Prospects for Malaria Vaccines: Pre-Erythrocytic Stages, Blood Stages, and Transmission-Blocking Stages.

Prospects for Malaria Vaccines: Pre-Erythrocytic Stages, Blood Stages, and Transmission-Blocking Stages. Biomed Res Int. 2019;2019:9751471 Authors: Zheng J, Pan H, Gu Y, Zuo X, Ran N, Yuan Y, Zhang C, Wang F Abstract Malaria is a disease of public health importance in many parts of the world. Currently, there is no effective way to eradicate malaria, so developing safe, efficient, and cost-effective vaccines against this disease remains an important goal. Current research on malaria vaccines is focused on developing vaccines against pre-erythrocytic stage parasites and blood-stage parasites or on developing a transmission-blocking vaccine. Here, we briefly describe the progress made towards a vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum, the most pathogenic of the malaria parasite species to infect humans. PMID: 31687404 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research

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In this study, we dissected the response of three TCR γδ cell subsets and mucosal-associated invariant T cells in healthy volunteers immunized with PfSPZ Vaccine and challenged by CHMI using Sanaria PfSPZ Challenge. Using a flow cytometry-based unbiased analysis followed by T cell cloning, several findings were made. Whereas major ex vivo alterations were not detectable after immunization with PfSPZ Vaccine, TCR Vδ2, and mucosal-associated invariant T cells expanded after asexual blood-stage parasitemia induced by CHMI. CHMI, but not vaccination, also induced the activation of TCR Vδ1 and Vδ1-...
Source: Journal of Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: J Immunol Source Type: research
Despite the extensive endeavours, developing an effective malaria vaccine remains as a great challenge. Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1) located on the merozoite surface of parasites belonging to the genus Plasm...
Source: Malaria Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a disease causing high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. Candidates have been identified for vaccines targeting the parasite’s blood stage; this stage is important in the development of symptoms and clinical complications. However, no vaccine that can directly affect morbidity and mortality rates is currently available. This review analyzes the formulation, methodological design, and results of active clinical trials for merozoite-stage vaccines, regarding their safety profile, immunological response (phase Ia/Ib), and protective efficacy levels (p...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This study aimed at evaluating the antiplasmodial activity of ANI combinations with artesunate (AS) or chloroquine (CQ) against P. falciparum in vitro based on the semiautomated microdilution assay and P. berghei in vivo based on Peters' 4-day test. Data were analysed by linear regression using version 5.5 of Statistica, 2000. From the results, on the one hand, a combination of 1.1 ng/ml AS and 3.3 μg/ml of ANI inhibited 50% growth of W2, while a combination of 0.8 ng/ml of AS and 2.6 μg/ml of ANI inhibited 50% growth of 3D7. On the other hand, a combination of 22 ng/ml CQ and 3.7&t...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
Nature, Published online: 27 November 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-03639-5As the first vaccine against the malaria parasite begins to roll out, scientists are working on a wide variety of alternatives that they hope will provide more protection.
Source: Nature AOP - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
Clinical manifestation of malaria is mainly due to intra-erythrocytic development of Plasmodium parasites. Plasmodium falciparum merozoites, the invasive form of the blood-stage parasite, invade human erythrocytes in a complex but rapid process. This multi-step progression involves interactions between parasite and human host proteins. Here we show that antibodies against a vaccine antigen, PfGAMA, co-immunoprecipitate with PfMSP10. This interaction was validated as direct by surface plasmon resonance analysis. We then demonstrate that antibodies against PfMSP10 have growth inhibitory activity against cultured parasites, w...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
(University of Bern) An international scientific consortium led by the cell biologists Volker Heussler from the University of Bern and Oliver Billker from the Ume å University in Sweden has for the first time systematically investigated the genome of the malaria parasite Plasmodium throughout its life cycle in a large-scale experiment. The researchers were able to identify hundreds of targets that are urgently needed in drug and vaccine development to eradicate the disease.
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
Abstract Plasmodium vivax, the chronic relapsing human malaria parasite with the most widespread distribution, possesses proteins associated with the merozoite surface that could be targets for host immune responses and potential vaccine candidates. Of these, the merozoite surface protein 3 of P. vivax (PvMSP3) is an attractive vaccine target as well as a genetic marker for epidemiological surveillance. PvMSP3 comprises a group of protein members encoded by a multigene family. Although some protein members, i.e. PvMSP3α and PvMSP3β, have been targets for molecular and immunological investigations, the m...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
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Source: OnMedica Latest News - Category: UK Health Source Type: news
In this study, using samples collected from young children in Ghana at multiple time points during a longitudinal study, we adapted a predictive modelling framework which combines feature selection and machine learning techniques to identify an antigen signature of clinical immunity to malaria. Our results show that an individual's immune status can be accurately predicted by measuring antibody responses to a small defined set of 15 target antigens. We further demonstrate that the identified immune signature is highly versatile and capable of providing precise and accurate estimates of clinical protection from malaria in a...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Proteomics : MCP - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Mol Cell Proteomics Source Type: research
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