Updates in Brain Imaging

Neuroradiology has seen many advances in the past few years, placing the radiologist in a crucial role. Large trials have demonstrated the efficacy of thrombectomy for large vessel occlusions in stroke, emphasizing the importance of triaging patients for intervention. Genomics has become central to the classification of brain neoplasms, culminating in the 2016 World Health Organization classification of brain tumors. Advanced imaging techniques, such as functional MR imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, perfusion, and MR spectroscopy, have added value in tumor diagnosis, surgical planning, and surveillance.
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Related Links:

This study evaluates the results of perfusion analysis with two established software solutions in a large series of patients with different diseases when a highly standardized processing workflow is ensured. METHODS: Multicenter data of 260 patients (80 with brain tumors, 124 with cerebrovascular disease and 56 with dementia examined with the same MR protocol) were analyzed. Raw data sets were processed with two software suites: Olea sphere and NordicICE. Group differences were analyzed with paired t-tests and one-way ANOVA. RESULTS: Perfusion metrics were significantly different for all examined diseases in the ...
Source: The British Journal of Radiology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Br J Radiol Source Type: research
Ivy D. Deng1, Luke Chung2, Natasha Talwar3,4, Fred Tam1, Nathan W. Churchill3, Tom A. Schweizer3,4,5,6† and Simon J. Graham1,2*† 1Physical Sciences Platform, Sunnybrook Research Institute (SRI), Toronto, ON, Canada 2Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada 3Neuroscience Research Program, Keenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science, Toronto, ON, Canada 4Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada 5Division of Neurosurgery, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada 6Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, Univer...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Authors: Liao CC, Chen YF, Xiao F Abstract Midline shift (MLS) of the brain is an important feature that can be measured using various imaging modalities including X-ray, ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Shift of midline intracranial structures helps diagnosing intracranial lesions, especially traumatic brain injury, stroke, brain tumor, and abscess. Being a sign of increased intracranial pressure, MLS is also an indicator of reduced brain perfusion caused by an intracranial mass or mass effect. We review studies that used the MLS to predict outcomes of patients with intracranial mas...
Source: International Journal of Biomedical Imaging - Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Biomed Imaging Source Type: research
Abstract: Newer neuroimaging technology has moved beyond pure anatomical imaging and ventured into functional and physiological imaging. Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (PWI), which depicts hemodynamic conditions of the brain at the microvascular level, has an increasingly important role in clinical central nervous system applications. This review provides an overview of the established role of PWI in brain tumor and cerebrovascular imaging, as well as some emerging applications in neuroimaging. PWI allows better characterization of brain tumors, grading, and monitoring. In acute stroke imaging, PWI is utilized to dis...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Despite a recent resurgence, intravoxel incoherent motion MRI faces practical challenges, including limited SNR and demanding acquisition and postprocessing requirements. A simplified approach using linear fitting of a subset of higher b-values has seen success in other organ systems. We sought to validate this method for evaluation of brain pathology by comparing perfusion measurements using simplified linear fitting to conventional biexponential fitting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-nine patients with gliomas and 17 with acute strokes underwent 3T MRI, including DWI with 16 b-values (range, 0&nda...
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: ADULT BRAIN Source Type: research
Perfusion imaging via Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast MRI (DSC-MRI) provides useful information in neurological diagnosis, characterization, and grading of brain tumors (such as gliomas), and ischemic strokes (Shiroishi et  al., 2015). This information is supplied to physicians in the form of hemodynamic/perfusion parameters brain maps, such as the cerebral blood flow (CBF), blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT). These maps are usually calculated, for each voxel, from the measured arterial and tissue concent ration time-curves, Ca(t) and Cts(t), which result from the intravenous injection of a tracer.
Source: Medical Image Analysis - Category: Radiology Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Robust modeling of CNS transport integrates molecular fluxes at the microvascular blood-brain barrier and epithelial choroid plexus blood-CSF barrier. Normal activity of solute transporters, channels and aquaporins, in the cerebral endothelium and choroidal epithelium, sets the microenvironment composition for neurons and glia. Conversely, perturbed transport/permeability at the barrier interfaces causes interstitial fluid dyshomeostasis (e.g. edema) arising in neural disorders. Critically-important transependymal solute/water distribution between brain and CSF needs more attention. This treatise encourag...
Source: CNS and Neurological Disorders Drug Targets - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research
PurposeTo optimize the analysis of dynamic contrast‐enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE‐MRI) under the two‐compartment‐exchange‐model (2CXM) and to incorporate voxelwise bolus‐arrival‐time (BAT). Materials and MethodsThe accuracy of the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters, extracted from 3T DCE‐MRI using 2CXM, was tested under several conditions: eight algorithms for data estimation; correction for BAT; using model selection; different temporal resolution and scan duration. Comparisons were performed on simulated data. The best algorithm was applied to seven patients with brain tumors or following stroke. ...
Source: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Original Research Source Type: research
PurposeTo optimize the analysis of dynamic contrast‐enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE‐MRI) under the two‐compartment‐exchange‐model (2CXM) and to incorporate voxelwise bolus‐arrival‐time (BAT). Materials and MethodsThe accuracy of the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters, extracted from 3T DCE‐MRI using 2CXM, was tested under several conditions: eight algorithms for data estimation; correction for BAT; using model selection; different temporal resolution and scan duration. Comparisons were performed on simulated data. The best algorithm was applied to seven patients with brain tumors or following stroke. ...
Source: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Original Research Source Type: research
French Intensive Care Society, International congress - Réanimation 2016. Ann Intensive Care. 2016 Jun;6(Suppl 1):50 Authors: Jaillette E, Girault C, Brunin G, Zerimech F, Chiche A, Broucqsault-Dedrie C, Fayolle C, Minacori F, Alves I, Barrailler S, Robriquet L, Delaporte E, Thellier D, Delcourte C, Duhamel A, Nseir S, Valette X, Desmeulles I, Savary B, Masson R, Seguin A, Daubin C, Sauneuf B, Verrier P, Pottier V, Orabona M, Samba D, Viquesnel G, Lermuzeaux M, Hazera P, Hanouz JL, Parienti JJ, Du Cheyron D, Demoule A, Clavel M, Rolland-Debord C, Perbet S, Terzi N, Kouatchet A, Wallet F, Roze H, Vargas ...
Source: Australian Family Physician - Category: Primary Care Authors: Tags: Ann Intensive Care Source Type: research
More News: Brain | Brain Cancers | Brain Tumor | International Medicine & Public Health | Neurology | Perfusion | Radiology | Stroke | WHO