The Effects of Attentional Focus on Brain Function During a Gross Motor Task.

The Effects of Attentional Focus on Brain Function During a Gross Motor Task. J Sport Rehabil. 2019 Oct 18;:1-7 Authors: Raisbeck LD, Diekfuss JA, Grooms DR, Schmitz R Abstract CONTEXT: Although the beneficial effects of using an external focus of attention are well documented in attainment and performance of movement execution, neural mechanisms underlying external focus' benefits are mostly unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess brain function during a lower-extremity gross motor movement while manipulating an internal and external focus of attention. DESIGN: Cross-over study. SETTING: Neuroimaging center Participants: A total of 10 healthy subjects (5 males and 5 females) Intervention: Participants completed external and internal focus of attention unilateral left 45° knee extension/flexion movements at a rate of 1.2 Hz laying supine in a magnetic resonance imaging scanner for 4 blocks of 30 seconds interspersed with 30-second rest blocks. During the internal condition, participants were instructed to "squeeze their quadriceps." During the external condition, participants were instructed to "focus on a target" positioned above their tibia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: T1 brain structural imaging was performed for registration of the functional data. For each condition, 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygenation level dependent data representing 90 whole-brain volumes were acquired. RESULTS: During the e...
Source: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation - Category: Sports Medicine Tags: J Sport Rehabil Source Type: research

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Conclusions: The present study seeks to provide new insight in the pathophysiological mechanisms linking reduced kidney function to cardiovascular disease. In addition, we aim to enlighten predictors of adverse cardiovascular outcome in living kidney donors. The study is registered at Clinical-Trials.gov (identifier: NCT03729557). PMID: 31718316 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Blood Pressure - Category: Hematology Tags: Blood Press Source Type: research
In 1983, a health professional in her 30s walked into my office and said, “I’ve been healthy all of my life. A year ago, I came down with some kind of virus — sore throat, aching muscles, swollen lymph glands, fever. My fatigue was so bad I was in bed for nearly a week. Many of the symptoms gradually improved, but the terrible fatigue and difficulty thinking have not gotten better. They’re so bad I can’t fulfill my responsibilities at home or at work. This illness is affecting my brain, stealing my energy, and affecting my immune system. It’s keeping me from realizing my dreams.” T...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Fatigue Health Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 12 November 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Juha Salmi, Mostafa Metwaly, Jussi Tohka, Kimmo Alho, Sami Leppämäki, Pekka Tani, Anniina Koski, Tamara Vanderwal, Matti LaineAbstractIndividuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have difficulties navigating dynamic everyday situations that contain multiple sensory inputs that need to either be attended to or ignored. As conventional experimental tasks lack this type of everyday complexity, we administered a film-based multi-talker condition with auditory distractors in the background. ADHD-related aberrant brain r...
Source: NeuroImage - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Cognitive impairment is a common feature in Parkinson's disease (PD) and other α-synucleinopathies as 80% of PD patients develop dementia within 20 years. Early cognitive changes in PD patients present as a dysexecutive syndrome, broadly characterized as a disruption of the fronto-striatal dopamine network. Cognitive deficits in other domains (recognition memory, attention processes and visuospatial abilities) become apparent with the progression of PD and development of dementia. In dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) the cognitive impairment develops early or even precedes parkinsonism and it is more pronounced in visu...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Authors: Gulak MA, Bornais C, Shin S, Murphy L, Smylie J, Pantarotto JR, Fung-Kee-Fung M, Maziak DE Abstract Background: Patients with lung cancer often experience stressful delays throughout the diagnostic phase of care. To address that situation, our multidisciplinary team created a "Navigation Day," during which patients partake in a single-day visit that comprises nurse-led teaching, social work, smoking cessation counselling, symptom control, and dedicated test slots for integrated positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (pet/ct), pulmonary function tests (pfts), and magnetic resonance i...
Source: Current Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Curr Oncol Source Type: research
ConclusionMesenteric cysts represent a rare cause of intra-abdominal mass. Owing to low prevalence, literature is limited as is guidance on management. Careful pre-operative planning is essential so as to avoid operative complications. Imaging such as USS is of great importance; however Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) may be of more benefit, owing to the complex anatomical relations within which mesenteric cysts can present. Surgical excision is widely reported as the surgical treatment of choice for symptomatic cysts
Source: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Publication date: 2019Source: NeuroImage: Clinical, Volume 24Author(s): Sheri L. Johnson, Hershel Mehta, Terence A. Ketter, Ian H. Gotlib, Brian KnutsonAbstractAlthough behavioral sensitivity to reward predicts the onset and course of mania in bipolar disorder, the evidence for neural abnormalities in reward processing in bipolar disorder is mixed. To probe neural responsiveness to anticipated and received rewards in the context of bipolar disorder, we scanned individuals with remitted bipolar I disorder (n = 24) and well-matched controls (n = 24; matched for age and gender) using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imag...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
ConclusionsFixation for cervical instability is a critical component of the management of DS. A minority of patients receiving surgery were identified through asymptomatic screening. There was a high complication risk associated with surgery in our study; however, the addition of rigid fixation has lessened the complication rate compared with previous studies.Level of EvidenceLevel IV.
Source: Spine Deformity - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
ConclusionMRI can contribute to the diagnosis of TOS. Specificity is sufficiently high to provide guidance for planning the surgical procedure. Sensitivity, however, is too low for MRI to be useful as a screening test. MRI should be used in combination with the clinical assessment and other investigations to assist in the diagnosis of TOS.Level of evidenceIV, retrospective cohort study.
Source: Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Surgery and Research - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
In this study, we examined cultural influences on neural activation during the intergroup perception of negative emotional faces. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare neural activation during intergroup emotion processing across cultures in three participants groups; two monocultural groups (i.e. Caucasian-Americans and native Japanese) and a bicultural group (i.e. Japanese-Americans). During scanning, the participants completed an emotional match-to-sample task consisting of negative facial expressions of Japanese and Caucasians. Our results show cultural modulation of neural response in the bilateral ...
Source: Neuropsychologia - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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