Correlates of protection against influenza infection in humans-on the path to a universal vaccine?

Correlates of protection against influenza infection in humans-on the path to a universal vaccine? Curr Opin Immunol. 2013 Aug 12; Authors: Li CK, Rappuoli R, Xu XN Abstract Influenza is an acute respiratory viral infection with high mutation rate and pandemic potential. Vaccination is an effective means of prevention and control of influenza, but the challenges of vaccine mismatches for the next influenza seasons and adequate global supply of influenza vaccines limit its effectiveness. Protective immunity in vaccination or natural infection is primarily mediated by antibody responses against surface proteins of influenza including haemagglutinin (HA) as the major neutralizing target, whereas strong T cell responses to internal viral proteins are associated with reduced disease severity. Recently, identification of broadly neutralizing antibodies against the conserved stem region of HA from influenza infected individuals has invigorated interest in development of a universal vaccine against different subtypes of influenza. Moreover, because of the cross-reactive nature of T cell recognition and more conserved internal antigens of influenza, strategies that boost memory T cell responses to these internal antigens may provide not only help for antibody-mediated protection but also limit the cell damage caused by viral infection directly. This is particularly important in acute infection with new pandemic viruses or antibody-escape variants where there are no pr...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

Related Links:

CONCLUSIONS: A historical anchor for vaccination rates and ILI is provided in a large cohort of college students following the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. Influenza immunization locations were determined, as was self-reported obstacles to receiving vaccinations. These are important results for public health leaders seeking to increase vaccination rates during future influenza seasons. PMID: 32074350 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Military Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Mil Med Source Type: research
, Flannery B Abstract During the 2019-20 influenza season, influenza-like illness (ILI)* activity first exceeded the national baseline during the week ending November 9, 2019, signaling the earliest start to the influenza season since the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic. Activity remains elevated as of mid-February 2020. In the United States, annual vaccination against seasonal influenza is recommended for all persons aged ≥6 months (1). During each influenza season, CDC estimates seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza associated with medically attended acute respi...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
TTP, a technology company based in Melbourn, UK, is developing a handheld PCR (polymerase chain reaction) diagnostic device that can rapidly detect influenza viruses, and one day other viruses, in samples of nasal mucus. The company claims that the s...
Source: Medgadget - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: Diagnostics Exclusive Public Health Source Type: blogs
In conclusion, the peptides designed through in silico studies were validated in experimental assays.
Source: Archives of Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
AbstractInfluenza continues to baffle humans by its constantly changing nature. The twenty-first century has witnessed considerable advances in the understanding of the influenza viral pathogenesis, its synergy with bacterial infections and diagnostic methods. However, challenges continue: to find a less expensive and more reliable point-of-care test for use in developing countries, to produce more efficacious antiviral drugs, to explore ways to combat emerging antiviral resistance and to develop vaccines that can either be produced in a shorter production time or can overcome the need for annual matching with the circulat...
Source: Indian Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research
Pandemics are perversely democratic. They’re nasty, lethal and sneaky, but they don’t discriminate. No matter your age, ethnicity, religion, gender, or nation, you’re a part of the pathogenic constituency. That shared vulnerability, and the resulting human collectivism—a universal response to a universal threat—is newly and vividly evident in the face of the now-global outbreak of the novel coronavirus known as 2019-nCoV. As of writing, there have been over 30,000 diagnosed cases and over 630 related deaths. A virus that emerged in a single city, Wuhan, China—indeed, in a single crowded ...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized 2019-nCoV Infectious Disease Source Type: news
“Everyone knows that pestilences have a way of recurring in the world,” observes Albert Camus in his novel The Plague. “Yet somehow we find it hard to believe in ones that crash down on our heads from a blue sky. There have been as many plagues as wars in history; yet plagues and wars always take people by surprise.” Camus was imagining a fictional outbreak of plague in 1948 in Oran, a port city in northwest Algeria. But at a time when the world is reeling from a very real microbial emergency sparked by the emergence of a novel coronavirus in Wuhan, central China, his observations are as pertinent a...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized 2019-nCoV health ideas Source Type: news
Influenza virus is a respiratory pathogen that can cause disease in humans, with symptoms ranging from mild to life-threatening. The vast majority of influenza virus infections in humans are observed during seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. Given the substantial public health burden associated with influenza virus infection, yearly vaccination is recommended for protection against seasonal influenza viruses. Despite vigilant surveillance for new variants and careful selection of seasonal vaccine strains, the efficacy of seasonal vaccines can vary widely from year to year. This often results in lowered protection...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Once in a very rare while, a single, serious challenge consumes the attention of the entire world. We are living through one such period today as countries and communities come together to end the new coronavirus outbreak. This virus, provisionally known as the “2019-novel coronavirus,” has, as of 3 February 2020, spread to 24 countries, with over 17,000 people being infected to date, 99% of them in China. The limited numbers of cases elsewhere around the world – just 153 so far – show that efforts to contain the virus in China are curbing its global spread, alongside the detection and clinical care...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized health ideas Source Type: news
We were surprised in 2002 when a new coronavirus called SARS emerged from southern China and spread to 17 countries, causing more than 8,000 disease cases and nearly 800 deaths. We were surprised in 2009 when a new H1N1 influenza strain emerged in Mexico and caused worldwide panic. We were surprised in 2014 when Ebola virus broke out in three West African countries, with nearly 30,000 cases and more than 11,000 deaths. And here we are now, facing the 2019-nCoV coronavirus outbreak, on the verge of becoming a worldwide pandemic, wthin China reporting over 20,000 cases and nearly 500 deaths. Three years ago in a book, Deadl...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized 2019-nCoV health ideas Source Type: news
More News: Allergy & Immunology | Flu Pandemic | Influenza | Influenza Vaccine | Pandemics | Respiratory Medicine | Vaccines