Adipokines underlie the early origins of obesity and associated metabolic comorbidities in the offspring of women with pregestational obesity

Publication date: Available online 23 October 2019Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of DiseaseAuthor(s): V. Arroyo-Jousse, A. Jaramillo, E. Castaño-Moreno, M. Lépez, K. Carrasco-Negüe, P. CasanelloAbstractMaternal pregestational obesity is a well-known risk factor for offspring obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms by which maternal obesity can induce alterations in fetal and later neonatal metabolism are not fully elucidated due to its complexity and multifactorial causes. Two adipokines, leptin and adiponectin, are involved in fetal and postnatal growth trajectories, and both are altered in women with pregestational obesity. The placenta synthesizes leptin, which goes mainly to the maternal circulation and in lesser amount to the developing fetus. Maternal pregestational obesity and hyperleptinemia are associated with placental dysfunction and changes in nutrient transporters which directly affect fetal growth and development. By the other side, the embryo can produce its own leptin from early in development, which is associated to fetal weight and adiposity. Adiponectin, an insulin-sensitizing adipokine, is downregulated in maternal obesity. High molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin is the most abundant form and with most biological actions. In maternal obesity lower total and HMW adiponectin levels have been described in the mother, paralleled with high levels in the umbilical c...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular Basis of Disease - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

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The metabolic syndrome (MetS) comprises abdominal obesity, preclinical or full diabetes type 2, arterial hypertension, and dyslipidemia and affects a significant proportion of the general population with a remarkably higher prevalence in patients suffering from psychiatric disorders. However, studies exploring the pathogenetic link between MetS and psychiatric diseases are rare. Here, we aim to narrow this gap in knowledge by providing a narrative review on this topic that focuses on two psychiatric diseases, namely on schizophrenia and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) since we assume them to be associated with two dif...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension are fundamental clinical manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. Studies over the last few decades have implicated chronic inflammation and microvascular remodeling in the development of obesity and insulin resistance. Newer observations, however, suggest that dysregulation of the lymphatic system underlies the development of the metabolic syndrome. This review summarizes recent advances in the field, discussing how lymphatic abnormality promotes obesity and insulin resistance, and, conversely, how the metabolic syndrome impairs lymphatic function. We also discu...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Source: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy Source Type: research
There is evidence to suggest that frequent use of the sweeteners, especially in diet sodas, raises the risk of several chronic diseases, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease.
Source: WebMD Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Authors: Collao N, Rada I, Francaux M, Deldicque L, Zbinden-Foncea H Abstract Over the last three decades, the combination of a sedentary lifestyle and excessive food intake has led to a significant increase in the prevalence of obesity. The latter favors a chronic low-grade inflammatory state and an over-activation of the innate immune system, which contribute to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Physical exercise is a powerful preventive tool and treatment for several diseases as it induces metabolic and immune effects that provide health benefits. Exercise is known to reduce inflammation; however, the unde...
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research
Source: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy Source Type: research
AbstractObesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome and an essential medical and social problem. In the first part of the review, we briefly highlight the biochemical basis of metabolic disbalance in obesity and evolution of our views on the mechanisms of insulin resistance development in insulin-sensitive tissues. Because obesity relates to the disturbance in the normal physiology of fat tissue, the second part of the review focuses on latent inflammation that develops in obesity and is supported by immune cells. Finally, the problem of adipocyte hypertrophy, reduced regenerative potential of...
Source: Biochemistry (Moscow) - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
AbstractBackgroundDipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are widely used antidiabetic drugs. However, to date, no studies have directly compared the effects of these two drugs on the components of the metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).ObjectivesThe Comparison of Canagliflozin vs. Teneligliptin against Basic Metabolic Risks in Patients with T2DM (CANTABILE) study aims to examine whether the DPP-4 inhibitor (teneligliptin) or the SGLT2 inhibitor (canagliflozin) is the more effective drug for reducing metabolic risk factors as a compos...
Source: Diabetes Therapy - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 23 October 2019Source: The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyAuthor(s): Margarida Lorigo, Melissa Mariana, Manuel C. Lemos, Elisa CairraoAbstractTestosterone (T) is the predominant endogenous androgen in the bloodstream. At the vascular level, T presents genomic and non-genomic effects, and both effects may overlap. The genomic actions assume that androgens can freely cross the plasma membrane of target cells and bind to nuclear androgen receptors, inducing gene transcription and protein synthesis. The non-genomic effects have a more rapid onset and may be related to th...
Source: The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
Young people with first-episode psychosis (FEP) who are treated with extended-release quetiapine gain more weight and experience worse metabolic effects —including increased lipids, insulin, triglycerides, and total cholesterol—than patients treated with aripiprazole, according to areport in theJournal of the Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.“These differences emerged early, are clinically relevant, and should inform treatment choice for youths with early onset psychosis,” especially since studies have shown the two medications are equally effective in treating symptoms, say Karsten Gjessi...
Source: Psychiatr News - Category: Psychiatry Tags: aripiprazole BMI cholesterol JAACAP metabolic disease metabolic syndrome quetiapine teens and sga antipsychotics weight gain Source Type: research
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