Molecular characteristics of novel mono-reassortant G9P8 rotavirus A strains possessing the NSP4 gene of the E2 genotype detected in Tokyo, Japan.

Molecular characteristics of novel mono-reassortant G9P[8] rotavirus A strains possessing the NSP4 gene of the E2 genotype detected in Tokyo, Japan. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2019 Sep 30;: Authors: Fujii Y, Oda M, Somura Y, Shinkai T Abstract Rotavirus A (RVA) has been detected from patients with gastroenteritis even after vaccine introduction in Japan. To investigate the circulating RVA strains, the RVA-positive stool specimens obtained in Tokyo in 2017 and 2018 were analyzed by next-generation sequencing. A total of 50 and 21 RVA samples were obtained in 2017 and 2018, respectively. In 2017, G2P[4] (40.0%) was the most prevalent strain, followed by G3P[8] (DS-1-like) (28.0%), G8P[8] (10.0%), G3P[8] (Wa-like) (8.0%), G9P[8]-E1 (8.0%), and mixed infection (6.0%). In 2018, G3P[8] (DS-1-like) (28.6%) and G9P[8]-E2 (28.6%) were the prevalent strains, followed by G9P[8]-E1 (19.0%), G2P[4] (9.5%), G8P[8] (9.5%), and mixed infection (4.8%). Six G9P[8]-E2 strains detected in 2018 were atypical genotype constellation (G9-P[8]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E2-H1), which has not been reported. On phylogenetic analyses, this virus was considered to be generated by inter-genogroup reassortment between commonly circulating G9P[8] and G2P[4] strains in Japan. The G9P[8] strain seemed to be reassorted with only the NSP4 gene of the E2 genotype of the G2P[4] strain. Since this newly-emerged G9P[8]-E2 virus was detected in different locations in Tokyo, this virus seems to have already sp...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

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Publication date: December 2019Source: The Lancet Global Health, Volume 7, Issue 12Author(s): Frédéric Debellut, Andrew Clark, Clint Pecenka, Jacqueline Tate, Ranju Baral, Colin Sanderson, Umesh Parashar, Laura Kallen, Deborah AtherlySummaryBackgroundPrevious studies have found rotavirus vaccination to be highly cost-effective in low-income countries. However, updated evidence is now available for several inputs (ie, rotavirus disease mortality rates, rotavirus age distributions, vaccine timeliness, and vaccine efficacy by duration of follow-up), new rotavirus vaccines have entered the market, vaccine prices ...
Source: The Lancet Global Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
In this study, a shuttle vector was constructed for the spore surface display of the spike protein VP8* from porcine rotavirus (the genotype was G5P[7]). A successful display of the CotB-VP8* fusion protein on the spore surface was confirmed by Western blot and immunofluorescence microscopy analysis. The capacity for immune response generated after immunization with the recombinant strain was evaluated in a mouse model. The intestinal fecal IgA and serum IgG were detected by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent serologic assay (ELISA). Importantly, recombinant strain spores could elicit strong specific mucosal and humoral immune re...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Publication date: November 2019Source: The Lancet Global Health, Volume 7, Issue 11Author(s): Andrew Clark, Jacqueline Tate, Umesh Parashar, Mark Jit, Mateusz Hasso-Agopsowicz, Nicholas Henschke, Benjamin Lopman, Kevin Van Zandvoort, Clint Pecenka, Paul Fine, Colin SandersonSummaryBackgroundInfant rotavirus vaccines have led to substantial reductions in hospital admissions and deaths due to gastroenteritis, but some studies have reported an elevated risk of intussusception, a rare bowel disorder. This analysis aimed to provide evidence on the potential mortality reduction benefits and intussusception risks of current rotav...
Source: The Lancet Global Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: To support vaccine decision-making we estimated from the societal perspective the potential health impact and costs averted through immunization with three vaccines - Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) and rotavirus vaccine (RVV). METHODS: Based on variability in disease burden, strength of health system and economic status, we selected four states in India: Bihar, New Delhi, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. We used secondary data sources to estimate the number of under-5 deaths averted from Hib, pneumococcus and rotavirus in each state and back-calculate...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Conclusions: These results demonstrate that genotype G1P[8] is the most prevalent strain. VP7 and/or VP8* gene segments arising from RV1 vaccine strain were documented in these children, suggesting shedding or herd vaccination. Moreover, our study indicates full vaccination is important for protection against RVA infections.
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Articles: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
Bhaskar Raju, Raunak P Parikh, Volker V Vetter, Shafi KolhapureIndian Journal of Public Health 2019 63(3):243-250 Rotavirus is a leading cause of severe pediatric diarrhea worldwide, with about 199,000 childhood deaths in 2015, of which 90% in low-income countries. India alone accounts for 22% of the global rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE)-related deaths among children below 5 years of age. The World Health Organization recommends introducing rotavirus vaccines (RVVs) as a priority in developing countries where high rates of RVGE are observed. To have the desired impact, RVV should be administered the earliest pos...
Source: Indian Journal of Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: research
Purpose of review Gastroenteritis results in substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in young children in low-and-middle-income settings. Rotavirus and norovirus are the leading causes of viral gastroenteritis. Although introduction of rotavirus vaccines into childhood immunization programmes has reduced disease burden, vaccine effectiveness remains low in developing countries. Norovirus is replacing rotavirus as the most common cause of diarrhea hospitalization in settings where rotavirus vaccines are highly effective. Genetically determined host factors, such as expression of histo blood group antigen...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONS: Edited by Gagandeep Kang and Eric R. Houpt Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Although the sensitivity and specificity of IC differ by brand type, generally, IC is not as sensitive as RT-PCR. Despite the VEs remain higher by IC, it looks comparable with that of RT-PCR in severe cases implying that VEs evaluated by IC against severe illness remain useful for VE-monitoring. PMID: 31451325 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Rotavirus vaccination has substantially reduced the incidence of rotavirus-associated gastroenteritis (RVGE) in high-income countries, but vaccine impact and estimated effectiveness are lower in low-income countries for reasons that are poorly understood. We used mathematical modeling to quantify rotavirus vaccine impact and investigate reduced vaccine effectiveness, particularly during the second year of life, in Malawi, where vaccination was introduced in October 2012 with doses at 6 and 10 weeks. We fitted models to 12 years of prevaccination data and validated the models against postvaccination data to evaluate the mag...
Source: Science Translational Medicine - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
K. C. Jere et al.
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
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