Correlation between cephalic circumference at birth and ocular alterations in patients with microcephaly potentially associated with Zika Virus infection

CONCLUSION: Although the knowledge of the natural evolution of the disease is still scarce, the current evidence is strong enough to establish a causal relationship between ZIKV infection during pregnancy and the increased incidence of the microcephaly and serious eye alterations that lead to the severe lower vision of these children.RESUMO: INTRODU ÇÃO: O vírus Zika (ZIKV) é um arbovírus isolado pela primeira vez no ano de 1947, sendo transmitido para o homem pelo mosquito Aedes aegypti. No Brasil foi detectado pela primeira vez em maio de 2015. Desde então, ZIKV foi identificado como o agente etiológico da doença exantemática aguda n o Brasil, e neuropediatras do Recife deram o sinal de alerta sobre uma epidemia de microcefalia, tendo o Ministério da Saúde do Brasil confirmado a associação entre ZIKV e malformações congênitas e síndromes neurológicas. O olho, sendo uma extensão do cérebro em desenvolvimento, tem sido examinado em pacientes com microcefalia e história materna de infecção por ZIKV. MÉTODO: Foram analisados, por meio de prontuário médico, 20 pacientes recém-nascidos, portadores de microcefalia, cujas mães tiveram presumidamente Zika vírus durante a gestação. A estatística não paramét rica Qui-Quadrado foi utilizada para verific...
Source: Revista da Associacao Medica Brasileira - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

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ard Hildt Infection with Zika virus (ZIKV) came first to public attention after it was found to be associated with congenital microcephaly during the outbreak in Brazil (2015–2016). Diagnosis of ZIKV suffers from extensive cross-reactivity with other Flaviviruses, which are circulating in many ZIKV epidemic areas. Due to the fatal outcome of ZIKV infection during pregnancy, detailed knowledge about neutralizing and non-neutralizing epitopes is crucial for the development of robust detection systems of protective antibodies. Therefore, additional information about ZIKV immunogenicity and antibody response is requi...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Children who are exposed to Zika virus in utero may develop structural defects of the cranium such as microcephaly. Now we understand that even children born to Zika virus infected mothers may develop neurodevelopmental and neurosensory deficiencies in the second year of life – in the absence of microcephaly. During the 2015-16 Zika virus epidemic […]
Source: virology blog - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Basic virology Information Bayley scales congenital infection gestation microcephaly neurological deficit placenta pregnancy viral virus viruses zika virus Source Type: blogs
Conclusion We found no differences in pregnancy or neonatal outcomes between women who tested positive and presumed positive for Zika virus during pregnancy. Testing of infants and placenta tissue after delivery was largely inconclusive. Improvement in testing for Zika virus infection is needed to determine which pregnancies are at risk for congenital anomalies. Further research is still needed to determine which children are at risk for poor neurodevelopmental outcomes related to Zika virus and how to best coordinate care among the immigrant population during a new disease epidemic. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 33...
Source: American Journal of Perinatology - Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Pregnant women &vaccines against emerging epidemic threats: Ethics guidance for preparedness, research, and response. Vaccine. 2019 May 03;: Authors: Krubiner CB, Faden RR, Karron RA, Little MO, Lyerly AD, Abramson JS, Beigi RH, Cravioto AR, Durbin AP, Gellin BG, Gupta SB, Kaslow DC, Kochhar S, Luna F, Saenz C, Sheffield JS, Tindana PO, PREVENT Working Group Abstract Zika virus, influenza, and Ebola have called attention to the ways in which infectious disease outbreaks can severely - and at times uniquely - affect the health interests of pregnant women and their offspring. These examples also hig...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
In this study, we developed a mouse model of ZIKV infection that specifically establishes vertical maternal-fetal transmission of ZIKV in 40–60% of fetuses when the dams acquire ZIKV infection during pregnancy. This mouse model somewhat mirrors the experience in humans at the peak of the epidemic in the Americas. Using this model, we demonstrate that a well-documented directly acting antiviral (DAA) compound that targets flaviviral RNA synthesis can completely prevent fetal infection when the treatment is started at the time of infection. Notably, we show that the treatment commenced at the time of peak viremia is st...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Conclusion: We presume that as a consequence of prenatal ZIKV infection, the fetal brain and other organs are damaged before birth through direct injury. Following this, active infection ends during intrauterine life, and as a consequence the immune system of the infant is unable to build up a consistent immune response thereafter. Further understanding of the mechanisms taking part in the pathogenesis of ZIKV congenital infection is needed. This finding might change our paradigm regarding serological response in the ZIKV congenital infection.
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research
In this study, we developed a mouse model of ZIKV infection that specifically establishes vertical maternal-fetal transmission of ZIKV in 40-60% of fetuses when the dams acquire ZIKV infection during pregnancy. This mouse model somewhat mirrors the experience in humans at the peak of the epidemic in the Americas. Using this model, we demonstrate that a well-documented directly acting antiviral (DAA) compound that targets flaviviral RNA synthesis can completely prevent fetal infection when the treatment is started at the time of infection. Notably, we show that the treatment commenced at the time of peak viremia is still ab...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
This study characterizes the contribution of household transmission in ZIKV epidemics and demonstrates the benefits of integrating multiple datasets to gain more insights on epidemic dynamics. PMID: 30995296 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Am J Epidemiol - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research
In this study, we exposed apically well-differentiated human NECs cultured at the ALI to the related flaviviruses ZIKV, JEV, WNV, and Usutu virus (USUV). We selected these viruses due to the recent increasing evidences of potential threat to humans (Cadar et al., 2017; Simonin et al., 2018). We show that NECs are particularly susceptible to JEV and WNV infection and to other flaviviruses included in this study. Infection with each virus led to shedding of infectious virus particles through the apical and basolateral surfaces and triggered host mechanisms at the level of inflammatory and antiviral mediators. Given...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In this study, we evaluated ATA as a potential antiviral drug against ZIKV replication. The antiviral activity of ATA against ZIKV replication in vitro showed median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 13.87 ± 1.09 μM and 33.33 ± 1.13 μM in Vero and A549 cells, respectively; without showing any cytotoxic effect in both cell lines (median cytotoxic concentration (CC50)> 1,000 μM). Moreover, ATA protected both cell types from ZIKV-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) and apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. In addition, pre-treatment of Vero cells with ATA for up to 72 h also resulted...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
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