Making sense of the self

(Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center) Interoception is the awareness of our physiological states. But precisely how the brain calculates and reacts to this information remains unclear. In a paper published in the journal Neuron, neuroscientists at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) demonstrate how the insular cortex orchestrates the process. The work represents the first steps toward understanding the neural basis of interoception, which could allow researchers to address key questions in eating disorders, obesity, drug addiction, and a host of other diseases.
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

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cute;guez-Arias M Abstract Eating is necessary for survival, but it is also one of the great pleasures enjoyed by human beings. Research to date shows that palatable food can be rewarding in a similar way to drugs of abuse, indicating a considerable comorbidity between eating disorders and substance-use disorders. Analysis of the common characteristics of both types of disorder has led to a new wave of studies proposing a Gateway Theory of food as a vulnerability factor that modulates the development of drug addiction. The homeostatic and hedonic mechanisms of feeding overlap with some of the mechanisms implicated...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
If you were to sum up the overall health of a nation in one single number, what would that be? At the top of the list, you would likely find average life expectancy — the total number of years, on average, that a person in a country can expect to live. Wars, famine, and economic crises are expected to lower life expectancy. Breakthroughs in science, strong economies, and behaviors like eating a healthy diet, exercising, and avoiding tobacco typically raise average life expectancy. An amazing rise, a surprising fall Between 1959 and 2014, the United States experienced an unprecedented increase in life expectancy, whic...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Addiction Health Health care disparities Men's Health Women's Health Source Type: blogs
CONCLUSIONS: The I-YFAS 2.0 represents a valid and reliable questionnaire for the assessment of FA in both Italian adult inpatients with severe obesity and the general population, and is a psychometrically sound tool for clinical as well as research purposes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level V, descriptive study. PMID: 32026378 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Eating and weight disorders : EWD - Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Authors: Tags: Eat Weight Disord Source Type: research
Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, Ahead of Print.
Source: Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract As manifestations of excessive and uncontrolled intake, obesity and drug addiction have generated much research aimed at identifying common neuroadaptations that could underlie both disorders. Much work has focused on changes in brain reward and motivational circuitry that can overexcite eating and drug-taking behaviors. We suggest that the regulation of both behaviors depends on balancing excitation produced by stimuli associated with food and drug rewards with the behavioral inhibition produced by physiological "satiety" and other stimuli that signal when those rewards are unavailable. Our mai...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
Authors: Singh S, William M, Chu XP Abstract Drug addiction is a persistent mental illness and there is no effective treatment. The precise mechanisms underlying addictive responses have not been completely understood, although ion channels, neurotransmitters as well as their receptors, and intracellular endogenous molecules in the brain have been shown to play important roles in cocaine addiction. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is an important rate-limiting enzyme found throughout the body that converts the intracellular pool of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) into nicotinamide mononucleoti...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research
ConclusionsAlthough the absence of control cases precludes conclusions regarding the specific role of ketogenic diets versus other forms of dietary restriction, this is the first report to demonstrate the feasibility of prescribing a ketogenic diet for patients with obesity who report binge eating and food addiction symptoms. Further research should seek to reproduce the observed effects in controlled trials as well as to explore potential etiologies.
Source: Journal of Eating Disorders - Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe food addiction model suggests the compelling hypothesis that compulsive overeating and drug addictions share common neurobiological underpinnings. However, neuroimaging results are inconsistent, and they are difficult to integrate with each other. This mini-review provides a critical overview of the human neuroimaging literature in food addiction and binge eating symptoms.Recent FindingsNeuroanatomical studies suggest the involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex in food addiction. Functional imaging studies have examined whether food addiction is associated with alterations during reward process...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - Category: Addiction Source Type: research
Abstract PURPOSE: Compelling evidence indicates that an addictive process might contribute to overeating/obesity. We hypothesize that this process consists of two components: (a) a sensory addiction to the taste, texture, and temperature of food, and (b) a motor addiction to the actions of eating (e.g., biting, chewing, crunching, sucking, swallowing). Previously, we reported a mobile health application (mHealth app) obesity intervention addressing the sensory addiction component, based on staged food withdrawal. We propose that the motor addiction component can be treated using cognitive behavioral ther...
Source: Eating and weight disorders : EWD - Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Authors: Tags: Eat Weight Disord Source Type: research
Food addiction (FA) is likely to contribute to the global obesity epidemic. Most studies of FA have been conducted within clinical and/or highly selected populations, suggesting that prevalence estimates of FA may be biased. This is problematic as valid estimates of the population prevalence of FA is a requirement for informing and designing public health initiatives focusing on this phenotype. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the weighted prevalence of food addiction in the adult general population of Denmark.
Source: Clinical Nutrition - Category: Nutrition Authors: Tags: Original article Source Type: research
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