis in several breast cancer subtypes. Subtypes of TILs impact both tumor cells and immune cells in a variety of different ways, leading to either a pro-tumor or antitumor effect. Tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells and natural killer (NK) cells perform as effector cells against tumor cells and are associated with better clinical outcome. Immunotherapy approaches that improve the antitumor activity and proliferation of CD8+ T and NK cells include PD-1/PD-L1 blockade, CAR T cell therapy, orex vivo-stimulated NK cells...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - May 7, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The comprehensive landscape of miR-34a in cancer research
AbstractMicroRNA-34 (miR-34) plays central roles in human diseases, especially cancers. Inactivation of miR-34 is detected in cancer cell lines and tumor tissues versus normal controls, implying its potential tumor-suppressive effect. Clinically, miR-34 has been identified as promising prognostic indicators for various cancers. In fact, members of the miR-34 family, especially miR-34a, have been convincingly proved to affect almost the whole cancer progression process. Here, a total of 512 (miR-34a, 10/21), 85 (miR-34b, 10/16), and 114 (miR-34c, 10/14) putative targets of miR-34a/b/c are predicted by at least ten miRNA dat...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - May 6, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Chemokines orchestrate tumor cells and the microenvironment to achieve metastatic heterogeneity
AbstractChemokines, a subfamily of the cell cytokines, are low molecular weight proteins known to induce chemotaxis in leukocytes in response to inflammatory and pathogenic signals. A plethora of literature demonstrates that chemokines and their receptors regulate tumor progression and metastasis. With these diverse functionalities, chemokines act as a fundamental link between the tumor cells and their microenvironment. Recent studies demonstrate that the biology of chemokines and their receptor in metastasis is complex as numerous chemokines are involved in regulating site-specific tumor growth and metastasis. Successful ...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - May 6, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor: a review of current and emerging therapies
AbstractGastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are rare neoplasms arising from the interstitial cell of Cajal in the gastrointestinal tract. Two thirds of GIST in adult patients havec-Kit mutation and smaller fractions have platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) mutation. Surgery is the only curative treatment for localized disease. Imatinib improves survival when used adjuvantly and in advanced disease. Several targeted therapies have also improved survival in GIST patients after progression on imatinib including sunitinib and regorafenib. Recently, United States Federal and Drug Administration (FDA) appro...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - April 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Rethinking the biology of metastatic melanoma: a holistic approach
AbstractOver the past decades, melanoma-related mortality has remained nearly stable. The main reason is treatment failure of metastatic disease and the inherently linked knowledge gap regarding metastasis formation. In order to elicit invasion, melanoma cells manipulate the tumor microenvironment, gain motility, and adhere to the extracellular matrix and cancer-associated fibroblasts. Melanoma cells thereby express different cell adhesion molecules like laminins, integrins, N-cadherin, and others. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is physiological during embryologic development, but reactivated during malignancy. De...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - April 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Correction to: Anti-cancer strategies targeting the autotaxin-lysophosphatidic acid receptor axis: is there a path forward?
A Correction to this paper has been published:https://doi.org/10.1007/s10555-021-09966-2 (Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews)
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - April 16, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

MHC heterogeneity and response of metastases to immunotherapy
AbstractIn recent years, immunotherapy has proven to be an effective treatment against cancer. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes perform an important role in this anti-tumor immune response, recognizing cancer cells as foreign, through the presentation of tumor antigens by MHC class I molecules. However, tumors and metastases develop escape mechanisms for evading this immunosurveillance and may lose the expression of these polymorphic molecules to become invisible to cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In other situations, they may maintain MHC class I expression and promote immunosuppression of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Therefore, the analysis...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - April 15, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Emerging roles for myeloid immune cells in bone metastasis
AbstractMetastasis, especially bone metastasis, is a major cause of cancer-related deaths, which is associated with long-term pain due to skeletal-related events and poor quality of life. Tumor cells alter the bone microenvironment through aberrant activation of osteoclasts and osteoblasts which induces bone osteolysis and release of growth factors leading to cancer growth. Though this phenomenon has been well characterized, bone-targeted therapies have shown little improvement in patient survival. Recent evidence indicates a growing appreciation for the complex bone environment, in addition to bone-remodeling stromal cell...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - April 14, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Exosomes: a new perspective in EGFR-mutated lung cancer
AbstractExosomes are major contributors in cell to cell communication due to their ability to transfer biological material such as protein, RNA, DNA, and miRNA. Additionally, they play a role in tumor initiation, promotion, and progression, and recently, they have emerged as a potential source of information on tumor detection and may be useful as diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive tools. This review focuses on exosomes from lung cancer with a focus on EGFR mutations. Here, we outline the role of exosomes and their functional effect in carcinogenesis, tumor progression, and metastasis. Finally, we discuss the possibili...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - April 14, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Mucins reprogram stemness, metabolism and promote chemoresistance during cancer progression
This article provides a comprehensive review of mucin ’s function as a physical barrier and the implication of mucin overexpression in impeded drug delivery to solid tumors. Mucins regulate the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells via several canonical and non-canonical oncogenic signaling pathways. Furthermore, mucins play an e xtensive role in enriching and maintaining the cancer stem cell (CSC) population, thereby sustaining the self-renewing and chemoresistant cellular pool in the bulk tumor. It has recently been demonstrated that mucins regulate the metabolic reprogramming during oncogenesi...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - April 4, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A bi-directional dialog between vascular cells and monocytes/macrophages regulates tumor progression
AbstractCancer progression largely depends on tumor blood vessels as well on immune cell infiltration. In various tumors, vascular cells, namely endothelial cells (ECs) and pericytes, strongly regulate leukocyte infiltration into tumors and immune cell activation, hence the immune response to cancers. Recently, a lot of compelling studies unraveled the molecular mechanisms by which tumor vascular cells regulate monocyte and tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) recruitment and phenotype, and consequently tumor progression. Reciprocally, TAMs and monocytes strongly modulate tumor blood vessel and tumor lymphatic vessel formatio...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - March 30, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The role of tumor heterogeneity in immune-tumor interactions
AbstractThe development of cancer stems from genetic instability and changes in genomic sequences, and hence, the heterogeneity exhibited by tumors is integral to the nature of cancer itself. Tumor heterogeneity can be further altered by factors that are not cancer cell intrinsic, i.e., by the microenvironment, including the patient ’s immune responses to tumors and administered therapies (immunotherapies, chemotherapies, and/or radiation therapies). The focus of this review is the impact of tumor heterogeneity on the interactions between immune cells and the tumor, taking into account that heterogeneity can exist at...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - March 8, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Pancreatic cancer pathology viewed in the light of evolution
AbstractOne way to understand ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas (pancreatic cancer) is to view it as unimaginably large numbers of evolving living organisms interacting with their environment. This “evolutionary view” creates both expected and surprising perspectives in all stages of neoplastic progression. Advances in the field will require greater attention to this critical evolutionary prospective. (Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews)
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - February 8, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Potential late effects of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection: parallels to cancer late effects
(Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews)
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - February 4, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Targeting the cytoskeleton against metastatic dissemination
AbstractCancer is a pathology characterized by a loss or a perturbation of a number of typical features of normal cell behaviour. Indeed, the acquisition of an inappropriate migratory and invasive phenotype has been reported to be one of the hallmarks of cancer. The cytoskeleton is a complex dynamic network of highly ordered interlinking filaments playing a key role in the control of fundamental cellular processes, like cell shape maintenance, motility, division and intracellular transport. Moreover, deregulation of this complex machinery contributes to cancer progression and malignancy, enabling cells to acquire an invasi...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - January 20, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Anti-cancer strategies targeting the autotaxin-lysophosphatidic acid receptor axis: is there a path forward?
(Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews)
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - January 17, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Neutrophil-derived granule cargoes: paving the way for tumor growth and progression
AbstractNeutrophils are the key cells of our innate immune system mediating host defensevia a range of effector functions including phagocytosis, degranulation, and NETosis. For this, they employ an arsenal of anti-microbial cargoes packed in their readily mobilizable granule subsets. Notably, the release of granule content is tightly regulated; however, under certain circumstances, their unregulated release can aggravate tissue damage and could be detrimental to the host. Several constituents of neutrophil granules have also been associated with various inflammatory diseases including cancer. In cancer setting, their exce...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - January 12, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

An overview of genetic mutations and epigenetic signatures in the course of pancreatic cancer progression
AbstractPancreatic cancer (PC) is assumed to be an intimidating and deadly malignancy due to being the leading cause of cancer-led mortality, predominantly affecting males of older age. The overall (5 years) survival rate of PC is less than 9% and is anticipated to be aggravated in the future due to the lack of molecular acquaintance and diagnostic tools for its early detection. Multiple factors are involved in the course of PC development, including genetics, cigarette smoking, alcohol, family history, and aberrant epigenetic signatures of the epigenome. In this review, we will mainly focus on the genetic mutations and ep...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - January 10, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in metastasis
AbstractThe spread of primary tumor cells to distant organs, termed metastasis, is the principal cause of cancer mortality and is a critical therapeutic target in oncology. Thus, a better understanding of metastatic progression is critical for improved therapeutic approaches requiring insight into the timing of tumor cell dissemination and seeding of distant organs, which can lead to the formation of occult lesions. However, due to limitations in imaging techniques, primary tumors can only be detected when they reach a relatively large size (e.g.,>  1 cm3), which, based on our understanding of tumor evolut...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - January 7, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Macrophages in multiple myeloma: key roles and therapeutic strategies
AbstractMacrophages are a vital component of the tumour microenvironment and crucial mediators of tumour progression. In the last decade, significant strides have been made in understanding the crucial functional roles played by macrophages in the development of the plasma cell (PC) malignancy, multiple myeloma (MM). Whilst the interaction between MM PC and stromal cells within the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment has been extensively studied, we are only just starting to appreciate the multifaceted roles played by macrophages in disease progression. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that macrophage infiltration is assoc...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - January 6, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Neuroblastoma and the epigenome
This article focuses predominately on the crosstalk between the epigenome and NB, and the implications it has on disease diagnosis and treatment. (Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews)
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - January 6, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Epigenetic modulation of immunotherapy and implications in head and neck cancer
AbstractCancer progression is facilitated by distinct mechanisms developed by cancer cells to avoid immune recognition and clearance. The clinical application of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB),via monoclonal antibodies blocking PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA4, has achieved promising durable therapeutic response in various cancer types, including recurrent and metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). HNSCC represents a rational target of ICB treatment given its relatively high mutation burden and the presence of immune infiltrates. However, the limited response rates and recent negative clinical trials data identif...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - January 5, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cohesive cancer invasion of the biophysical barrier of smooth muscle
AbstractSmooth muscle is found around organs in the digestive, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. Cancers arising in the bladder, prostate, stomach, colon, and other sites progress from low-risk disease to high-risk, lethal metastatic disease characterized by tumor invasion into, within, and through the biophysical barrier of smooth muscle. We consider here the unique biophysical properties of smooth muscle and how cohesive clusters of tumor use mechanosensing cell –cell and cell–ECM (extracellular matrix) adhesion receptors to move through a structured muscle and withstand the biophysical forces to reach di...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - January 4, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma: molecular drivers and the role of targeted therapy
AbstractPrognosis from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) continues to be poor despite the many efforts channeled to improve its management. Although the mainstay treatment is still traditional chemotherapy, recent advances highlighted a promising potential for targeted therapy in the management of this disease. Those advances emphasize the significance of timely genomic profiling of tumor tissue as well as germline testing of patients to identify potential markers of targeted therapy. While targeted therapy is reserved for a relatively small subset of patients with PDAC, ongoing research is uncovering additional mark...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - January 4, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Safety of radiosurgery concurrent with systemic therapy (chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and/or immunotherapy) in brain metastases: a systematic review
AbstractStereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a standard option for brain metastases (BM). There is lack of consensus when patients have a systemic treatment, if a washout is necessary. The aim of this review is to analyze the toxicity of SRS when it is concurrent with chemotherapies, immunotherapy, and/or targeted therapies. From Medline and Embase databases, we searched for English literature published up to April 2020 according to the PRISMA guidelines, using for key words the list of the main systemic therapies currently in use And “radiosurgery,” “SRS,” “GKRS,” “Gamma Knife,&rdqu...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - January 4, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Potential mechanisms of tumor progression associated with postoperative infectious complications
AbstractThere is increasing evidence that postoperative infectious complications (PICs) are associated with poor prognosis after potentially curative surgery. However, the role that PICs play in tumor development remains unclear. In this article, we reviewed the literature for novel insights on the mechanisms of cancer progression associated with PICs. The Medline and EMBASE databases were searched for publications regarding the role of suppression of antitumor immunity by PIC in tumor progression and selected 916 manuscripts were selected for this review. In addition, a summary of the authors ’ own experimental data...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - January 3, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Biography —József Tímár
(Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews)
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - November 22, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A “New Radiation”—shining light on cancer
AbstractThere is renewed interest in novel spectroscopic techniques for molecular interrogation. Inelastic light scattering techniques can provide real-time  phenotypic identification of tissue and cellular state. Here we review Raman spectroscopy as a powerful technique for the identification of cancerous tissue and tumor boundaries. (Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews)
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - November 13, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in head and neck cancer and glioblastoma —backbone or add-on in immune-oncology?
AbstractCyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) control the cell cycle and play a crucial role in oncogenesis. Pharmacologic inhibition of CDK has contributed to the recent clinical approval of dual CDK4/6 inhibitors for the treatment of breast and small cell lung cancer. While the anticancer cell effects of CDK inhibitors are well-established, preclinical and early clinical studies describe additional mechanisms of action such as chemo- and radiosensitization or immune stimulation. The latter offers great potential to incorporate CDK inhibitors in immune-based treatments. However, dosing schedules and accurate timing of each combi...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - November 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Metastasis is a highly stressful process
(Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews)
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - November 6, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Visualizing cancer extravasation: from mechanistic studies to drug development
AbstractMetastasis is a multistep process that accounts for the majority of cancer-related death. By the end of metastasize dissemination, circulating tumor cells (CTC) need to extravasate the blood vessels at metastatic sites to form new colonization. Although cancer cell extravasation is a crucial step in cancer metastasis, it has not been successfully targeted by current anti-metastasis strategies due to the lack of a thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate this process. This review focuses on recent progress in cancer extravasation visualization techniques, including the development of bothin v...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - November 6, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Secreted frizzled-related protein 2: a key player in noncanonical Wnt signaling and tumor angiogenesis
AbstractSecreted frizzled-related proteins (SFRP) are glycoproteins containing a so-called frizzled-like cysteine-rich domain. This domain enables them to bind to Wnt ligands or frizzled (FzD) receptors, making potent regulators of Wnt signaling. As Wnt signaling is often altered in cancer, it is not surprising that Wnt regulators such as SFRP proteins are often differentially expressed in the tumor microenvironment, both in a metastatic and non-metastatic setting. Indeed, SFRP2 is shown to be specifically upregulated in the tumor vasculature of several types of cancer. Several studies investigated the functional role of S...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - November 2, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Beyond tradition and convention: benefits of non-traditional model organisms in cancer research
AbstractTraditional laboratory model organisms are indispensable for cancer research and have provided insight into numerous mechanisms that contribute to cancer development and progression in humans. However, these models do have some limitations, most notably related to successful drug translation, because traditional model organisms are often short-lived, small-bodied, genetically homogeneous, often immunocompromised, are not exposed to natural environments shared with humans, and usually do not develop cancer spontaneously. We propose that assimilating information from a variety of long-lived, large, genetically divers...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - October 28, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Centrosome amplification: a quantifiable cancer cell trait with prognostic value in solid malignancies
AbstractNumerical and/or structural centrosome amplification (CA) is a hallmark of cancers that is often associated with the aberrant tumor karyotypes and poor clinical outcomes. Mechanistically, CA compromises mitotic fidelity and leads to chromosome instability (CIN), which underlies tumor initiation and progression. Recent technological advances in microscopy and image analysis platforms have enabled better-than-ever detection and quantification of centrosomal aberrancies in cancer. Numerous studies have thenceforth correlated the presence and the degree of CA with indicators of poor prognosis such as higher tumor grade...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - October 26, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The role of caspase-8 in the tumor microenvironment of ovarian cancer
AbstractCaspase-8 is an aspartate-specific cysteine protease, which is best known for its apoptotic functions. Caspase-8 is placed at central nodes of multiple signal pathways, regulating not only the cell cycle but also the invasive and metastatic cell behavior, the immune cell homeostasis and cytokine production, which are the two major components of the tumor microenvironment (TME). Ovarian cancer often has dysregulated caspase-8 expression, leading to imbalance between its apoptotic and non-apoptotic functions within the tumor and the surrounding milieu. The downregulation of caspase-8 in ovarian cancer seems to be lin...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - October 6, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Interaction between adipose tissue and cancer cells: role for cancer progression
AbstractEnvironment surrounding tumours are now recognized to play an important role in tumour development and progression. Among the cells found in the tumour environment, adipocytes from adipose tissue establish a vicious cycle with cancer cells to promote cancer survival, proliferation, metastasis and treatment resistance. This cycle is particularly of interest in the context of obesity, which has been found as a cancer risk factor. Cancers cells can reprogram adipocyte physiology leading to an “activated” phenotype characterized by delipidation and secretion of inflammatory adipokines. The adipocyte secreti...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - October 1, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Novel regulation of Ras proteins by direct tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation
AbstractSomatic mutations in theRAS genes are frequent in human tumors, especially in pancreatic, colorectal, and non-small-cell lung cancers. Such mutations generally decrease the ability of Ras to hydrolyze GTP, maintaining the protein in a constitutively active GTP-bound form that drives uncontrolled cell proliferation. Efforts to develop drugs that target Ras oncoproteins have been unsuccessful. Recent emerging data suggest that Ras regulation is more complex than the scientific community has believed for decades. In this review, we summarize advances in the “textbook” view of Ras activation. We also discus...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - September 15, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Guest editorial/preface
(Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews)
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - September 15, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Current methods in translational cancer research
AbstractRecent developments in pre-clinical screening tools, that more reliably predict the clinical effects and adverse events of candidate therapeutic agents, has ushered in a new era of drug development and screening. However, given the rapid pace with which these models have emerged, the individual merits of these translational research tools warrant careful evaluation in order to furnish clinical researchers with appropriate information to conduct pre-clinical screening in an accelerated and rational manner. This review assesses the predictive utility of both well-established and emerging pre-clinical methods in terms...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - September 13, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Galectin-3: an immune checkpoint target for musculoskeletal tumor patients
AbstractIn the past decade, the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors in oncological clinical settings was in the forefront. However, the interest in musculoskeletal tumor patients as candidates for checkpoint inhibition remains underserved. Here, we are forwarding evidence proposing that galectin-3 (Gal-3) is an additional immune factor in the checkpoint processes. This review is the result of a large-scale cohort study depicting that overexpression of Gal-3 was widely prevalent in patients with musculoskeletal tumors, whereas T cell infiltrations were generally suppressed in the tumor microenvironment. Targeting Ga...
Source: Cancer and Metastasis Reviews - September 13, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research