Pneumococcal Vaccination Strategies Among HIV-infected Adult Patients: A Review of the Literature

Conclusion: Further studies are needed to determine the optimal vaccines and intervals for subsequent revaccinations during the lifetime.
Source: In Vivo - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Reviews Source Type: research

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Despite vaccination programs, Streptococcus pneumoniae remains among the main microorganisms involved in bacterial pneumonia, notably in terms of severity. The prognosis of pneumococcal infections is conditioned ...
Source: BMC Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
Streptococcus pneumoniae, a gram-positive diplococcus, is the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia. The diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia is usually confirmed by chest x-ray and gram stain. The most appropriate antibiotics for treatment pneumococcal infection are macrolides, beta-lactams, and quinolones. Two vaccines, PPSV23 and PCV13, are highly effective in preventing infection.
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Tags: New Antibiotics and Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Obstetrics Source Type: research
Conclusions: Human challenge studies and systems biology approaches are important tools that should be used in concert to advance our understanding of influenza infection and provide targets for novel therapeutics and immunizations. Introduction Although influenza virus was recognized as an important pathogen over a century ago, influenza continues to cause a significant burden of disease. In the United States alone, it's estimated that in the 2017–2018 season there were 959,000 hospitalizations related to influenza illness, and 79,400 deaths (CDC, 2018). Worldwide, WHO estimates that annual influenza...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In conclusion, we demonstrated that the selective boosting of lung innate immunity is a conceptually advantageous approach for improving the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment and fighting antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Introduction Pneumonia constitutes a major cause of death, morbidity and health resource use worldwide. The main causative agents identified in adult patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are viruses (in 27–30% of cases, the most common being rhinovirus, influenza and coronavirus) and bacteria (14–23% of cases, with a marked predominance of Streptococcus pneumonia...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In the era of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), Streptococcus pneumoniae, or the pneumococcus, remains an important cause of bacterial pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis in children (Wahl et al., 2018). Nasopharyngeal colonization with pneumococci is most common in preschool children; it precedes infection and enables horizontal spread of the bacteria (Bogaert et al., 2004). Children in low-income countries have the highest burden of colonization, which may be due to higher exposure to risk factors such as crowding (Abdullahi et al., 2012).
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
In this study we aimed at investigating how increased susceptibility to pneumococcal infection relates to inflammation kinetics in the aged mouse pneumonia model by determining pulmonary cytokine and chemokine levels and comparing these parameters to those measured in young adult mice. Firstly, we detected overall higher pulmonary cytokine and chemokine levels in aged mice. However, upon induction of pneumococcal pneumonia in aged mice, delayed production of certain analytes, such as IFN-γ, MIG (CXCL9), IP-10 (CXCL10), MCP-1 (CCL2), TARC (CCL17) and MDC (CCL22) became apparent. In addition, aged mice were unable to c...
Source: Cytokine - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Cytokine Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The increased number of patients with pneumonia, bacterial pneumonia, pleural effusion, and empyema in 2011 and 2013-2014 resulted from an MP epidemic. We provide evidence that the frequency of confirmed cases of bacterial pneumonia and pneumococcal pneumonia has declined from 2007 to 2014, which can simultaneously reflect the effectiveness of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. PMID: 30274507 [PubMed]
Source: Korean Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Tags: Korean J Pediatr Source Type: research
LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog - Emergency medicine and critical care medical education blog aka Tropical Travel Trouble 009 The diagnosis of HIV is no longer fatal and the term AIDS is becoming less frequent. In many countries, people with HIV are living longer than those with diabetes. This post will hopefully teach the basics of a complex disease and demystify some of the potential diseases you need to consider in those who are severely immunosuppressed. While trying to be comprehensive this post can not be exhaustive (as you can imagine any patient with ...
Source: Life in the Fast Lane - Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Tags: Clinical Cases Tropical Medicine AIDS art cryptococcoma cryptococcus HIV HIV1 HIV2 PEP PrEP TB toxoplasma tuberculoma Source Type: blogs
This study provides the first proof of principle that protein polysaccharide conjugate vaccines produced in E. coli can be used to prevent pneumococcal infection. Vaccines produced in this manner may provide a low-cost alternative to the current vaccine production methodology. PMID: 29778517 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Discussion Normal kidneys regulate water balance to maintain a plasma osmolality of 275-290 mOsm/kg normally. Thirst and arginine vasopressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH) are the primary regulators of plasma osmolality. ADH is made in the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary gland. ADH acts on the kidney’s distal collecting duct to increase water reabsorption. ADH is appropriately released in hypovolemic states, such as dehydration caused by gastroenteritis. ADH has an ~10 minute half-life and therefore can respond to rapid changes in volume status. Sodium balance is regulated by aldosterone (as part...
Source: - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
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