Cells with ganglionic differentiation frequently stain for VE1 antibody: a potential pitfall

AbstractMitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway plays a major role in pediatric low-grade gliomas (pLGGs). Immunohistochemistry with mutant-specific antibody, VE1, has appeared to be the most affordable and rapidly deployable method to identify tumors with aberrant MAPK signaling pathway, by highlighting tumor withBRAFV600E mutation. Nonetheless, positive staining cases but not associated withBRAFV600E mutation are also seen. We analyzed 62 pLGGs for the two commonest genetic aberrations in MAPK pathway:KIAA1549-BRAF fusion, using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, andBRAFV600E mutation, using VE1 antibody and Sanger sequencing. We recorded a specificity and accuracy rate of 68.75% and 75%, respectively, for VE1, when strong cytoplasmic staining is observed. Interestingly, we observed that cells with ganglionic features frequently bind VE1 but not associated withBRAFV600E mutation. Such observation was also confirmed in four cases of differentiating neuroblastoma. This false positive staining may serve as an important confounder in the interpretation of VE1 immunoreactivity with major therapeutic implication. It is important to confirm the presence ofBRAFV600E mutation by DNA-based method, especially in tumor entities not known to, or rarely harbor such mutations.
Source: Brain Tumor Pathology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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Kruyt F, Dolga AM Abstract Brain tumours are among the deadliest tumours being highly resistant to currently available therapies. The proliferative behaviour of gliomas is strongly influenced by ion channel activity. Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK/KCa) channels are a family of ion channels that are associated with cell proliferation and cell survival. A combined treatment of classical anti-cancer agents and pharmacological SK channel modulators has not been addressed yet. We used the gold-derivative auranofin to induce cancer cell death by targeting thioredoxin reductases in combination with CyP...
Source: Biochemical Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Biochem Pharmacol Source Type: research
Conclusions1. Glioblastoma, anaplastic glioma and neuroblastoma cell lines have a high sensitivity to Cabazitaxel in vitro. 2. Cell lines with MGMT methylation and MMR expression (A172 and LN 229) are the most sensitive. Of them, line A172 presents a p53 wild type, and therefore, a greater sensitivity to Cabazitaxel. 3. The expression of CD133 correlates inversely with the values of IC50 to Cabazitaxel, and may also be a predictor of response.Legal entity responsible for the studyUGR.FundingHas not received any funding.DisclosureAll authors have declared no conflicts of interest.
Source: Annals of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
AbstractThe N-Myc downstream-regulated gene (NDRG) family consists of four members (NDRG1,NDRG2,NDRG3,NDRG4) that are differentially expressed in various organs and function in important processes, like cell proliferation and differentiation. In the last couple of decades, interest in this family has risen due to its connection with several disorders of the nervous system including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and dementia, as well as nervous system cancers. By combining a literature review with in silico data analysis of publicly available datasets, such as the Mouse Brain Atlas, BrainSpan, the Genotype-Tissue Expression (...
Source: Neurogenetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Conclusion Astroblastoma is an extremely rare CNS tumor. Morphological diagnosis is difficult, as the typical astroblastic rosettes may be present also in other CNS tumors, including some gliomas and ependymomas. In fact, AB can be considered as a morphologic pattern, which can be associated with a spectrum of molecular entities. Total resection is the best treatment; the precise role of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is still debated, particularly for high-grade tumors. We believe that DNA-methylation profiles represents an important instrument for confirming diagnosis, predicting prognosis and better defining the molec...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Conclusions This review describes how leukocyte-heparanase can be a double-edged sword in tumor progression; it can enhance tumor immune surveillance and tumor cell clearance, but also promote tumor survival and growth. We also discuss the potential of using heparanase in leukocyte therapies against tumors, and the effects of heparanase inhibitors on tumor progression and immunity. We are just beginning to understand the influence of heparanase on a pro/anti-tumor immune response, and there are still many questions to answer. How do the pro/anti-tumorigenic effects of heparanase differ across different cancer types? Does...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Markus Hartl* and Rainer Schneider Center of Molecular Biosciences (CMBI), Institute of Biochemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria The neuronal proteins GAP43 (neuromodulin), MARCKS, and BASP1 are highly expressed in the growth cones of nerve cells where they are involved in signal transmission and cytoskeleton organization. Although their primary structures are unrelated, these signaling proteins share several structural properties like fatty acid modification, and the presence of cationic effector domains. GAP43, MARCKS, and BASP1 bind to cell membrane phospholipids, a process reversibly regulate...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusion The expression of the components of the PTN-MK-RPTPβ/ζ axis in immune cells and in inflammatory diseases suggests important roles for this axis in inflammation. Pleiotrophin has been recently identified as a limiting factor of metainflammation, a chronic pathological state that contributes to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Pleiotrophin also seems to potentiate acute neuroinflammation independently of the inflammatory stimulus while MK seems to play different -even opposite- roles in acute neuroinflammation depending on the stimulus. Which are the functions of MK and PTN in chronic neuroinfla...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Azimi Calcium signaling, in addition to its numerous physiological roles, is also implicated in several pathological conditions including cancer. An increasing body of evidence suggest critical roles of calcium signaling in the promotion of different aspects of cancer, including cell proliferation, therapy resistance and metastatic-related processes. In many cases, this is associated with altered expression and/or activity of some calcium channels and pumps. Brain cancers have also been the subject of many of these studies. In addition to diverse roles of calcium signals in normal brain function, a number of proteins i...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Authors: Liu J, Wang WM, Zhang XL, Du QH, Li HG, Zhang Y Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of lncRNA neuroblastoma associated transcript 1 (NBAT1) in human glioma cell lines and its underlying mechanism. Effect of NBAT1 on biological behaviors of T98 and U87 cells are also explored. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The mRNA expressions of NBAT1 in 48 cases of glioblastoma tissues and 30 cases of normal brain tissues were accessed by Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-PCR). The relationship between mRNA expression of NBAT1 and tumor size, malignancy, and prognosis were analyzed. Effects of NBAT1 on...
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research
ConclusionsPalliative RT was well tolerated in children with incurable malignancies, with most cases associated with acceptable toxicity, and improved or stable symptoms.
Source: Pediatric Blood and Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
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