Machine Learning Approaches for Epidemiological Investigations of Food-Borne Disease Outbreaks
Foodborne diseases (FBDs) are infections of the gastrointestinal tract caused by foodborne pathogens (FBPs) such as bacteria (Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC)) and several viruses, but also parasites and some fungi. Artificial intelligence (AI) and its sub-discipline machine learning (ML) are re-emerging and gaining an ever increasing popularity in the scientific community and industry, and could lead to actionable knowledge in diverse ranges of sectors including epidemiological investigations of FBD outbreaks and antimicrobial resistance (AMR). As genotyping using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is becoming more accessible and affordable, it is increasingly used as a routine tool for the detection of pathogens, and has the potential to differentiate between outbreak strains that are closely related, identify virulence/resistance genes and provide improved understanding of transmission events within hours to days. In most cases, the computational pipeline of WGS data analysis can be divided into four (though, not necessarily consecutive) major steps: de novo genome assembly, genome characterization, comparative genomics and inference of phylogeny or phylogenomics. In each step, ML could be used to increase the speed and potentially the accuracy (provided increasing amounts of high-quality input data) of identification of the source of ongoing out- breaks, leading to more efficient treatment and prevention of additional cases. In this r...
ConclusionMultidrug resistance was higher among HLGR and HLSR isolates compared to non-HLGR and non-HLSR isolates which is a concern because it results in limitation of treatment choices. More than 50% of the isolates were sensitive to aminoglycosides; hence correct identification in clinical laboratories and administration of these antibiotics can result in decrease of antibiotics such as Vancomycin and Linezolid and help to reduce the emergence of resistance to these drugs.
ConclusionsIn conclusion, it would appear that the most prevalent mcr gene of E. coli from diarrheic weaned piglets in Korea was mcr-3. And, to our best knowledge, this is the first report for coexistence of two plasmid-mediated colistin resistance genes, mcr-1 and mcr-3 in the same isolates (0258, 0491, 0516) from piglets with diarrhea in Korea. Those mcr–positive isolates showed multi-drug resistance, and majority of those encoded Stx2e and F18. This indicates that the risk of inefficient treatment for edema disease in weaned piglets.
Publication date: Available online 19 September 2019Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial ResistanceAuthor(s): Alexsandra Maria Lima Scavuzzi, Elizabeth Maria Bispo Beltrão, Elza Ferreira Firmo, Érica Maria de Oliveira, Fernanda Gomes Beserra, Ana Catarina de Souza Lopes
Conclusions: Healthy children with NTS musculoskeletal infections more frequently report reptile exposure and preceding gastrointestinal symptoms and have pelvic and spinal involvement compared with children with musculoskeletal infections due to S. aureus. NTS should be considered as a potential cause of musculoskeletal infections in children with these risk factors. In contrast to previous case reports and case series, children with NTS musculoskeletal infections had a low rate of complications.
Listeria monocytogenes meningitis in Danish children 1 month to 17 years from 2000 to 2017 was identified and patient files reviewed. There were 5 cases, equaling an annual incidence of 0.024 per 100,000 children or 0.014 when excluding 2 immunodeficient children. Even in a country with a high general incidence of listeriosis, Listeria meningitis is a rare event in healthy children.
Conclusions: Among children with acute gastroenteritis who were younger than 5 years of age, L. reuteri compared with placebo, as an adjunct to rehydration therapy, did not reduce the duration of diarrhea; however, it reduced the duration of hospitalization.
This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of IPI in a cohort of internationally adopted children and to investigate epidemiologic factors and clinical features related to IPIs. Methods: A retrospective study involving internationally adopted children
People who swim in warm freshwater lakes, ponds and hot springs should do their best to avoid getting water up their nose because it could transmit a deadly parasite, a U.S. case report suggests.
In this study, cephalexin (CEX), as an effective antibiotic, was loaded into polycaprolactone (PCL)-gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) nanofibrous by electrospinning for the development of a new wound dressing. The electrospun nanofibrous possessed continuous and smooth structure with the fiber diameters ranging from 280 to 330 nm. Swelling examination exhibited that the electrospun nanofibrous could take up water by 400–600%. Antibacterial activity of PCL/GelMA loading with CEX had a great inhibition towards both Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and negative-bacteria Escherichia coli. The hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and ...
In this study, we were constructed a photocatalytic and antibacterial material AgCl/Carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) by deposition-precipitation method. A series of characterizations indicate that AgCl nanoparticles are deposited on CNTs and then dispersed together on g-C3N4 (CN). The photocatalytic properties of the composites were investigated by photodegrading tetracycline under visible light. The AgCl/CNTs/CN nanocomposites exhibit excellent photocatalytic efficiency of 86.44%, which is three times the photocatalytic degradation efficiency of pure CN and AgCl/CN. In addition, the catalytic acti...