Seizures and Status Epilepticus
Semin Neurol 2020; 40: 593-594 DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1721086 Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. 333 Seventh Avenue, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10001, USAArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Neurology - November 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Pollandt, Sebastian Bleck, Thomas Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Sebastian Pollandt, MD, and Thomas Bleck, MD, MCCM
Semin Neurol 2020; 40: 591-592 DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1721085 Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. 333 Seventh Avenue, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10001, USAArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Neurology - November 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Greer, David M. Tags: Introduction to the Guest Editors Source Type: research

Epilepsy —Work-Up and Management in Children
Semin Neurol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1718720Pediatric epilepsy is a highly variable condition due to age-related expression of syndromes that require specific diagnosis, evaluations, and treatments. Children with epilepsy differ from their adult counterparts in many important ways, mostly related to the age-related expression of specific epilepsy syndromes. This results in many important considerations related to the epilepsy diagnosis, classification, evaluations to determine an etiology, as well as treatment guidelines. A good understanding of these factors will help to establish an accurate epilepsy diagnosis, which in turn...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - November 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Tenney, Jeffrey R. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Electroencephalogram Monitoring in Critical Care
Semin Neurol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1719073Seizures are common in critically ill patients. Electroencephalogram (EEG) is a tool that enables clinicians to provide continuous brain monitoring and to guide treatment decisions—brain telemetry. EEG monitoring has particular utility in the intensive care unit as most seizures in this setting are nonconvulsive. Despite the increased use of EEG monitoring in the critical care unit, it remains underutilized. In this review, we summarize the utility of EEG and different EEG modalities to monitor patients in the critical care setting. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh A...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - November 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Rubinos, Clio Alkhachroum, Ayham Der-Nigoghossian, Caroline Claassen, Jan Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Genetic Testing in Epilepsy
Semin Neurol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1719070Because of next-generation sequencing and the discovery of many new causative genes, genetic testing in epilepsy patients has become widespread. Pathologic variants resulting in epilepsy cause a variety of changes that can be broadly classified into syndromic disorders (i.e., chromosomal abnormalities), metabolic disorders, brain malformations, and abnormal cellular signaling. Here, we review the available genetic testing, reasons to pursue genetic testing, common genetic causes of epilepsy, the data behind what patients are found to have genetic epilepsies based on current testing, ...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - November 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ritter, David M. Holland, Katherine Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Epilepsy: Workup and Management in Adults
Semin Neurol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1719069When managing epilepsy, there is a temptation to focus care with respect to the last and the next seizure. However, epilepsy is a multifaceted chronic condition and should be treated as such. Epilepsy comes with many physical risks, psychological effects, and socioeconomic ramifications, demanding a long-term commitment from the treating physician. Patients with epilepsy, compared to other chronically ill patient populations, have a worse quality of life, family function, and less social support. The majority of patients are well controlled on antiseizure drugs. However, approximatel...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - November 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: O'Dwyer, Rebecca Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Status Epilepticus: Work-Up and Management in Adults
Semin Neurol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1719112Status epilepticus is one of the most common neurological emergencies and is likely to have increasing prevalence in coming years given an aging “baby boomer” population in the United States. Because status epilepticus is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, identification and treatment are paramount. Care should be taken to exclude nonorganic mimics and infectious and metabolic causes. Status epilepticus can be classified into stages with associated recommendations for escalation in therapy, increasing from push-dose benzodiazepines to continuous anesthet...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - November 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Meziane-Tani, Assia Foreman, Brandon Mizrahi, Moshe A. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Status Epilepticus: Definition, Classification, Pathophysiology, and Epidemiology
Semin Neurol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1718722Status epilepticus (SE) is the state of continuous or repetitive seizures, which can occur with or without convulsions. Evolving definitions of SE take into account the concept that neuronal injury may occur at different times in different types of SE.SE that does not respond to initial treatment may become refractory or even super-refractory. Nonconvulsive SE is increasingly recognized in comatose patients in critical care units, with the growing use of continuous electroencephalogram monitoring. SE is a neurologic emergency that carries a high risk of mortality and morbidity. [...]...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - November 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Johnson, Emily L. Kaplan, Peter W. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Principles of Pharmacotherapy of Seizures and Status Epilepticus
Semin Neurol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1718721Status epilepticus is a neurological emergency with an outcome that is highly associated with the initial pharmacotherapy management that must be administered in a timely fashion. Beyond first-line therapy of status epilepticus, treatment is not guided by robust evidence. Optimal pharmacotherapy selection for individual patients is essential in the management of seizures and status epilepticus with careful evaluation of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors. With the addition of newer antiseizure agents to the market, understanding their role in the management of status epilept...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - November 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Der-Nigoghossian, Caroline Tesoro, Eljim P. Strein, Micheal Brophy, Gretchen M. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Immunologic Treatments of Seizures and Status Epilepticus
Semin Neurol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1719111An autoimmune etiology for seizures, epilepsy, and status epilepticus is becoming increasingly recognized. The role of autoimmunity in epilepsy has been highlighted in the literature and the International League Against Epilepsy now recognizes autoimmune epilepsy as a distinct entity. An appropriate and thorough work-up of all new-onset seizures and status epilepticus is paramount in determining the likely efficacy of immunotherapeutic agents in treating seizures and status epilepticus. Criteria for the clinical diagnosis of autoimmune mediated epilepsy and encephalitis have been pub...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - November 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Culler, George W. VanHaerents, Stephen Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Surgical Treatments of Epilepsy
This article reviews the two main categories of surgical epilepsy treatment—resective surgery and neuromodulation. Resective surgery includes temporal lobe resections, extratemporal resections, laser interstitial thermal therapy, and disconnection procedures. We discuss the three main types of neuromodulation—vagal nerve stimulation, responsive neurostimulation, and deep brain stimulation for epilepsy. The history and indications are explored for each type of treatment. Given the myriad types of resection and neuromodulation techniques, patient selection is reviewed in detail, with a discussion on which patient...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - November 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ahmad, Shahjehan Khanna, Ryan Sani, Sepehr Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Acute Seizures —Work-Up and Management in Children
This article will review updated definitions of seizures, including provoked versus unprovoked, as well as the International League Against Epilepsy operational definition of epilepsy. A variety of specific acute symptomatic seizures requiring special consideration are discussed, along with neonatal seizures and seizure mimics, which are common in pediatric populations. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Neurology - November 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Romantseva, Lubov Lin, Nan Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Acute Provoked Seizures —Work-Up and Management in Adults
Semin Neurol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1719075Acute provoked seizures, also known as acute symptomatic seizures, occur secondary to a neurological or systemic precipitant, commonly presenting as a first-time seizure. In this article, we will discuss etiology, emergent protocols, medical work-up, initial treatment, and management of these seizures. The definitions, classifications, and management of convulsive status epilepticus and nonconvulsive status epilepticus in an acute setting will also be reviewed. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents&n...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - November 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Moosavi, Rana Swisher, Christa B. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Ketogenic Diet Therapies for Seizures and Status Epilepticus
Semin Neurol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1719077Ketogenic diet therapies are high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets designed to mimic a fasting state. Although initially developed nearly one century ago for seizure management, most clinical trials for the management of drug-resistant epilepsy in children as well as adults have been conducted over the last 3 decades. Moreover, ketogenic diets offer promising new adjunctive strategies in the critical care setting for the resolution of acute status epilepticus when traditional antiseizure drugs and anesthetic agents fail. Here, we review the history of ketogenic diet development, the clini...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - November 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: McDonald, Tanya J. W. Cervenka, Mackenzie C. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Epilepsy —Definition, Classification, Pathophysiology, and Epidemiology
This article begins by discussing the pathophysiology and epidemiology of epilepsy, and then covers the accepted contemporary definitions and classifications of seizures and epilepsies. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Neurology - November 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Falco-Walter, Jessica Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Status Epilepticus —Work-Up and Management in Children
Semin Neurol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1719076Status epilepticus (SE) is one of the most common neurological emergencies in children and has a mortality of 2 to 4%. Admissions for SE are very resource-consuming, especially in refractory and super-refractory SE. An increasing understanding of the pathophysiology of SE leaves room for improving SE treatment protocols, including medication choice and timing. Selecting the most efficacious medications and giving them in a timely manner may improve outcomes. Benzodiazepines are commonly used as first line and they can be used in the prehospital setting, where most SE episodes begin. ...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - November 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Barcia Aguilar, Cristina S ánchez Fernández, Iván Loddenkemper, Tobias Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Special Issue on Dysautonomia
Semin Neurol 2020; 40: 471-472 DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1718539 Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Neurology - October 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Palma, Jose-Alberto Kaufmann, Horacio Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Jose-Alberto Palma, MD, PhD, Horacio Kaufmann, MD, FAAN, FAAS
Semin Neurol 2020; 40: 469-470 DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1718538 Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Neurology - October 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Greer, David M. Tags: Introduction to the Guest Editors Source Type: research

Neurogenic Bladder: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Management
Semin Neurol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1713876Lower urinary tract dysfunction is a common sequel of neurological disease resulting in symptoms that significantly impacts quality of life. The site of the neurological lesion and its nature influence the pattern of dysfunction. The risk for developing upper urinary tract damage and renal failure is considerably lower in patients with slowly progressive nontraumatic neurological disorders, compared with those with spinal cord injury or spina bifida. This acknowledged difference in morbidity is considered when developing appropriate management algorithms. The preliminary evaluation c...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - October 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Panicker, Jalesh N. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Management of Orthostatic Hypotension, Postprandial Hypotension, and Supine Hypertension
Semin Neurol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1713886This review provides recommendations for the treatment of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH), postprandial hypotension, and supine hypertension. It focuses on novel treatment strategies and new insights into the mechanism underlying these conditions. Our goal is to provide practical advice for clinicians on how to screen, diagnose, and treat these conditions with nonpharmacological and pharmacological approaches. For each disorder, we offered a stepwise recommendation on how to apply these new concepts to successfully ameliorate the symptoms associated with OH to prevent syncop...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - October 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Shibao, Cyndya A. Biaggioni, Italo Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Development of the Autonomic Nervous System: Clinical Implications
Semin Neurol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1713926Investigations of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate the development of the autonomic nervous system have identified critical genes and signaling pathways that, when disrupted, cause disorders of the autonomic nervous system. This review summarizes our current understanding of how the autonomic nervous system emerges from the organized spatial and temporal patterning of precursor cell migration, proliferation, communication, and differentiation, and discusses potential clinical implications for developmental disorders of the autonomic nervous system, including familia...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - September 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Lefcort, Frances Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Autonomic Dysfunction in Spinal Cord Injury: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Management
Semin Neurol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1713885Spinal cord injury (SCI) disrupts autonomic circuits and impairs synchronistic functioning of the autonomic nervous system, leading to inadequate cardiovascular regulation. Individuals with SCI, particularly at or above the sixth thoracic vertebral level (T6), often have impaired regulation of sympathetic vasoconstriction of the peripheral vasculature and the splanchnic circulation, and diminished control of heart rate and cardiac output. In addition, impaired descending sympathetic control results in changes in circulating levels of plasma catecholamines, which can have a profound e...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - September 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Wecht, Jill M. Harel, Noam Y. Guest, James Kirshblum, Steven C. Forrest, Gail F. Bloom, Ona Ovechkin, Alexander V. Harkema, Susan Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Paroxysmal Sympathetic Hyperactivity
Semin Neurol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1713845Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a relatively common, but often unrecognized, complication of acute diffuse or multifocal brain diseases, most frequently encountered in young comatose patients with severe traumatic brain injury. It is presumed to be caused by loss of cortical inhibitory modulation of diencephalic and brain stem centers and possible additional maladaptive changes in the spinal cord that combine to produce exaggerated sympathetic responses to stimulation. The syndrome consists of repeated sudden episodes of tachycardia, tachypnea, hypertension, sweating, a...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - September 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Scott, Rachael A. Rabinstein, Alejandro A. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Clinical Trials for Neurogenic Orthostatic Hypotension: A Comprehensive Review of Endpoints, Pitfalls, and Challenges
Semin Neurol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1713846Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH) is among the most debilitating nonmotor features of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and other synucleinopathies. Patients with PD and nOH generate more hospitalizations, make more emergency room visits, create more telephone calls/mails to doctors, and have earlier mortality than those with PD but without nOH. Overall, the health-related cost in patients with PD and OH is 2.5-fold higher compared with patients with PD without OH. Hence, developing effective therapies for nOH should be a research priority. In the last few decades, improv...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - September 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Palma, Jose-Alberto Kaufmann, Horacio Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Afferent Baroreflex Dysfunction: Decreased or Excessive Signaling Results in Distinct Phenotypes
We describe our observations in a large series of 23 patients with afferent baroreflex dysfunction and the cardiovascular autonomic features that arise when the sensory baroreceptor neurons are injured or compressed. The management of afferent baroreceptor dysfunction is limited, but pharmacological strategies can mitigate blood pressure swings, improve symptoms, and may reduce hypertensive organ damage. Although rare, the prevalence of afferent baroreflex dysfunction appears to be increasing in middle-aged men due to human papillomavirus related oropharyngeal cancer. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - September 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy Millar Vernetti, Patricio Palma, Jose-Alberto Balgobin, Bhumika J. Kaufmann, Horacio Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Acute Sensory and Autonomic Neuronopathy: A Devastating Disorder Affecting Sensory and Autonomic Ganglia
Semin Neurol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1713843Acute-onset and severe sensory and autonomic deficits with no motor dysfunction, typically preceded by a febrile illness, with poor recovery, and often fatal outcome are the hallmark features of acute sensory and autonomic neuronopathy (ASANN). Pathologically and electrophysiologically, ASANN is characterized by an extensive ganglionopathy affecting sensory and autonomic ganglia with preservation of motor neurons. Consequently, patients, usually children or young adult, develop acute-onset profound widespread loss of all sensory modalities resulting in automutilations, as well as aut...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - September 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Gutierrez, Joel Palma, Jose-Alberto Kaufmann, Horacio Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

The “Sick-but-not-Dead” Phenomenon Applied to Catecholamine Deficiency in Neurodegenerative Diseases
Semin Neurol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1713874The catecholamines dopamine and norepinephrine are key central neurotransmitters that participate in many neurobehavioral processes and disease states. Norepinephrine is also the main neurotransmitter mediating regulation of the circulation by the sympathetic nervous system. Several neurodegenerative disorders feature catecholamine deficiency. The most common is Parkinson's disease (PD), in which putamen dopamine content is drastically reduced. PD also entails severely decreased myocardial norepinephrine content, a feature that characterizes two other Lewy body diseases—pure au...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - September 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Goldstein, David S. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Autonomic Dysfunction in the Synucleinopathies
Semin Neurol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1713844Autonomic dysfunction is a characteristic feature in the synucleinopathies. Differences in cellular deposition and neuronal populations affected by α-synuclein aggregation influence the manifestations and severity of autonomic failure in the different synucleinopathy disorders. The Lewy body disorders (Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and pure autonomic failure) have predominantly peripheral involvement, whereas multiple system atrophy chiefly manifests as central autonomic failure. Clinical and laboratory features may be useful in distinguishing the different sy...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - September 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Coon, Elizabeth A. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Sudomotor Dysfunction
Semin Neurol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1713847Disorders of sudomotor function are common and diverse in their presentations. Hyperhidrosis or hypohidrosis in generalized or regional neuroanatomical patterns can provide clues to neurologic localization and inform neurologic diagnosis. Conditions that impair sudomotor function include small fiber peripheral neuropathy, sudomotor neuropathy, myelopathy, α-synucleinopathies, autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy, antibody-mediated hyperexcitability syndromes, and a host of medications. Particularly relevant to neurologic practice is the detection of postganglionic sudomotor defi...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - September 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Cheshire, William P. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy
Semin Neurol 2020; 40: 351-352 DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1715824 Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Neurology - September 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Mez, Jesse Stern, Robert A. McKee, Ann C. Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Jesse Mez, MD, MS, Robert Stern, PhD and Ann McKee, MD
Semin Neurol 2020; 40: 349-350 DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1715825 Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Neurology - September 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Greer, David M. Tags: Introduction to the Guest Editors Source Type: research

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: A Comparison with Alzheimer's Disease and Frontotemporal Dementia
Semin Neurol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1715134The clinical diagnosis of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is challenging due to heterogeneous clinical presentations and overlap with other neurodegenerative dementias. Depending on the clinical presentation, the differential diagnosis of CTE includes Alzheimer's disease (AD), behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, primary mood disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, and psychotic disorders. The aim of this article is to compare the clinical aspects, genetics, fluid biomarkers, imaging, treatment, and pathology...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - August 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Lesman-Segev, Orit H. Edwards, Lauren Rabinovici, Gil D. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

History of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy
Semin Neurol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1713622The long-term effects of repetitive head impacts have been recognized for close to a century. What is now referred to as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) was first described by Martland in 1928 in a series of boxers. Over the years, several important articles were published, including Critchley's 1957 report where he introduced the term “chronic traumatic encephalopathy,” Robert's study in 1969 which provided evidence of the prevalence of neurological impairment in retired fighters, and Corsellis' initial description of the pathology of CTE. However, what brought pu...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - August 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Cantu, Robert C. Bernick, Charles Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Fluid Biomarkers for Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy
Semin Neurol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1715095Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neuropathological condition that has been described in individuals who have been exposed to repetitive head impacts, including concussions and subconcussive trauma. Currently, there is no fluid or imaging biomarker for diagnosing CTE during life. Based on retrospective clinical data, symptoms of CTE include changes in behavior, cognition, and mood, and may develop after a latency phase following the injuries. However, these symptoms are often nonspecific, making differential diagnosis based solely on clinical symptoms unreliable. Thus, obje...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - August 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Shahim, Pashtun Gill, Jessica M. Blennow, Kaj Zetterberg, Henrik Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Clinical Presentation of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy
This article reviews what is currently known about the clinical presentation of CTE and describes the evolution of this knowledge from early case reports of “punch drunk” boxers through larger case series of neuropathologically confirmed CTE. This article concludes with a discussion of gaps in research and future directions to address these areas. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Neurology - August 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Mariani, Megan Alosco, Michael L. Mez, Jesse Stern, Robert A. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: Advocacy and Communicating with the Public
Semin Neurol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1713621Over the past 40 years, advocacy groups have been instrumental in raising awareness for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. More recently, advocates have emerged to educate about sports concussions and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), including the Concussion Legacy Foundation (CLF). CTE is a neurodegenerative disease caused in part by repetitive head impacts (RHI). While the majority of CTE research has focused on studying former American football players, CTE has also been found in military personnel, victims of domestic violence, and contact sport athlet...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - July 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Uretsky, Madeline Nowinski, Christopher J. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

The Neuropathology of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: The Status of the Literature
Semin Neurol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1713632Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a tauopathy associated with repetitive mild head trauma, including concussion and asymptomatic subconcussive impacts. CTE was first recognized in boxers almost a century ago and has been identified more recently in contact sports athletes, military veterans exposed to blast, and victims of domestic violence. Like most neurodegenerative diseases, CTE is diagnosed conclusively by a neuropathological examination of brain tissue. CTE is characterized by the buildup of hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau) in neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), neurites, an...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - July 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: McKee, Ann C. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Genetics of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy
Semin Neurol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1713631Although chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) garners substantial attention in the media and there have been marked scientific advances in the last few years, much remains unclear about the role of genetic risk in CTE. Two athletes with comparable contact-sport exposure may have varying amounts of CTE neuropathology, suggesting that other factors, including genetics, may contribute to CTE risk and severity. In this review, we explore reasons why genetics may be important for CTE, concepts in genetic study design for CTE (including choosing controls, endophenotypes, gene by environm...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - July 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Abdolmohammadi, Bobak Dupre, Alicia Evers, Laney Mez, Jesse Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Risk Factors for Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: A Proposed Framework
Semin Neurol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1713633Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that has been neuropathologically diagnosed in contact and collision sport athletes, military veterans, and others with a history of exposure to repetitive head impacts (RHI). Identifying methods to diagnose and prevent CTE during life is a high priority. Timely diagnosis and implementation of treatment and preventative strategies for neurodegenerative diseases, including CTE, partially hinge upon early and accurate risk characterization. Here, we propose a framework of risk factors that influence the n...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - July 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Phelps, Alyssa Mez, Jesse Stern, Robert A. Alosco, Michael L. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Repetitive Head Trauma Induces Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy by Multiple Mechanisms
Semin Neurol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1713620Exposure to repetitive neurotrauma increases lifetime risk for developing progressive cognitive deficits, neurobehavioral abnormalities, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). CTE is a tau protein neurodegenerative disease first identified in boxers and recently described in athletes participating in other contact sports (notably American football, ice hockey, rugby, and wrestling) and in military veterans with blast exposure. Currently, CTE can only be diagnosed by neuropathological examination of the brain after death. The defining diagnostic lesion of CTE consists of patchy p...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - July 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Cherry, Jonathan D. Babcock, Katharine J. Goldstein, Lee E. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy and Neuropathological Comorbidities
Semin Neurol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1713628With age, the presence of multiple neuropathologies in a single individual becomes increasingly common. Given that traumatic brain injury and the repetitive head impacts (RHIs) that occur in contact sports have been associated with the development of many neurodegenerative diseases, including chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, it is becoming critical to understand the relationship and interactions between these pathologies. In fact, comorbid pathology is common in CTE and likely influenced by both age and...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - June 29, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Stein, Thor D. Crary, John F. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Pediatric Neurology
Semin Neurol 2020; 40: 275-276 DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1713451 Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Neurology - May 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Singhal, Nilika Shah Nash, Kendall B. Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Nilika Singhal, MD, and Kendal Nash, MD
Semin Neurol 2020; 40: 273-274 DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1713450 Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Neurology - May 27, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Greer, David M. Tags: Introduction to the Guest Editor Source Type: research

Update in Pediatric Pseudotumor Cerebri Syndrome
Semin Neurol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1708847Pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTCS) is a rare condition in children presenting with headache and papilledema from increased intracranial pressure that can cause significant morbidity. This can be idiopathic, also known as idiopathic intracranial hypertension or primary intracranial hypertension, or can be secondary to medications and associated medical conditions. Given the threat to vision, early detection and treatment is needed in all age groups. However, identifying papilledema or pseudopapilledema in children presents unique challenges sometimes as a result of differences betwee...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - May 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Beres, Shannon J. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Neurocognitive Outcomes in Children with Brain Tumors
Semin Neurol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1708867Brain tumors are the most common solid tumor in childhood, and although survival outcomes continue to improve, survival is frequently offset by devastating late effects from tumor and treatment. The long-term effects of brain tumors and the therapy necessary to treat them range from sensory and neuroendocrine abnormalities to neurocognitive deficits leading to inferior quality of life. The multifactorial neurocognitive injury is one of the most broadly impacting and challenging late effects to predict and subsequently treat. Certain treatment modalities, such as intrathecal methotrex...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - May 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Kline, Cassie N. Mueller, Sabine Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Lifestyle Advice for Pediatric Migraine: Blaming the Patient, or Evidence Based?
This article reviews the current state of the evidence for each of these behavioral interventions for migraine prevention, and provides the clinician with practical advice for counseling patients. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Neurology - April 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Gelfand, Amy A. Irwin, Samantha L. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Targeted Treatments for Inherited Neuromuscular Diseases of Childhood
Semin Neurol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1702940In the past decade, the number of genes linked to neuromuscular diseases of childhood has expanded dramatically, and this genetic information is forming the basis for gene-specific and even mutation-specific therapies. At the forefront of these advances are the two recently approved treatments for spinal muscular atrophy: one, an antisense oligonucleotide that modifies splicing of the SMN2 gene, and, the other, a gene therapy vector that delivers the SMN1 gene to motor neurons, both of which are allowing patients to acquire developmental milestones previously unseen in this fatal dis...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - April 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Fay, Alex J. Knox, Renatta Neil, Erin E. Strober, Jonathan Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Multiple Sclerosis in Children: Current and Emerging Concepts
Semin Neurol 2020; 40: 192-200 DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1703000Multiple sclerosis is being increasingly recognized and diagnosed in children. In the past several years, advances have been made in diagnosing multiple sclerosis in children, identifying new genetic and environmental risk factors, delineating underlying immunobiology, characterizing imaging findings, and implementing new treatment strategies. In this review, we discuss these advances. Future research into the determinants of multiple sclerosis in children and into new treatment options will be aided by continued international collaboration. [...] Thieme Medical Pub...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - April 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Brenton, J. Nicholas Kammeyer, Ryan Gluck, Lauren Schreiner, Teri Makhani, Naila Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Pediatric Neurology
Semin Neurol 2020; 40: 175-176 DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1709146 Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Neurology - April 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Singhal, Nilika Shah Nash, Kendall B. Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Nilika Shah Singhal, MD, and Kendall B. Nash, MD
Semin Neurol 2020; 40: 173-174 DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1709147 Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Neurology)
Source: Seminars in Neurology - April 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Greer, David M. Tags: Introduction to the Guest Editor Source Type: research