The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Breast Imaging
This article summarizes the effect of the global pandemic – and efforts to curtail its spread – on both breast cancer care and on breast imaging pract ices including effects on patients, clinical workflow, education and research. (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - September 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Phoebe E. Freer Source Type: research

Ultrasound of the Normal Thyroid with Technical Pearls and Pitfalls
This article provides a comprehensive review of ultrasound of the normal thyroid gland, including technique, normal anatomy, anatomic variants, imaging appearance, and technical pearls and pitfalls. (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - September 17, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Danielle M. Richman, Mary C. Frates Source Type: research

Thyroid Ultrasound
Thyroid ultrasound with gray-scale and color Doppler is the most helpful imaging modality to differentiate normal thyroid parenchyma from diffuse or nodular thyroid disease by evaluating glandular size, echogenicity, echotexture, margins, and vascularity. The various causes of diffuse thyroid disease often have overlapping sonographic imaging features. Thyroid nodules may be hyperplastic or neoplastic, with most due to benign hyperplastic changes in architecture and benign follicular adenomas; only a small percentage are malignant. A systematic approach to nodule morphology that includes evaluation of composition, echogeni...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - September 17, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Lauren F. Alexander, Neema J. Patel, Melanie P. Caserta, Michelle L. Robbin Source Type: research

Computed Tomography and MR Imaging of Thyroid Disease
This article discusses the imaging characteristics of benign and malignant thyroid diseases, and the important information that needs to be relayed to the surgeon. (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - September 17, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Katie Suzanne Traylor Source Type: research

Neck Procedures: Thyroid and Parathyroid
Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core biopsy of masses in the neck predominantly include samples from thyroid nodules, parathyroids and lymph nodes. The diagnostic rate of a thyroid nodule FNA improves up to 6 passes and then does not significantly change. Thyroid FNA can be performed on patients who are anticoagulated. Appropriate transducer selection is essential for visualization of the needle. Lymph node biopsies can be additionally sampled for thyroglobulin assay to improve sensitivity for detection of recurrent carcinoma. Parathyroid FNA usually involves additional estimation of parathyroid hormone concentration in n...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - September 17, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Nirvikar Dahiya, Maitray D. Patel, Scott W. Young Source Type: research

Parathyroid Imaging
We present an overview of various parathyroid imaging modalities, including protocols and findings, in addition to relevant pearls and pitfalls. (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - September 17, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Malak Itani, William D. Middleton Source Type: research

Diagnosis and Evaluation of Thyroid Nodules-the Clinician ’s Perspective
Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem encountered in an endocrine practice. More and more thyroid nodules are now being detected on unrelated imaging studies, leading to an increased diagnosis of low-risk thyroid cancers. There is therefore a greater emphasis on risk assessment based on clinical and sonographic features to avoid morbidity secondary to unnecessary therapy. Molecular diagnostics are also being widely used to further characterize indeterminate nodules. The American Thyroid Association and American College of Radiology-Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System guidelines are the most commonly used in c...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - September 17, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Rajasree Nambron, Richard Rosenthal, Deepti Bahl Source Type: research

Neuroimaging of the Pituitary Gland
The pituitary gland is a small endocrine organ located within the sella turcica. Various pathologic conditions affect the pituitary gland and produce endocrinologic and neurologic abnormalities. The most common lesion of the pituitary gland is the adenoma, a benign neoplasm. Dedicated MR imaging of the pituitary is radiologic study of choice for evaluating pituitary gland and central skull region. Computed tomography is complimentary and allows for identification of calcification and adjacent abnormalities of the osseous skull base. This review emphasizes basic anatomy, current imaging techniques, and highlights the spectr...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - September 17, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Philip R. Chapman, Aparna Singhal, Siddhartha Gaddamanugu, Veeranjaneyulu Prattipati Source Type: research

Imaging of Adrenal-Related Endocrine Disorders
Endocrine disorders associated with adrenal pathologies can be caused by insufficient adrenal gland function or excess hormone secretion. Excess hormone secretion may result from adrenal hyperplasia or hormone-secreting (ie, functioning) adrenal masses. Based on the hormone type, functioning adrenal masses can be classified as cortisol-producing tumors, aldosterone producing tumors, and androgen-producing tumors, which originate in the adrenal cortex, as well as catecholamine-producing pheochromocytomas, which originate in the medulla. Nonfunctioning lesions can cause adrenal gland enlargement without causing hormonal imba...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - September 17, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Ceren Yalniz, Ajaykumar C. Morani, Steven G. Waguespack, Khaled M. Elsayes Source Type: research

The Breadth and Depth of Imaging of the Endocrine System
In 1932, Harvey Cushing made landmark discoveries regarding the details of the neuroendocrine system, but there was a notable absence of imaging at that time. However, imaging now serves as a cornerstone for guidance of both diagnosis and therapy of endocrine disease. The endocrine system plays an important role in human development, and imaging is a key component in the evaluation when the system does not work correctly. Whether there is overproduction, deficiency, or development of malignancy, a variety of techniques can help the physician make the proper diagnosis, and there have been substantial improvements in the ima...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - September 17, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Mark E. Lockhart Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Thyroid Incidentalomas
Radiologists very frequently encounter incidental findings related to the thyroid gland. Given increases in imaging use over the past several decades, thyroid incidentalomas are increasingly encountered in clinical practice, and it is important for radiologists to be aware of recent developments with respect to workup and diagnosis of incidental thyroid abnormalities. Recent reporting and management guidelines, such as those from the American College of Radiology and American Thyroid Association, are reviewed along with applicable evidence in the literature. Trending topics, such as artificial intelligence approaches to gu...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - September 14, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Xuan V. Nguyen, Joici Job, Lauren E. Fiorillo, Jennifer Sipos Source Type: research

Multimodality Imaging of Neuroendocrine Tumors
This article focuses on the evaluation, detection, and staging of common neuroendocrine tumors with multiple imaging modalities; the information gained with a multimodality approach is often complementary and leads to image-guided treatment decision making. (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - September 11, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Samuel J. Galgano, Kedar Sharbidre, Desiree E. Morgan Source Type: research

Contrast Reaction Readiness for Your Department or Facility.
Abstract Moderate and severe contrast reactions are rare but can be life threatening. Appropriate contrast reaction management is necessary for the best patient outcome. This review summarizes the types and incidences of adverse events to contrast media, treatment algorithms, and equipment needed to treat common contrast reactions, the current status of contrast reaction management training, and preventative strategies to help mitigate adverse contrast events. PMID: 32792118 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - August 15, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Wang CL, Soloff EV Tags: Radiol Clin North Am Source Type: research

Protocol Optimization for Renal Mass Detection and Characterization.
Abstract Renal masses increasingly are found incidentally, largely due to the frequent use of medical imaging. Computed tomography (CT) and MR imaging are mainstays for renal mass characterization, presurgical planning of renal tumors, and surveillance after surgery or systemic therapy for advanced renal cell carcinomas. CT protocols should be tailored to different clinical indications, balancing diagnostic accuracy and radiation exposure. MR imaging protocols should take advantage of the improved soft tissue contrast for renal tumor diagnosis and staging. Optimized imaging protocols enable analysis of imaging fea...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - August 15, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Chu JS, Wang ZJ Tags: Radiol Clin North Am Source Type: research

Image Interpretation: Practical Triage of Benign from Malignant Renal Masses.
Abstract Indeterminate renal masses remain a diagnostic challenge for lesions not initially characterized as angiomyolipoma or Bosniak I/II cysts. Differential for indeterminate renal masses include oncocytoma, fat-poor angiomyolipoma, and clear cell, papillary, and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. Qualitative and quantitative techniques using data derived from multiphase contrast-enhanced imaging have provided methods for specific differentiation and subtyping of indeterminate renal masses, with emerging applications such as radiocytogenetics. Early and accurate characterization of indeterminate renal masses by ...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - August 15, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Allgood E, Raman SS Tags: Radiol Clin North Am Source Type: research

Mimics and Pitfalls in Renal Imaging.
Abstract There are several potential pitfalls that radiologists face when interpreting images of the kidneys. Some result from image acquisition and can arise from the imaging equipment or imaging technique, whereas others are patient related. Another category of pitfalls relates to image interpretation. Some difficulties stem from methods to detect enhancement after contrast administration, whereas others are benign entities that can mimic a renal tumor. Finally, interpretation and diagnosis of fat-containing renal masses may be tricky due to the complexities discerning the pattern of fat within a mass and how th...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - August 15, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Remer EM Tags: Radiol Clin North Am Source Type: research

Approach to Renal Cystic Masses and the Role of Radiology.
This article provides a simple approach to the evaluation of cystic or potentially cystic renal masses. The radiologist is central to this process. Key elements include confirming that a renal lesion is cystic and not solid, determining the need for further characterization by imaging, and judicious application of the Bosniak classification system. PMID: 32792122 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - August 15, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Smith AD, Abou Elkassem A Tags: Radiol Clin North Am Source Type: research

Imaging of Renal Infections and Inflammatory Disease.
Abstract Acute pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection of the renal parenchyma and collecting system. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings of fever, flank pain, and urinary tract infection. Computed tomography findings include renal enlargement with wedge-shaped heterogeneous areas of decreased enhancement, known as a "striated nephrogram." Imaging is primarily used to diagnose complications such as emphysematous pyelonephritis, renal abscess, and pyonephrosis. Chronic pyelonephritis can have varying appearances on imaging ranging from xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis or, in extreme cases, renal rep...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - August 15, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Zulfiqar M, Ubilla CV, Nicola R, Menias CO Tags: Radiol Clin North Am Source Type: research

Reporting on Renal Masses, Recommendations for Terminology, and Sample Templates.
This article summarizes and describes recent updates and understanding of the critical observations and descriptors of renal masses. The templates and glossary of terms presented in this review article facilitate the radiology reporting of such data elements, giving radiologists the opportunity to improve diagnostic accuracy and influence management of small renal masses. PMID: 32792124 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - August 15, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Balthazar P, Joshi H, Heilbrun ME Tags: Radiol Clin North Am Source Type: research

Use of Contrast Ultrasound for Renal Mass Evaluation.
Abstract An introduction to the expanding modality of contrast-enhanced ultrasound is provided, along with basics on contrast agents and technique. The contrast ultrasound findings of multiple renal tumors are reviewed with examples, including clear cell renal cell carcinoma, papillary renal cell carcinoma, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, other rare renal cell carcinoma subtypes, oncocytoma, upper tract urothelial carcinoma, lymphoma, and angiomyolipoma, followed also by brief discussions of renal infections and pseudolesions. PMID: 32792125 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - August 15, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: King KG Tags: Radiol Clin North Am Source Type: research

Update on Hereditary Renal Cancer and Imaging Implications.
Abstract Up to 8% of renal cancers are thought to have a hereditary component. Several hereditary renal cancer syndromes have been identified over the last few decades. It is important for the radiologist to be aware of findings associated with hereditary renal cancer syndromes to detect tumors early, enroll patients in appropriate surveillance programs, and improve outcomes for the patient and affected family members. This review discusses from a radiologist's perspective well-known hereditary renal cancer syndromes and emerging genetic mutations associated with renal cancer that are less well characterized, focu...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - August 15, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Walker SM, Gautam R, Turkbey B, Malayeri A, Choyke PL Tags: Radiol Clin North Am Source Type: research

Review of Multimodality Imaging of Renal Trauma.
This article describes the epidemiology and mechanisms of blunt and penetrating traumatic renal injury and reviews the range of findings from various imaging modalities, with a particular emphasis on contrast-enhanced CT. PMID: 32792127 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - August 15, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Chien LC, Herr KD, Archer-Arroyo K, Vakil M, Hanna TN Tags: Radiol Clin North Am Source Type: research

Percutaneous Thermal Ablation for Treatment of T1a Renal Cell Carcinomas.
Abstract Based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results studies, most renal cancers are low grade and slow growing. Long-term, single-center studies show excellent outcomes for T1a renal cell carcinoma (RCC), comparable to partial nephrectomy without affecting renal function and with much lower rates of complications. However, there are no multicenter randomized controlled trials of multiple ablative modalities or comparison with partial nephrectomy, and most studies are single-arm observational studies with short-term and intermediate follow-up. For treatment of stage T1a RCC, percutaneous TA is an effectiv...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - August 15, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Shakeri S, Raman SS Tags: Radiol Clin North Am Source Type: research

Radiomics and Artificial Intelligence for Renal Mass Characterization.
Abstract Radiomics allows for high throughput extraction of quantitative data from images. This is an area of active research as groups try to capture and quantify imaging parameters and convert these into descriptive phenotypes of organs or tumors. Texture analysis is one radiomics tool that extracts information about heterogeneity within a given region of interest. This is used with or without associated machine learning classifiers or a deep learning approach is applied to similar types of data. These tools have shown utility in characterizing renal masses, renal cell carcinoma, and assessing response to target...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - August 15, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Lubner MG Tags: Radiol Clin North Am Source Type: research

Contemporary Renal Imaging.
PMID: 32792130 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - August 15, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Eberhardt SC, Raman SS Tags: Radiol Clin North Am Source Type: research

Percutaneous Thermal Ablation for Treatment of T1a Renal Cell Carcinomas
Based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results studies, most renal cancers are low grade and slow growing. Long-term, single-center studies show excellent outcomes for T1a renal cell carcinoma (RCC), comparable to partial nephrectomy without affecting renal function and with much lower rates of complications. However, there are no multicenter randomized controlled trials of multiple ablative modalities or comparison with partial nephrectomy, and most studies are single-arm observational studies with short-term and intermediate follow-up. For treatment of stage T1a RCC, percutaneous TA is an effective alternative to s...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - August 13, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Sepideh Shakeri, Steven S. Raman Source Type: research

Contemporary Renal Imaging
This issue of Radiologic Clinics of North America provides a timely and practical state-of-the-art update on imaging the kidneys for the practicing radiologist. Changes in this area have occurred at a rapid pace in imaging diagnosis and treatment as well as in technologic developments and clinical management paradigms. Ongoing advances in imaging have introduced new challenges, including the optimization and standardization of protocols, interpretation, and reporting across radiologic practices. (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - August 13, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Steven C. Eberhardt, Steven S. Raman Tags: Preface Source Type: research

CME Accreditation Page
(Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - August 13, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Renal Imaging
RADIOLOGIC CLINICS (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - August 13, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Steven C. Eberhardt, Steven S. Raman Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - August 13, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contributors
FRANK H. MILLER, MD, FACR (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - August 13, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contents
Steven C. Eberhardt and Steven S. Raman (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - August 13, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Endocrine Imaging (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - August 13, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Radiomics and Artificial Intelligence for Renal Mass Characterization
Radiomics allows for high throughput extraction of quantitative data from images. This is an area of active research as groups try to capture and quantify imaging parameters and convert these into descriptive phenotypes of organs or tumors. Texture analysis is one radiomics tool that extracts information about heterogeneity within a given region of interest. This is used with or without associated machine learning classifiers or a deep learning approach is applied to similar types of data. These tools have shown utility in characterizing renal masses, renal cell carcinoma, and assessing response to targeted therapeutic age...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - July 16, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Meghan G. Lubner Source Type: research

Approach to Renal Cystic Masses and the Role of Radiology
This article provides a simple approach to the evaluation of cystic or potentially cystic renal masses. The radiologist is central to this process. Key elements include confirming that a renal lesion is cystic and not solid, determining the need for further characterization by imaging, and judicious application of the Bosniak classification system. (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - July 16, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Andrew D. Smith, Asser Abou Elkassem Source Type: research

Radiomics and Texture Analysis of Kidney
Radiomics allows for high throughput extraction of quantitative data from images. This is an area of active research as groups try to capture and quantify imaging parameters and convert these into descriptive phenotypes of organs or tumors. Texture analysis is one radiomics tool that extracts information about heterogeneity within a given region of interest. This is used with or without associated machine learning classifiers or a deep learning approach is applied to similar types of data. These tools have shown utility in characterizing renal masses, renal cell carcinoma, and assessing response to targeted therapeutic age...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - July 16, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Meghan G. Lubner Source Type: research

Reporting on Renal Masses, Recommendations for Terminology, and Sample Templates
This article summarizes and describes recent updates and understanding of the critical observations and descriptors of renal masses. The templates and glossary of terms presented in this review article facilitate the radiology reporting of such data elements, giving radiologists the opportunity to improve diagnostic accuracy and influence management of small renal masses. (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - July 16, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Patricia Balthazar, Hena Joshi, Marta E. Heilbrun Source Type: research

Contrast Reaction Readiness for Your Department or Facility
Moderate and severe contrast reactions are rare but can be life threatening. Appropriate contrast reaction management is necessary for the best patient outcome. This review summarizes the types and incidences of adverse events to contrast media, treatment algorithms, and equipment needed to treat common contrast reactions, the current status of contrast reaction management training, and preventative strategies to help mitigate adverse contrast events. (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - July 15, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Carolyn L. Wang, Erik V. Soloff Source Type: research

Image Interpretation
Indeterminate renal masses remain a diagnostic challenge for lesions not initially characterized as angiomyolipoma or Bosniak I/II cysts. Differential for indeterminate renal masses include oncocytoma, fat-poor angiomyolipoma, and clear cell, papillary, and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma. Qualitative and quantitative techniques using data derived from multiphase contrast-enhanced imaging have provided methods for specific differentiation and subtyping of indeterminate renal masses, with emerging applications such as radiocytogenetics. Early and accurate characterization of indeterminate renal masses by multiphase contras...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - July 15, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Evan Allgood, Steven Raman Source Type: research

Protocol Optimization for Renal Mass Detection and Characterization
Renal masses increasingly are found incidentally, largely due to the frequent use of medical imaging. Computed tomography (CT) and MR imaging are mainstays for renal mass characterization, presurgical planning of renal tumors, and surveillance after surgery or systemic therapy for advanced renal cell carcinomas. CT protocols should be tailored to different clinical indications, balancing diagnostic accuracy and radiation exposure. MR imaging protocols should take advantage of the improved soft tissue contrast for renal tumor diagnosis and staging. Optimized imaging protocols enable analysis of imaging features that help na...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - July 14, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Jason S. Chu, Zhen J. Wang Source Type: research

Protocol Optimization for Renal Masses
Renal masses increasingly are found incidentally, largely due to the frequent use of medical imaging. Computed tomography (CT) and MR imaging are mainstays for renal mass characterization, presurgical planning of renal tumors, and surveillance after surgery or systemic therapy for advanced renal cell carcinomas. CT protocols should be tailored to different clinical indications, balancing diagnostic accuracy and radiation exposure. MR imaging protocols should take advantage of the improved soft tissue contrast for renal tumor diagnosis and staging. Optimized imaging protocols enable analysis of imaging features that help na...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - July 14, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Jason S. Chu, Zhen J. Wang Source Type: research

Imaging of Renal Infections and Inflammatory Disease
Acute pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection of the renal parenchyma and collecting system. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings of fever, flank pain, and urinary tract infection. Computed tomography findings include renal enlargement with wedge-shaped heterogeneous areas of decreased enhancement, known as a “striated nephrogram.” Imaging is primarily used to diagnose complications such as emphysematous pyelonephritis, renal abscess, and pyonephrosis. Chronic pyelonephritis can have varying appearances on imaging ranging from xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis or, in extreme cases, renal replacement lipomat...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - July 14, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Maria Zulfiqar, Cristi án Varela Ubilla, Refky Nicola, Christine O. Menias Source Type: research

Review of Multimodality Imaging of Renal Trauma
This article describes the epidemiology and mechanisms of blunt and penetrating traumatic renal injury and reviews the range of findings from various imaging modalities, with a particular emphasis on contrast-enhanced CT. (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - July 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Ling-Chen Chien, Keith D. Herr, Krystal Archer-Arroyo, Mona Vakil, Tarek N. Hanna Source Type: research

Use of Contrast Ultrasound for Renal Mass Evaluation
An introduction to the expanding modality of contrast-enhanced ultrasound is provided, along with basics on contrast agents and technique. The contrast ultrasound findings of multiple renal tumors are reviewed with examples, including clear cell renal cell carcinoma, papillary renal cell carcinoma, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, other rare renal cell carcinoma subtypes, oncocytoma, upper tract urothelial carcinoma, lymphoma, and angiomyolipoma, followed also by brief discussions of renal infections and pseudolesions. (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - June 17, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Kevin G. King Source Type: research

Mimics and Pitfalls in Renal Imaging
There are several potential pitfalls that radiologists face when interpreting images of the kidneys. Some result from image acquisition and can arise from the imaging equipment or imaging technique, whereas others are patient related. Another category of pitfalls relates to image interpretation. Some difficulties stem from methods to detect enhancement after contrast administration, whereas others are benign entities that can mimic a renal tumor. Finally, interpretation and diagnosis of fat-containing renal masses may be tricky due to the complexities discerning the pattern of fat within a mass and how that translates to a...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - June 14, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Erick M. Remer Source Type: research

Update on Hereditary Renal Cancer and Imaging Implications
Up to 8% of renal cancers are thought to have a hereditary component. Several hereditary renal cancer syndromes have been identified over the last few decades. It is important for the radiologist to be aware of findings associated with hereditary renal cancer syndromes to detect tumors early, enroll patients in appropriate surveillance programs, and improve outcomes for the patient and affected family members. This review discusses from a radiologist ’s perspective well-known hereditary renal cancer syndromes and emerging genetic mutations associated with renal cancer that are less well characterized, focusing on ima...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - June 10, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Stephanie M. Walker, Rabindra Gautam, Baris Turkbey, Ashkan Malayeri, Peter L. Choyke Source Type: research

Innovations in Vascular Ultrasound.
Abstract There are several vascular ultrasound technologies that are useful in challenging diagnostic situations. New vascular ultrasound applications include directional power Doppler ultrasound, contrast-enhanced ultrasound, B-flow imaging, microvascular imaging, 3-dimensional vascular ultrasound, intravascular ultrasound, photoacoustic imaging, and vascular elastography. All these techniques are complementary to Doppler ultrasound and provide greater ability to visualize small vessels, have higher sensitivity to detect slow flow, and better assess vascular wall and lumen while overcoming limitations color Doppl...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - June 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Gettle LM, Revzin MV Tags: Radiol Clin North Am Source Type: research

Updates in Vascular Computed Tomography.
Abstract Computed tomography angiography (CTA) has become a mainstay for the imaging of vascular diseases, because of high accuracy, availability, and rapid turnaround time. High-quality CTA images can now be routinely obtained with high isotropic spatial resolution and temporal resolution. Advances in CTA have focused on improving the image quality, increasing the acquisition speed, eliminating artifacts, and reducing the doses of radiation and iodinated contrast media. Dual-energy computed tomography provides material composition capabilities that can be used for characterizing lesions, optimizing contrast, decr...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - June 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Rajiah P Tags: Radiol Clin North Am Source Type: research

Magnetic Resonance Lymphangiography.
Abstract Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance lymphangiography is a novel technique to image central conducting lymphatics. It is performed by injecting contrast into groin lymph nodes and following passage of contrast through lymphatic system using T1-weighted MR images. Currently, it has been successfully applied to image and plan treatment of thoracic duct pathologies, lymphatic leaks, and other lymphatic abnormalities such as plastic bronchitis. It is useful in the assessment of chylothorax and chyloperitoneum. Its role in other areas such as intestinal lymphangiectasia and a variety of lymphatic anoma...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - June 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Chavhan GB, Lam CZ, Greer MC, Temple M, Amaral J, Grosse-Wortmann L Tags: Radiol Clin North Am Source Type: research

Pulmonary Vascular Disease Evaluation with Magnetic Resonance Angiography.
This article discusses pMRA techniques and artifacts; performance in commonly encountered pulmonary vascular diseases, specifically pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension; and recent advances in both contrast-enhanced and noncontrast pMRA. PMID: 32471539 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - June 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Allen BD, Schiebler ML, François CJ Tags: Radiol Clin North Am Source Type: research