Potential benefits of gene editing for the future of poultry farming.

Potential benefits of gene editing for the future of poultry farming. Transgenic Res. 2019 Aug;28(Suppl 2):87-92 Authors: Tizard ML, Jenkins KA, Cooper CA, Woodcock ME, Challagulla A, Doran TJ Abstract The chicken is an exemplar of efficient intensive animal agriculture and provides two valuable food products, chicken meat and eggs. Only aquaculture is better, by efficiency, but poultry is still top, by mass of animal protein produced as food in the global context. However this efficiency and intensive production comes with a number of challenges. Though the genetics of selective breeding have led to dramatic improvements in yield, efficiency and product quality, traits that relate to disease and welfare outcomes have not been so tractable. These two issues are major impacts to the industry in terms of production and in terms of public perception. Both transgenic technology and genome editing have clear potential for impact in these two important areas. The reproductive biology of birds requires techniques very specific to birds to achieve heritable (germline) edited traits. These are quite involved and, even though they are now well-defined and reliable, there is room for improvement and advances can be expected in the future. Currently the key targets for this technology are modifying chicken genes involved in virus-receptor interactions and cellular response involved in infection. For the egg industry the technology is being applied to the issue of se...
Source: Transgenic Research - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

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by James A. Hay, Karen Laurie, Michael White, Steven Riley The strength and breadth of an individual’s antibody repertoire is an important predictor of their response to influenza infection or vaccination. Although progress has been made in understanding qualitatively how repeated exposures shape the antibody mediated immune response, quantitative under standing remains limited. We developed a set of mathematical models describing short-term antibody kinetics following influenza infection or vaccination and fit them to haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titres from 5 groups of ferrets which were exposed to different ...
Source: PLoS Computational Biology - Category: Biology Authors: Source Type: research
In this study we show, for the first time, significant alterations in cholesterol efflux capacity in adolescents throughout the range of BMI, a relationship between six circulating adipocyte-derived EVs microRNAs targeting ABCA1 and cholesterol efflux capacity, and in vitro alterations of cholesterol efflux in macrophages exposed to visceral adipose tissue adipocyte-derived EVs acquired from human subjects. These results suggest that adipocyte-derived EVs, and their microRNA content, may play a critical role in the early pathological development of ASCVD. Commentary on the Developing UK Government Position on Hea...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
We studied the constellation of genes encoding polymerase complex proteins of master donor viruses for Russian live attenuated influenza vaccine type B. Reassortants of the reserve attenuation donor B/Leningrad/14/17/55 with B/USSR/60/69 master donor virus currently used for manufacturing seasonal influenza vaccine were prepared and examined. Most reassortants obtained by the classical reassortment method inherited all genes from the B/Leningrad/14/17/55 virus except the gene encoding PB1 subunit of the polymerase complex. One reassortant was selected for further evaluation of the role ofPB1 gene. Greater attenuation of th...
Source: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 11 July 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Jiayun Yang, Zhengxiang Wang, Yingying Du, Yane Jia, Liang Wang, Shuai Xu, Qiyun ZhuAbstractDuring 2012―2015, six H5N1 avian influenza viruses were isolated from domestic birds and the environment around Qinghai Lake. Phylogenetic analysis of HA genes revealed that A/chicken/Gansu/XG2/2012 (CK/GS/XG2/12) belonged to clade 2.3.2.1a, while A/environment/Qinghai/1/2013 (EN/QH/1/13), A/chicken/Qinghai/QH1/2015 (CK/QH/QH1/15), A/chicken/Qinghai/QH2/2015 (CK/QH/QH2/15), A/chicken/Qinghai/QH3/2015 (CK/QH/QH3/15), and A/goose/Qinghai/QH6/201...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Abstract We previously demonstrated that despite no airborne transmissibility increase compared to low pathogenic avian influenza viruses, select human isolates of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) virus exhibit greater virulence in animal models and a lower threshold pH for fusion. In the current study, we utilized both in vitro and in vivo approaches to identify key residues responsible for hemagglutinin (HA) intracellular cleavage, acid stability, and virulence in mice. We found that the four amino acid insertion (-KRTA-) at the HA cleavage site of A/Taiwan/1/2017 virus is essential for HA intracellular...
Source: Virology - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Virology Source Type: research
This article provides a brief overview of important advances in preparing for an influenza pandemic, viewed largely from the perspective of the healthcare system. Recent findings We have gained insights into influenza pathogenicity, the animal reservoir and have improved global surveillance for new strains and tools for assessing the pandemic risk posed by novel strains. Public health has refined plans for severity assessment, distribution of countermeasures and nonpharmaceutical approaches. Modest improvements in vaccine technology include cell culture-based vaccines, adjuvanted vaccine and recombinant technology. Conv...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: NOSOCOMIAL AND HEALTHCARE RELATED INFECTIONS: Edited by Trish M. Perl Source Type: research
This study compares two aerosol generators to determine which is superior for animal studies. Aerosol research methods and equipment need to be well-characterized to optimize the development of animal models for respiratory pathogens, including bioterrorism agents. This information will be critical for pivotal efficacy studies in animals to evaluate potential vaccines or treatments against these agents. PMID: 31253680 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Applied and Environmental Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Appl Environ Microbiol Source Type: research
Pigs are important livestock and comprehensive understanding of their immune responses in infections is critical to improve vaccines and therapies. Moreover, similarities between human and swine physiology suggest that pigs are a superior animal model for immunological studies. However, paucity of experimental tools for a systematic analysis of the immune responses in pigs represent a major disadvantage. To evaluate the pig as a biomedical model and additionally expand the knowledge of rare immune cell populations in swine, we established a multicolor flow cytometry analysis platform of surface marker expression and cellul...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In this study, we report a temperature induced conditionally expressed phage PhiX174 gene E mediated lysis of Salmonella under in vivo conditions that can increase the immunogenicity of a DNA vaccine delivered via Salmonella carrier system. We electroporated gene E encoding lysis plasmid pJHL187 along with the pcDNA-HA plasmid encoding H1N1 HA into attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium, strain JOL1893. Using C57BL/6 mice as the model, we showed that the mice intragastrically vaccinated with JOL1893 induced significant production of HA-specific humoral and cell mediated immune responses compared to the JOL1837, which carry pcDN...
Source: Journal of Immunological Methods - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: J Immunol Methods Source Type: research
In conclusion, there is solid evidence that obesity deregulates cellular mechanisms related to nutrient sensing. Altered Intercellular Communication It is accepted that aging impacts the organism at the cellular level, but also decreases the capacity of cells of an organism to interact. During aging, there is a decreased communication at the neuronal, neuroendocrine, and endocrine levels. Two of the most compelling examples of impaired communication are inflammaging and immunosenescence. The inflammaging phenotype results in elevated cytokines. These cytokines can accelerate and propagate the aging process. T...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
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