International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group Model of Mediastinal Compartments.
Abstract Numerous systems have been created to divide the mediastinum into specific compartments for the purposes of generating a focused differential diagnosis for masses and other abnormalities identified on imaging, planning for biopsies and surgical interventions, and facilitating communication between health care professionals in a multidisciplinary setting. Most have focused on imaging and are based on arbitrary landmarks delineated on the lateral chest radiograph. The International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group has developed a classification system based on cross-sectional imaging, defining specific prev...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - February 10, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Carter BW Tags: Radiol Clin North Am Source Type: research

Imaging of the Anterior/Prevascular Mediastinum.
Abstract Prevascular mediastinal masses include a wide range of benign and malignant entities. Localization of mediastinal masses to specific compartments together with characteristic imaging findings and demographic and clinical information allows formulation of a focused differential diagnosis. Radiologists may use these methods to distinguish between surgical and nonsurgical cases and thus inform patient management and have an impact on outcomes. Treatment of choice varies based on the pathology, ranging from no intervention or serial imaging follow-up to surgical excision, chemotherapy, and/or radiation. ...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - February 10, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Garrana SH, Rosado-de-Christenson ML Tags: Radiol Clin North Am Source Type: research

Thymic Epithelial Neoplasms: Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation.
Abstract Thymic epithelial neoplasms, as classified by the World Health Organization, include thymoma, thymic carcinoma, and thymic carcinoid. They are a rare group of tumors and are often diagnosed incidentally in the work-up of parathymic syndrome, such as myasthenia gravis, or when mass effect or local invasion causes other symptoms. In each of these scenarios, understanding the radiologic-pathologic relationship of these tumors allows clinical imagers to contribute meaningfully to management decisions and overall patient care. Integrating important imaging features, such as local invasion, and pathologic featu...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - February 10, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Lichtenberger JP, Carter BW, Fisher DA, Parker RF, Peterson PG Tags: Radiol Clin North Am Source Type: research

Thymic Epithelial Neoplasms: Tumor-Node-Metastasis Staging.
Abstract Thymic epithelial neoplasms are a group of malignant tumors that includes thymoma, thymic carcinoma, and thymic neuroendocrine tumors. Although several staging systems have been developed over the years for use with these cancers, they have been interpreted and implemented in a nonuniform manner. Recently, the International Association for the study of Lung Cancer and the International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group developed a tumor-node-metastasis staging system that has been universally accepted and correlates with patient survival and outcomes. Although pathologic staging is determined by histologic...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - February 10, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Benveniste MFK, Betancourt Cuellar SL, Carter BW, Strange CD, Marom EM Tags: Radiol Clin North Am Source Type: research

Imaging of the Middle and Visceral Mediastinum.
Abstract The visceral mediastinum contains important vascular and non-vascular structures including the heart, great vessels, lymph nodes, and portions of the esophagus and trachea. Multiple imaging modalities, including chest radiography, computed tomography, MR imaging, and nuclear medicine studies, can be used to detect, diagnose, and characterize masses in this compartment. Lymphadenopathy is the most common process involving the visceral mediastinum and can be seen with a wide variety of diseases. Less commonly seen entities include foregut duplication cysts, neoplasms and other lesions arising from the trach...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - February 10, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Bourgouin PP, Madan R Tags: Radiol Clin North Am Source Type: research

Esophageal Neoplasms: Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation.
Abstract The epidemiology and clinical management of esophageal carcinomas are changing, and clinical imagers are required to understand both the imaging appearances of common cancers and the pathologic diagnoses that drive management. Rare esophageal malignancies and benign esophageal neoplasms have distinct imaging features that may suggest a diagnosis and guide the next steps clinically. Furthermore, these imaging features have a basis in pathology, and this article focuses on the relationship between pathologic features and imaging manifestations that will help an informed imager maintain clinical relevance. ...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - February 10, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Lichtenberger JP, Zeman MN, Dulberger AR, Alqutub S, Carter BW, Manning MA Tags: Radiol Clin North Am Source Type: research

Esophageal Cancer: Tumor-Node-Metastasis Staging.
Abstract Esophageal cancer is an uncommon malignancy that ranks sixth in terms of mortality worldwide. Squamous cell carcinoma is the predominant histologic subtype worldwide whereas adenocarcinoma represents the majority of cases in North America, Australia, and Europe. Esophageal cancer is staged using the American Joint Committee on Cancer and the International Union for Cancer Control TNM system and has separate classifications for the clinical, pathologic, and postneoadjuvant pathologic stage groups. The determination of clinical TNM is based on complementary imaging modalities, including esophagogastroduoden...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - February 10, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Betancourt-Cuellar SL, Benveniste MFK, Palacio DP, Hofstetter WL Tags: Radiol Clin North Am Source Type: research

Cardiac Neoplasms: Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation.
Abstract Cardiac neoplasms are a diagnostic challenge on many levels. They are rare, their clinical presentation may mimic other much more common cardiac diseases, and they are at an uncommon intersection of oncologic and cardiac imaging. The pathology of primary cardiac neoplasms explains their varied imaging features, for example, calcification in primary cardiac osteosarcomas and T2 hyperintensity in myxomas. Integrating the imaging and pathologic features of cardiac tumors furthers our understanding of the spectrum of appearances of these neoplasms and improves the clinical imager's ability to confidently make...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - February 10, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Lichtenberger JP, Carter BW, Pavio MA, Biko DM Tags: Radiol Clin North Am Source Type: research

Imaging of the Posterior/Paravertebral Mediastinum.
Abstract A wide variety of abnormalities may be encountered in the paravertebral mediastinum, ranging from congenital lesions to malignant neoplasms. A combination of localizing mediastinal masses to the paravertebral compartment, characterizing them with cross-sectional imaging techniques, and correlating the imaging findings with demographics and other clinical history typically enables the development of a focused differential diagnosis. Radiologists must be familiar with these concepts in order to help guide subsequent imaging and/or intervention and, when appropriate, treatment planning for neoplasms and othe...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - February 10, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Carter BW, Lichtenberger JP Tags: Radiol Clin North Am Source Type: research

Added Value of Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Evaluation of Mediastinal Lesions.
Abstract The high soft tissue contrast and tissue characterization properties of magnetic resonance imaging allow further characterization of indeterminate mediastinal lesions on chest radiography and computed tomography, increasing diagnostic specificity, preventing unnecessary intervention, and guiding intervention or surgery when needed. The combination of its higher soft tissue contrast and ability to image dynamically during free breathing, without ionizing radiation exposure, allows more thorough and readily appreciable assessment of a lesion's invasiveness and assessment of phrenic nerve involvement, with s...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - February 10, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Heeger AP, Ackman JB Tags: Radiol Clin North Am Source Type: research

Potential Pitfalls in Imaging of the Mediastinum.
Abstract Chest computed tomography (CT) is the modality of choice for mediastinal imaging. The high-resolution images provided by multi-detector CT result in routine visualization of normal anatomic structures, which can be confused with pathology. In addition, many mediastinal abnormalities are discovered incidentally, with a routine chest CT protocol which may be insufficient for definite diagnosis. Awareness of the spectrum of potential pitfalls of mediastinal imaging, artifacts related to flow, motion, and solutions to mitigate these problematic issues is important in accurate interpretation. The purpose of th...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - February 10, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Goitein O, Truong MT, Bekker E, Marom EM Tags: Radiol Clin North Am Source Type: research

Image-Guided Biopsies and Interventions of Mediastinal Lesions.
Abstract Optimal assessment of the mediastinal masses is performed by a combination of clinical, radiological and often histological assessments. Image-guided transthoracic biopsy of mediastinal lesions is a minimally invasive and reliable procedure to obtain tissue samples, establish a diagnosis and provide a treatment plan. Biopsy can be performed under Computed Tomography, MRI, or ultrasound guidance, using a fine needle aspiration or a core-needle. In this paper, we review the image-guided strategies and techniques for histologic sampling of mediastinal lesions, along with the related clinical scenarios and po...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - February 10, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Kooraki S, Abtin F Tags: Radiol Clin North Am Source Type: research

Modern Imaging of the Mediastinum.
PMID: 33551089 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - February 10, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Carter BW Tags: Radiol Clin North Am Source Type: research

Added Value of Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Evaluation of Mediastinal Lesions
The high soft tissue contrast and tissue characterization properties of magnetic resonance imaging allow further characterization of indeterminate mediastinal lesions on chest radiography and computed tomography, increasing diagnostic specificity, preventing unnecessary intervention, and guiding intervention or surgery when needed. The combination of its higher soft tissue contrast and ability to image dynamically during free breathing, without ionizing radiation exposure, allows more thorough and readily appreciable assessment of a lesion ’s invasiveness and assessment of phrenic nerve involvement, with significant ...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - February 5, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Allen P. Heeger, Jeanne B. Ackman Source Type: research

Esophageal Neoplasms
The epidemiology and clinical management of esophageal carcinomas are changing, and clinical imagers are required to understand both the imaging appearances of common cancers and the pathologic diagnoses that drive management. Rare esophageal malignancies and benign esophageal neoplasms have distinct imaging features that may suggest a diagnosis and guide the next steps clinically. Furthermore, these imaging features have a basis in pathology, and this article focuses on the relationship between pathologic features and imaging manifestations that will help an informed imager maintain clinical relevance. (Source: Radiologic...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - February 5, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: John P. Lichtenberger, Merissa N. Zeman, Adam R. Dulberger, Sadiq Alqutub, Brett W. Carter, Maria A. Manning Source Type: research

Thymic Epithelial Neoplasms
Thymic epithelial neoplasms are a group of malignant tumors that includes thymoma, thymic carcinoma, and thymic neuroendocrine tumors. Although several staging systems have been developed over the years for use with these cancers, they have been interpreted and implemented in a nonuniform manner. Recently, the International Association for the study of Lung Cancer and the International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group developed a tumor-node-metastasis staging system that has been universally accepted and correlates with patient survival and outcomes. Although pathologic staging is determined by histologic examination of th...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - February 5, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Marcelo F.K. Benveniste, Sonia L. Betancourt Cuellar, Brett W. Carter, Chad D. Strange, Edith M. Marom Source Type: research

International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group Model of Mediastinal Compartments
Numerous systems have been created to divide the mediastinum into specific compartments for the purposes of generating a focused differential diagnosis for masses and other abnormalities identified on imaging, planning for biopsies and surgical interventions, and facilitating communication between health care professionals in a multidisciplinary setting. Most have focused on imaging and are based on arbitrary landmarks delineated on the lateral chest radiograph. The International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group has developed a classification system based on cross-sectional imaging, defining specific prevascular, visceral,...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - February 5, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Brett W. Carter Source Type: research

Esophageal Cancer
Esophageal cancer is an uncommon malignancy that ranks sixth in terms of mortality worldwide. Squamous cell carcinoma is the predominant histologic subtype worldwide whereas adenocarcinoma represents the majority of cases in North America, Australia, and Europe. Esophageal cancer is staged using the American Joint Committee on Cancer and the International Union for Cancer Control TNM system and has separate classifications for the clinical, pathologic, and postneoadjuvant pathologic stage groups. The determination of clinical TNM is based on complementary imaging modalities, including esophagogastroduodenoscopy/endoscopic ...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - February 5, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Sonia L. Betancourt-Cuellar, Marcelo F.K. Benveniste, Diana P. Palacio, Wayne L. Hofstetter Source Type: research

Imaging of the Posterior/Paravertebral Mediastinum
A wide variety of abnormalities may be encountered in the paravertebral mediastinum, ranging from congenital lesions to malignant neoplasms. A combination of localizing mediastinal masses to the paravertebral compartment, characterizing them with cross-sectional imaging techniques, and correlating the imaging findings with demographics and other clinical history typically enables the development of a focused differential diagnosis. Radiologists must be familiar with these concepts in order to help guide subsequent imaging and/or intervention and, when appropriate, treatment planning for neoplasms and other abnormalities. (...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - February 5, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Brett W. Carter, John P. Lichtenberger Source Type: research

CME Accreditation Page
(Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - February 5, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of the Mediastinum
RADIOLOGIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - February 5, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Brett W. Carter Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - February 5, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contributors
FRANK H. MILLER, MD, FACR (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - February 5, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contents
Brett W. Carter (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - February 5, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Advanced Neuroimaging in Brain Tumors (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - February 5, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Imaging of the Anterior/Prevascular Mediastinum
Prevascular mediastinal masses include a wide range of benign and malignant entities. Localization of mediastinal masses to specific compartments together with characteristic imaging findings and demographic and clinical information allows formulation of a focused differential diagnosis. Radiologists may use these methods to distinguish between surgical and nonsurgical cases and thus inform patient management and have an impact on outcomes. Treatment of choice varies based on the pathology, ranging from no intervention or serial imaging follow-up to surgical excision, chemotherapy, and/or radiation. (Source: Radiologic Cli...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - January 11, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Sherief H. Garrana, Melissa Rosado-de-Christenson Source Type: research

Modern Imaging of the Mediastinum
The mediastinum is an anatomically complex region of the thorax that includes numerous organs and structures from which a wide variety of abnormalities arise that may be of neoplastic, infectious/inflammatory, congenital, vascular, or lymphatic etiology. Scientific knowledge regarding the mediastinum and many of its associated neoplasms has advanced tremendously through the work of the International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group (ITMIG), a multidisciplinary society of experts in surgery, oncology, pathology, radiology, and neurology founded in 2010. (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - January 9, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Brett W. Carter Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Potential Pitfalls in Imaging of the Mediastinum
Chest computed tomography (CT) is the modality of choice for mediastinal imaging. The high-resolution images provided by multi-detector CT result in routine visualization of normal anatomic structures, which can be confused with pathology. In addition, many mediastinal abnormalities are discovered incidentally, with a routine chest CT protocol which may be insufficient for definite diagnosis. Awareness of the spectrum of potential pitfalls of mediastinal imaging, artifacts related to flow, motion, and solutions to mitigate these problematic issues is important in accurate interpretation. The purpose of this review is to hi...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - January 8, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Orly Goitein, Mylene T. Truong, Elena Bekker, Edith M. Marom Source Type: research

Imaging of the Middle and Visceral Mediastinum
The visceral mediastinum contains important vascular and non-vascular structures including the heart, great vessels, lymph nodes, and portions of the esophagus and trachea. Multiple imaging modalities, including chest radiography, computed tomography, MR imaging, and nuclear medicine studies, can be used to detect, diagnose, and characterize masses in this compartment. Lymphadenopathy is the most common process involving the visceral mediastinum and can be seen with a wide variety of diseases. Less commonly seen entities include foregut duplication cysts, neoplasms and other lesions arising from the trachea and esophagus, ...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - January 8, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Patrick P. Bourgouin, Rachna Madan Source Type: research

Thymic Epithelial Neoplasms
Thymic epithelial neoplasms, as classified by the World Health Organization, include thymoma, thymic carcinoma, and thymic carcinoid. They are a rare group of tumors and are often diagnosed incidentally in the work-up of parathymic syndrome, such as myasthenia gravis, or when mass effect or local invasion causes other symptoms. In each of these scenarios, understanding the radiologic-pathologic relationship of these tumors allows clinical imagers to contribute meaningfully to management decisions and overall patient care. Integrating important imaging features, such as local invasion, and pathologic features, such as necro...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - January 8, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: John P. Lichtenberger, Brett W. Carter, Dane A. Fisher, Regina F. Parker, P. Gabriel Peterson Source Type: research

Image-Guided Biopsies and Interventions of Mediastinal Lesions
Optimal assessment of the mediastinal masses is performed by a combination of clinical, radiological and often histological assessments. Image-guided transthoracic biopsy of mediastinal lesions is a minimally invasive and reliable procedure to obtain tissue samples, establish a diagnosis and provide a treatment plan. Biopsy can be performed under Computed Tomography, MRI, or ultrasound guidance, using a fine needle aspiration or a core-needle. In this paper, we review the image-guided strategies and techniques for histologic sampling of mediastinal lesions, along with the related clinical scenarios and possible procedural ...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - January 8, 2021 Category: Radiology Authors: Soheil Kooraki, Fereidoun Abtin Source Type: research

Cardiac Neoplasms
Cardiac neoplasms are a diagnostic challenge on many levels. They are rare, their clinical presentation may mimic other much more common cardiac diseases, and they are at an uncommon intersection of oncologic and cardiac imaging. The pathology of primary cardiac neoplasms explains their varied imaging features, for example, calcification in primary cardiac osteosarcomas and T2 hyperintensity in myxomas. Integrating the imaging and pathologic features of cardiac tumors furthers our understanding of the spectrum of appearances of these neoplasms and improves the clinical imager ’s ability to confidently make a diagnosi...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - December 29, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: John P. Lichtenberger, Brett W. Carter, Michael A. Pavio, David M. Biko Source Type: research

An Emerging Era for Breast Imaging.
PMID: 33223004 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - November 25, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Freer PE Tags: Radiol Clin North Am Source Type: research

Management of High-Risk Breast Lesions
This article reviews histologic features and clinical presentation of each of the HRLs, current evidence with regard to management, and guidelines from the American Society of Breast Surgeons and National Comprehensive Cancer Network. In addition, imaging surveillance and risk-reduction strategies for women with HRLs are discussed. (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Manisha Bahl Source Type: research

Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Breast Imaging
Artificial intelligence (AI) technology shows promise in breast imaging to improve both interpretive and noninterpretive tasks. AI-based screening triage may help identify normal examinations and AI-based computer-aided detection (AI-CAD) may increase cancer detection and reduce false positives. Risk assessment, quality assurance, and other workflow tasks may also be streamlined. AI adoption will depend on robust evidence of improved quality, increased efficiency, and cost-effectiveness. Reliance on AI will likely proceed through stages and will involve careful attention to its limitations to prevent overconfidence in its ...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Matthew B. Morgan, Jonathan L. Mates Source Type: research

Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Audit
This article provides a framework for performing a breast MR imaging audit in clinical practice, incorporating ACR BI-RADS guidance and more recently published data, clarifies common pitfalls, and discusses audit challenges related to evolving clinical practice. (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Diana L. Lam, Janie M. Lee Source Type: research

Overdiagnosis and Risks of Breast Cancer Screening
Since its widespread introduction 30 years ago, screening mammography has contributed to substantial reduction in breast cancer-associated mortality, ranging from 15% to 50% in observational trials. It is currently the best examination available for the early diagnosis of breast cancer, when survival and treatment options are most favorable. However, like all medical tests and procedures, screening mammography has associated risks, including overdiagnosis and overtreatment, false-positive examinations, false-positive biopsies, and radiation exposure. Women should be aware of the benefits and risks of screening mammography ...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Colleen H. Neal, Mark A. Helvie Source Type: research

CME Accreditation Page
(Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Breast Imaging
RADIOLOGIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Phoebe E. Freer Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contributors
FRANK H. MILLER, MD, FACR (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contents
Phoebe E. Freer (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Imaging of the Mediastinum (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - November 20, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Breast Radiology Advocacy
In an increasingly competitive and passionate health care environment, radiology advocacy is imperative, now more than ever. Arguably, it is particularly more crucial in the world of breast cancer, as we as a breast cancer community are tirelessly assembling to advocate for our patients on a variety of levels, whether it is including but not limited to, breast cancer screening, diagnosis, and treatment, access-to-care, education, or research funding. As breast radiologists, it is no longer simply enough to clock in our normal work hours; we must ALL make a concerted effort to vociferously advocate for our patients and prof...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - November 2, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Amy K. Patel Source Type: research

Abbreviated MR Imaging for Breast Cancer
Breast MR imaging is the most sensitive imaging method for the detection of breast cancer and detects more aggressive malignancies than mammography and ultrasound examination. Despite these advantages, breast MR imaging has low use rates for breast cancer screening. Abbreviated breast MR imaging, in which a limited number of breast imaging sequences are obtained, has been proposed as a way to solve cost and patient tolerance issues while preserving the high cancer detection rate of breast MR imaging. This review discusses abbreviated breast MR imaging, including protocols, multicenter clinical trial results, clinical workf...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - October 31, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Laura Heacock, Alana A. Lewin, Hildegard K. Toth, Linda Moy, Beatriu Reig Source Type: research

Supplemental Screening for Patients at Intermediate and High Risk for Breast Cancer
The sensitivity of mammography is more limited in patients with dense breasts and some patients at higher risk for breast cancer. Patients with intermediate or high risk for breast cancer may begin screening earlier and benefit from supplemental screening techniques beyond standard 2-dimensional mammography. A patient ’s individual risk factors for developing breast cancer, their breast density, and the evidence supporting specific modalities for a given clinical scenario help to determine the need for supplemental screening and the modality chosen. Additional factors include the availability of supplemental sc reeni...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - October 31, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Lilian Wang, Roberta M. Strigel Source Type: research

Understanding the Mammography Audit
This article defines audit terms and describes how to use collected and derived data to perform a mammography audit. Accepted benchmarks are discussed as well as their applicability to radiologists and breast imaging practices in the United States. Special considerations regarding volumes and radiologist characteristics are explored, because these factors may affect audit results. (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - October 31, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Kimberly Funaro, Dana Ataya, Bethany Niell Source Type: research

Contrast-Enhanced Mammography Implementation, Performance, and Use for Supplemental Breast Cancer Screening
Contrast-enhanced mammography (CEM) is an emerging breast imaging technology that provides recombined contrast-enhanced images of the breast in addition to low-energy images analogous to a 2-dimensional full-field digital mammogram. Because most breast imaging centers do not use CEM at this time, a detailed overview of CEM implementation and performance is presented. Thereafter, the potential use of CEM for supplemental screening is discussed in detail, given the importance of this topic for the future of the CEM community. Diagnostic performance, safety, and cost considerations of CEM for dense breast tissue supplemental ...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - October 29, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Matthew F. Covington Source Type: research

Is It the Era for Personalized Screening?
This article reviews the current recommendations for breast cancer risk assessment and breast cancer screening in average-risk and higher-than-average-risk women. Also discussed are new developments and future perspectives for personalized breast cancer screening. (Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America)
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - October 29, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Carolina Rossi Saccarelli, Almir G.V. Bitencourt, Elizabeth A. Morris Source Type: research

Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Screening of Breast Cancer
Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging is the most sensitive modality for breast cancer detection but is currently limited to screening women at high risk due to limited specificity and test accessibility. However, specificity of MR imaging improves with successive rounds of screening, and abbreviated approaches have the potential to increase access and decrease cost. There is growing evidence to support supplemental MR imaging in moderate-risk women, and current guidelines continue to evolve. Functional imaging has the potential to maximize survival benefit of screening. Leveraging MR imaging as a possible primary screening tool...
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - October 29, 2020 Category: Radiology Authors: Yiming Gao, Beatriu Reig, Laura Heacock, Debbie L. Bennett, Samantha L. Heller, Linda Moy Source Type: research