Antileishmanial activity of conventional and solid lipid nanoparticles of Amphotericin B on Leishmania major.

Antileishmanial activity of conventional and solid lipid nanoparticles of Amphotericin B on Leishmania major. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2019 Oct 15;: Authors: Soltani S, -Forushani HM, Soltani S, Kahvaz MS, Foroutan M Abstract BACKGROUND: Obligate intracellular parasites of Leishmania genus belong to family Trypanosomatidae and more than twenty species causes this neglected vector-borne infection throughout the globe. The current study was aimed to assess the antileishmanial activity of Amphotericin B (AmB) and AmB formulated into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) in vitro and in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present research, microemulsification and high shear homogenization methods were used to prepare SLNs. Leishmania major (L. major) promastigotes were cultured in RPMI 1640 and incubated for three time points of 24, 48 and 72 h at 25±1°C. Then, the MTT colorimetric assay was employed for obtaining of 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50). Finally, we evaluated the efficacy of AmB and AmB-SLN for the treatment of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in BALB/c mice. RESULTS: The average diameter sizes of prepared AmB-SLN were
Source: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Infect Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

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Abstract Sri Lanka reports a large epidemic of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by an atypical L. donovani while regional leishmaniasis elimination drive aims at achieving its targets in 2020. Visceralization, mucotrophism, and CL associated poor treatment response were recently reported. Long-term clinico-epidemiological trends (2001-2013) in this focus were examined for the first time. Both constant and changing features were observed. Sociodemographic patient characteristics that differ significantly from those of country profile, microchanges within CL profile, spatial expansion, constant biannual seasonal ...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
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Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - Category: Lipidology Source Type: research
Authors: Çulha G, Kaya T, Gülbol Duran G, Urhan Küçük M, Doğramacı AÇ, Tiyekli Çelik D Abstract Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that is transmitted to humans by the bites of infected female phlebotomine sandflies. In the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), in the smear samples, the demonstration of the parasite by microscope remains a gold standard method. However, it becomes difficult to diagnose the parasite since the number of amastigotes in chronic cases with a lesion of one year or longer is very low. Due to many factor such as patients primarily do not ...
Source: Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni - Category: Microbiology Tags: Mikrobiyol Bul Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 10 November 2019Source: Veterinary ParasitologyAuthor(s): Fatemeh Khadir, Tahereh Taheri, Sima Habibzadeh, Farnaz Zahedifard, Elham Gholami, Maryam Heidari-Kharaji, Ahmad Oryan, Sima RafatiAbstractCutaneous leishmaniosis (CL) is a parasitic disease in animals and human with no satisfactory treatments and vaccination. Rapamycin is a potent inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) with various applications. Here, the effect of rapamycin alone or in combination with two other drugs, namely amphotericin B (AmB) and glucantime, was investigated against Leishmania tropica infection. In...
Source: Veterinary Parasitology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
by Megan A. Sloan, Karen Brooks, Thomas D. Otto, Mandy J. Sanders, James A. Cotton, Petros Ligoxygakis Trypanosomatid parasites are causative agents of important human and animal diseases such as sleeping sickness and leishmaniasis. Most trypanosomatids are transmitted to their mammalian hosts by insects, often belonging to Diptera (or true flies). These are called dixenous trypanosomatids since th ey infect two different hosts, in contrast to those that infect just insects (monoxenous). However, it is still unclear whether dixenous and monoxenous trypanosomatids interact similarly with their insect host, as fly-monoxenou...
Source: PLoS Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Folates are essential biomolecules required to carry out many crucial processes in leishmania parasite. Dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) and pteridine reductase 1 (PTR1) involved in folate biosynthesis in leishmania have been established as suitable targets for development of chemotherapy against leishmaniasis. In the present study, various computational tools such as homology modelling, pharmacophore modelling, docking, molecular dynamics and molecular mechanics have been employed to design dual DHFR-TS and PTR1 inhibitors. Two designed molecules, i.e. 2-(4-((4-nitrobenzyl)oxy)pheny...
Source: SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: SAR QSAR Environ Res Source Type: research
Abstract Effective diagnosis and treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, together with the study of vectors and reservoirs, can lead to a better understanding of the parasite transmission dynamics and the development of more efficient control measures. Recent studies have applied new methodologies and biomarkers, and these have contributed to the early and rapid diagnosis of the disease; assessment of success of pharmacological treatments; efficient monitoring of immunosuppressed individuals; and to population screening for field trials of vaccine efficacy. This opinion article proposes an update to the diagnostic to...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research
The main clinical forms of leishmaniasis in Bangladesh are visceral leishmaniasis and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis, which are caused by Leishmania donovani. Imported cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is emergin...
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Short report Source Type: research
by Chukwunonso O. Nzelu, Hirotomo Kato, Nathan C. Peters Leishmaniasis, caused by protozoan parasites of theLeishmania genus, represents an important health problem in many regions of the world. Lack of effective point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tests applicable in resources-limited endemic areas is a critical barrier to effective treatment and control of leishmaniasis. The development of the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay has provided a new tool towards the development of a POC diagnostic test based on the amplification of pathogen DNA. LAMP does not require a thermocycler, is relatively inexpensive, a...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
h B Abstract Protozoal infections are still a global health problem, threatening the lives of millions of people around the world, mainly in impoverished tropical and sub-tropical regions. Thus, in view of the lack of efficient therapies and increasing resistances against existing drugs, this study describes the antiprotozoal potential of synthetic cinnamate ester analogs and their structure-activity relationships. In general, Leishmania donovani and Trypanosoma brucei were quite susceptible to the compounds in a structure-dependent manner. Detailed analysis revealed a key role of the substitution pattern on the a...
Source: ChemMedChem - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: ChemMedChem Source Type: research
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