To cool or not to cool? Intestinal coccidians disrupt the behavioral hypothermia of lizards in response to tick infestation

Publication date: Available online 21 August 2019Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): R. Megía-Palma, D. Paranjpe, P. Blaimont, R. Cooper, B. SinervoAbstractIt is generally accepted that parasites exert negative effects on their hosts and that natural selection favors specific host responses that mitigate this impact. It is also known that some components of the host immune system often co-evolve with parasite antigens resulting in a host-parasite arms race. In addition to immunological components of the anti-parasitic response, host behavioral responses are also important in this arms race and natural selection may favor avoidance strategies that preclude contact with parasites, or shifts in the host’s thermoregulatory strategy to combat active infections (e.g., behavioral fever). Ticks are widespread parasites with direct and indirect costs on their vertebrate hosts. Their saliva provokes hemolysis in the blood of their hosts and can transmit a plethora of tick-borne pathogens. We enquired whether tick infestation by Ixodes pacificus can provoke a thermoregulatory response in Sceloporus occidentalis. For this, we compared the thermoregulatory behavior of tick-infested lizards against tick-infested lizards co-infected with two different species of coccidians (Lankesterella occidentalis and Acroeimeria sceloporis). After this, lizards were kept in individual terraria with a basking spot and fed ad libitum. We found that tick-infested lizards sought coo...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 13 September 2019Source: Veterinary ParasitologyAuthor(s): R.E.B. Hanna, D. Moffett, M.W. Robinson, W.G.Z.O. Jura, G.P. Brennan, I. Fairweather, L.T. ThreadgoldAbstractCytochemical staining techniques were carried out en bloc with in vitro excysted and gut-penetrated Fasciola gigantica larvae in order to visualise the glycocalyx of the tegument, a structure which comprises the parasite component of the host-parasite interface, yet is incompletely preserved by conventional fixation and preparation techniques for electron microscopy. Positive reactivity with ruthenium red and periodic acid-...
Source: Veterinary Parasitology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 September 2019Source: Nitric OxideAuthor(s): Thomas Uray, Philip E. Empey, Tomas Drabek, Jason P. Stezoski, Keri Janesko-Feldman, Travis Jackson, Robert H. Garman, Francis Kim, Patrick M. Kochanek, Cameron DezfulianAbstractIntroductionBesides therapeutic hypothermia or targeted temperature management no novel therapies have been developed to improve outcomes of patients after cardiac arrest (CA). Recent studies suggest that nitrite reduces neurological damage after asphyxial CA. Nitrite is also implicated as a new mediator of remote post conditioning produced by tourniquet inflation-de...
Source: Nitric Oxide - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Abstract Although Ethiopia has an overall lower prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum among countries in Africa, the emergence of drug resistance could seriously hinder elimination efforts. Using samples collected from five therapeutic efficacy studies conducted in 2007-11, we evaluated the prevalence of putative drug resistance mutations in the pfcrt, pfmdr1, and kelch13 genes at the time of those studies, as well as the ama1 gene for genetic relatedness using a pooled amplicon deep sequencing approach. Among all sites, the kelch13 gene showed no mutations, whereas the pfcrt CVIET genotype was fixed in all populati...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Abstract Strongyloidiasis, caused by Strongyloides stercoralis infection, is an important neglected tropical disease that causes significant public health problems in the tropics and subtropics. The disease can persist in hosts for decades and may be life-threatening because of hyperinfection and dissemination. Ivermectin (mostly) and albendazole are the most common anthelmintics used for treatment. Albendazole is suboptimal for this parasite, and although ivermectin is quite effective in immunocompromised patients, a multiple-course regimen is required. Furthermore, reliance on a single drug class for treating in...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Abstract Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is a severe tick-borne infection endemic to the Americas. Oral doxycycline is effective, but during severe life-threatening disease, intravenous therapy is recommended. Unfortunately, intravenous formulations of doxycycline are not always available. Therefore, we aimed to determine the susceptibility of R. rickettsii to an alternative parenteral agent, tigecycline, in vitro and in vivo. To determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of tigecycline, R. rickettsii-inoculated Vero cells were incubated with medium containing tigecycline....
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Authors: Senerovic L, Opsenica D, Moric I, Aleksic I, Spasić M, Vasiljevic B Abstract Infective diseases have become health threat of a global proportion due to appearance and spread of microorganisms resistant to majority of therapeutics currently used for their treatment. Therefore, there is a constant need for development of new antimicrobial agents, as well as novel therapeutic strategies. Quinolines and quinolones, isolated from plants, animals, and microorganisms, have demonstrated numerous biological activities such as antimicrobial, insecticidal, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, and antitumor. For more tha...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Publication date: 14–20 September 2019Source: The Lancet, Volume 394, Issue 10202Author(s): Arun Venkatesan, Benedict D Michael, John C Probasco, Romergryko G Geocadin, Tom Solomon
Source: The Lancet - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: 14–20 September 2019Source: The Lancet, Volume 394, Issue 10202Author(s): Amir Abdoli
Source: The Lancet - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Cryptosporidium spp. are prevalent zoonotic parasites associated with a high burden among children. To date only limited molecular epidemiological data on E. bieneusi and Cryptosporidi...
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
ConclusionsC. burnetii is rarely transmitted by ticks, but we proved that it is present in the environment, so it may be a danger to humans. The most common co-occurrence after tick bite concernsC. burnetii andB. burgdorferi.
Source: Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
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