De novo synthesis of astaxanthin: from organisms to genes

Publication date: Available online 22 August 2019Source: Trends in Food Science &TechnologyAuthor(s): Ning Fang, Chunkai Wang, Xiaofeng Liu, Xue Zhao, Yanhua Liu, Xinmin Liu, Yongmei Du, Zhongfeng Zhang, Hongbo ZhangAbstractBackgroundAstaxanthin is a ketocarotenoid with stronger antioxidant activity than vitamin E and coenzyme Q10, and with pharmacological effects against cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, inflammation, and others. Increased astaxanthin supplementation in food, nutraceuticals, and cosmetic products has resulted in tremendous growth in the demand for natural astaxanthin.Scope and approachAstaxanthin is found widely in aquatic animals and some other organisms, but its de novo synthesis is limited to several bacteria, protists, fungi, algae and plants. Metabolic engineering offers approaches to create systems for high-efficiency production of astaxanthin, which will require in-depth dissection of the astaxanthin synthesis enzymes in the available organisms.Key findings and conclusionsHere, we review the de novo synthesis of astaxanthin in bacteria, protists, fungi, algae and plants, and the functional enzymes of specific organisms. A protein-sequence based phylogenetic tree was established to reveal the evolutionary relationships of astaxanthin synthesis proteins across organisms. This review will provide valuable information for the metabolic engineering of astaxanthin bioreactors.
Source: Trends in Food Science and Technology - Category: Food Science Source Type: research

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