Topoisomerase inhibitors: pharmacology and emerging nanoscale delivery systems

Publication date: Available online 17 November 2019Source: Pharmacological ResearchAuthor(s): Ali Dehshahri, Milad Ashrafizadeh, Elham Ghasemipour Afshar, Abbas Pardakhty, Ali Mandegary, Reza Mohammadinejad, Gautam SethiAbstractTopoisomerase enzymes have shown unique roles in replication and transcription. These enzymes which were initially found in Escherichia coli have attracted considerable attention as target molecules for cancer therapy. Nowadays, there are several topoisomerase inhibitors in the market to treat or at least control the progression of cancer. However, significant toxicity, low solubility and poor pharmacokinetic properties have limited their wide application and these characteristics need to be improved. Nano-delivery systems have provided an opportunity to modify the intrinsic properties of molecules and also to transfer the toxic agent to the target tissues. These delivery systems leads to the re-introduction of existing molecules present in the market as novel therapeutic agents with different physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. This review focusses on a variety of nano-delivery vehicles used for the improvement of pharmacological properties of topoisomerase inhibitors and thus enabling their potential application as novel drugs in the market.Graphical Abstract
Source: Pharmacological Research - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 20 November 2019Source: Materials Science and Engineering: CAuthor(s): P. Maheswari, S. Harish, M. Navaneethan, C. Muthamizhchelvan, S. Ponnusamy, Y. HayakawaAbstractTitanium dioxide nanoparticles exhibit good anticancer and antibacterial activities. They are known to be environmentally friendly and stable, less toxic and excellent biocompatibility nature. Due to these properties, they are well suited for biological applications particularly in biomedical applications such as drug delivery and cancer therapy. In this paper Pure TiO2 nanoparticles modified with Withania somnifera (Ashwagan...
Source: Materials Science and Engineering: C - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
In conclusion, our data show how oncogenic and tumor-suppressive drivers of cellular senescence act to regulate surveillance processes that can be circumvented to enable SnCs to elude immune recognition but can be reversed by cell surface-targeted interventions to purge the SnCs that persist in vitro and in patients. Since eliminating SnCs can prevent tumor progression, delay the onset of degenerative diseases, and restore fitness; since NKG2D-Ls are not widely expressed in healthy human tissues and NKG2D-L shedding is an evasion mechanism also employed by tumor cells; and since increasing numbers of B cells express NKG2D ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Traditional cancer therapies, such as surgery treatment, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, often fail to completely eliminate tumor cells in an anaerobic microenvironment of tumor regions.
Source: Journal of Biological Engineering - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Publication date: September 2019Source: Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 100Author(s): Lakshmi Kalyani Ruddaraju, Panduranga Naga Vijay Kumar Pallela, S.V.N. Pammi, Veerabhadra Swamy Padavala, Venkata Ramana Murthy KolapalliAbstractThe present investigation deals with the antibiotic potentiation and antitumor activity of green processed Ag NPs. Silver nanoparticles were prepared using Annona squamosa (AS) leaf extract as a potent bio-reducer and stabilizer. An intense surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band around 430 nm indicates the formation of well-stabilized silver nano particles, which was conform...
Source: Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Abstract A simple method to fabricate redox-responsive composite hydrogel films via incorporating chitosan (CS) microspheres into carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) hydrogel using a di-sulphide cross-linker cystamine dihydrochloride (CYS) have done in this paper. Dual drugs, an anticancer, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and an antibiotic, Tetracycline Hydrochloride (TH) were used as model drugs. The prepared composite hydrogel films were characterized using FTIR, SEM, rheology measurement, mechanical and swelling tests. Our results showed that the well dispersed spherical CS microspheres endowed hydrogel film increased mechanic...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Int J Biol Macromol Source Type: research
In conclusion, the targeting tLyp-1 exosomes are successfully engineered, and can be used for gene therapy with a high transfection efficiency. Therefore, the engineered targeting tLyp-1 exosomes offer a promising gene delivery platform for future cancer therapy.Graphical AbstractThe tLyp-1-lamp2b plasmid transfected HEK293T cells can secreted tumor targeting tLyp-1 exosomes. By electroporation technology, targeting tLyp-1 exosomes were loaded with siRNA. When targeting tLyp-1 exosome ruptured in cytoplasm, siRNA was loaded into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). The sense (passenger) strand was degraded while the a...
Source: Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusion and Future Perspectives This review illustrates our current knowledge of USP7, including its source and characterization, structure, binding partners and substrates in various biological processes. Besides, how USP7 regulates various aspects of a cell under both normal and pathological states are elaborated in detail. As the processes of ubiquitination and deubiquitination are extremely dynamic and context-specific, a series of studies have linked USP7 to different cancers. The biology, particularly the immune oncology mechanisms, reveal that USP7 inhibitors would be useful drugs, thus it is vital to develop hi...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
In conclusion, our study provides a protocol of producing a biologically active survivin-targeting macromolecule, T34A-C84A-dNSur-His, which can be used as a tool for studying the molecular and cellular roles of survivin in cells. T34A-C84A-dNSur-His is also a potential therapeutic agent for augmenting cancer therapy.
Source: Protein Expression and Purification - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
In this study, the gut microbiota of 30 LC patients and 30 healthy controls were examined via next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA and analyzed for diversity and biomarkers. We found that there was no decrease in significant microbial diversity (alpha diversity) in LC patients compared to controls (P observed = 0.1422), while the composition (beta diversity) differed significantly between patients and controls (phylum [stress = 0.153], class [stress = 0.16], order [stress = 0.146], family [stress = 0.153]). Controls had a higher abundance of the bacterial phylum Actinobacteria and genus Bifidobacterium, while patients wi...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusions and Perspectives In this review, we have discussed important milestones from the early description of “Serum-sickness” as being due to antibodies directed against Neu5Gc epitopes all the way to the present-day therapeutic implications of these antibodies in cancer therapy. Some of these milestones have been represented in a concise timeline (Figure 6). While the “Xenosialitis” hypothesis is well-supported in the human-like mouse models, it has yet to be conclusively proven in humans. It remains to be seen if “Xenosialitis” plays a role in other uniquely-human diseases. FI...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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