Infectious Etiologies of Stroke

Semin Neurol 2019; 39: 482-494 DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1687915Central nervous system (CNS) infections are a frequently underappreciated potential etiology of cerebrovascular disease. Highlighted in this review are a selection of infectious agents that lead to cerebrovascular complications through various mechanisms including multifocal vasculopathy, focal infiltrative vasculitis and vasospasm, and direct vessel wall invasion and thrombus formation. Diagnosis of stroke due to underlying CNS infection requires a high index of clinical suspicion and careful consideration of neuroimaging, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid studies in addition to a detailed history and neurologic examination. Prompt and targeted treatment is essential in these conditions, which frequently herald a poor prognosis. Specifically, cerebrovascular complications associated with varicella zoster virus, syphilis, tuberculosis, aspergillosis, and acute bacterial meningitis are addressed here in detail. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text
Source: Seminars in Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Related Links:

Conclusions: Applying a predictive model with clinical and laboratory indices can facilitate the differential diagnosis of TPE from SMPPE in children, which seems helpful when a microbiologic or histologic diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis could not be established.
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research
In this review, we report the available data regarding efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of colistin in the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in neonates and infants. Seventeen clinical studies, involving 312 patients, and 3 pharmacokinetics studies were identified. Blood stream infection was the most common source of infection, followed by pneumonia and meningitis/ventriculitis. In most cases, colistin was administered in association with other antibiotics. The most common route of administration was intravenous, with colistimethate doses ranging from 25,000 to 225,000 IU/kg/day divided into 2 or...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Antimicrobial Reports Source Type: research
Background: Congenital syphilis (CS) is a devastating yet preventable disease affecting the fetus. Recent increase in cases of CS in the United States has been reported by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. There is a lack of data on hospitalization trends and healthcare utilization related to CS. We sought to describe CS hospitalization trends, morbidity and mortality during 2009 through 2016 and related healthcare expenditure. Methods: National inpatient level data collected from Kid’s Inpatient Database and National Inpatient Sample databases from 2009 to 2016 were analyzed. CS hospitalizations were ...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Maternal-Neonatal Reports Source Type: research
Diagnosis of pediatric tuberculosis is notoriously difficult. We investigated the additional yield of blood culture in hospitalized children in Vietnam. Among 554 enrolled clinically suspected patients, an additional 6 cases were diagnosed, while the incremental cost per case was USD500. Addition of blood culture is therefore not recommended for our total patient population, but may be considered in specific groups.
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research
ConclusionsThese results demonstrate the practical utility of HSI for the real-time detection of cerebral ischemia in rats. By providing rapid assessment of brain tissue perfusion, HSI may help doctors recognize ischemic regions quickly and precisely during surgery as well as have great utility in the experimental process.
Source: Journal of Neuroscience Methods - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Conclusions: High EI of ILT may predict the occurrence of type II endoleaks after EVAR of AAA. PMID: 31621439 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Minimally Invasive Therapy and Allied Technologies - Category: Surgery Tags: Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol Source Type: research
We present the case of a 30-year-old Bissau-Guinean man with HIV-2 infection known for 16 years, irregularly treated, admitted with two weeks of fever, diarrhoea and cutaneous lesions. Examination revealed multiple subcutaneous nodes, Molluscum contagiosum-like lesions, generalized lymphadenopathy and painful palpation of the left iliac fossa. Laboratory tests showed severe nonhaemolytic anaemia and CD4+ count of 9/mm3, with normal creatinine and hepatic enzymes. Chest roentgenogram was unremarkable and a research for Mycobacterium tuberculosis by GeneXpert® was negative. Nonetheless, given the lack of further diagnost...
Source: Journal of Medical Mycology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
This study examined whether a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with age at onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in three racial-ethnic groups. METHODS: Data from 7,577 non-Hispanic Caucasian, 792 African American, and 870 Hispanic participants with clinically diagnosed AD were obtained from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center. Participants were categorized by the presence or absence of self-reported remote history of TBI (>1 year before diagnosis of AD) with loss of consciousness (LOC) (TBI+) or no history of TBI with LOC (TBI-). Any group differences in education; sex; APOE ε4 all...
Source: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences - Category: Psychiatry Tags: J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 October 2019Source: EpidemicsAuthor(s): Yayehirad A. Melsew, Adeshina I. Adekunle, Allen C. Cheng, Emma S. McBryde, Romain Ragonnet, James M. TrauerAbstractTB mathematical models employ various assumptions and approaches in dealing with the heterogeneous infectiousness of persons with active TB. We reviewed existing approaches and considered the relationship between them and existing epidemiological evidence.We searched the following electronic bibliographic databases from inception to 9 October 2018: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biosis, Global Health and Scopus. Two investigators extracted data u...
Source: Epidemics - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
This study demonstrates decreased activity of certain TCA cycle enzymes and by corollary decreased TCA cycle function, but it supports decreased protein quantity rather than “toxic inhibition” as the underlying mechanism of action.SummaryMethylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is an inborn metabolic disorder of propionate catabolism. In this disorder, toxic metabolites are considered to be the major pathogenic mechanism for acute and long-term complications. However, despite optimized therapies aimed at reducing metabolite levels, patients continue to suffer from late complications, including metabolic stroke and renal in...
Source: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
More News: Aspergillosis | Brain | Men | Meningitis | Neurology | Stroke | Study | Syphilis | Thrombosis | Tuberculosis | Vasculitis