Development of a Gateway-compatible two-component expression vector system for plants.
Abstract Genetic transformation of plants offers the possibility of functional characterization of individual genes and the improvement of plant traits. Development of novel transformation vectors is essential to improve plant genetic transformation technologies for various applications. Here, we present the development of a Gateway-compatible two-component expression vector system for Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation. The expression system contains two independent plasmid vector sets, the activator vector and the reporter vector, based on the concept of the GAL4/UAS trans-activation system. The activat...
Source: Transgenic Research - August 21, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Li N, Yuan D, Huang LJ Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Serum amyloid A1 is involved in amyloid plaque aggregation and memory decline in amyloid beta abundant condition.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by cognitive impairment, progressive neurodegeneration, and amyloid-β (Aβ) lesion. In the neuronal death and disease progression, inflammation is known to play an important role. Our previous study on acute-phase protein serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) overexpressed mice showed that the liver-derived SAA1 accumulated in the brain by crossing the brain blood barrier (BBB) and trigger the depressive-like behavior on mouse. Since SAA1 involved in immune responses in other diseases, we focused on the possibility that SAA1 may exacerbate...
Source: Transgenic Research - August 12, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Jang S, Jang WY, Choi M, Lee J, Kwon W, Yi J, Park SJ, Yoon D, Lee S, Kim MO, Ryoo ZY Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Development of dairy herd of transgenic goats as biofactory for large-scale production of biologically active recombinant human lactoferrin.
Abstract The primary male-goats Lac-1 (human lactoferrin gene construct hLF5) and Lac-2 (human lactoferrin gene construct hLF3) with genome containing human lactoferrin gene were bred and the sperm bank of primary male-goats and their male descendents (F1-F7) was created. The herd of goats (200 transgenic females) that produced recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) in their milk at levels up to 16 g/L was obtained. The rhLF from milk of transgenic goats, natural human lactoferrin (hLF) from woman milk and natural goat lactoferrin (gLF) from milk of non-transgenic goats were purified using cation-exchange chrom...
Source: Transgenic Research - August 8, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Semak I, Budzevich A, Maliushkova E, Kuzniatsova V, Popkov N, Zalutsky I, Ivashkevich O Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Programme OECD conference on genome editing : Applications in agriculture: implications for health, environment and regulation.
Authors: PMID: 31321679 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Transgenic Research)
Source: Transgenic Research - July 20, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Foreword.
PMID: 31321680 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Transgenic Research)
Source: Transgenic Research - July 20, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Kearns P Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

An overview of OECD activities related to modern techniques of biotechnology and genome editing : OECD conference on genome editing, June 2018.
PMID: 31321681 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Transgenic Research)
Source: Transgenic Research - July 20, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Kearns P Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Global developments of genome editing in agriculture.
Abstract Genome editing, particularly using of site-directed nucleases such as the CRISPR system, has spread rapidly through the biological sciences. Genome editing in crops could significantly speed up the progress of breeding programs. It could drive the development of traits in new crops and allow improvements in yield and pest resistance, adaptation to climate change, and industrial and pharmaceutical applications. However biofortification is a key challenge to satisfy nutritional needs in vitamins for developing countries and new consumer's needs for developed countries. China and the USA lead scientific rese...
Source: Transgenic Research - July 20, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ricroch A Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Precision plant breeding using genome editing technologies.
PMID: 31321683 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Transgenic Research)
Source: Transgenic Research - July 20, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Gao C Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Agricultural applications of genome editing in farmed animals.
Abstract Animal husbandry is believed to predate farming of crops, and remains a core component of most agricultural systems. Historic breeding strategies were based largely on visual observation, crossing animals that were perceived to display enhanced merit. Advances in sequencing capacity coupled with reduced costs have allowed genomic selection tools to deliver significant contribution to breeding regimes. The application of genome editors to make specific changes to livestock genomes has the potential to deliver additional benefits. PMID: 31321684 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Transgenic Research)
Source: Transgenic Research - July 20, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Lillico S Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

DNA-free genome editing with preassembled CRISPR/Cas9 ribonucleoproteins in plants.
Abstract Processes of traditional trait development in plants depend on genetic variations derived from spontaneous mutation or artificial random mutagenesis. Limited availability of desired traits in crossable relatives or failure to generate the wanted phenotypes by random mutagenesis led to develop innovative breeding methods that are truly cross-species and precise. To this end, we devised novel methods of precise genome engineering that are characterized to use pre-assembled CRISPR/Cas9 ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex instead of using nucleic ands or Agrobacterium. We found that our methods successfully engin...
Source: Transgenic Research - July 20, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Park J, Choe S Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Crop plants with improved culture and quality traits for food, feed and other uses.
, Devaux P, Rogowsky PM Abstract The large French research project GENIUS (2012-2019, https://www6.inra.genius-project_eng/ ) provides a good showcase of current genome editing techniques applied to crop plants. It addresses a large variety of agricultural species (rice, wheat, maize, tomato, potato, oilseed rape, poplar, apple and rose) together with some models (Arabidopsis, Brachypodium, Physcomitrella). Using targeted mutagenesis as its work horse, the project is limited to proof of concept under confined conditions. It mainly covers traits linked to crop culture, such as disease resistance to viruses and fung...
Source: Transgenic Research - July 20, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Nogué F, Vergne P, Chèvre AM, Chauvin JE, Bouchabké-Coussa O, Déjardin A, Chevreau E, Hibrand-Saint Oyant L, Mazier M, Barret P, Guiderdoni E, Sallaud C, Foucrier S, Devaux P, Rogowsky PM Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Sequence-specific nucleases as tools for enhancing disease resistance in crops.
Abstract Genome editing technologies, such as CRISPR/Cas, have recently become valuable tools for plant reverse genetics as well as crop improvement, including enhancement of disease resistance. Targeting susceptibility (S) genes by genome editing has proven to be a viable strategy for generating resistance to both bacterial and fungal pathogens in various crops. Examples include generating loss-of-function mutations in promoter elements of the SWEET S genes, which are targeted by transcription activator-like effectors secreted by many phytopathogenic Xanthomonas bacteria, as well as in the conserved MLO locus tha...
Source: Transgenic Research - July 20, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Nekrasov V Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

The global need for plant breeding innovation.
PMID: 31321688 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Transgenic Research)
Source: Transgenic Research - July 20, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Jorasch P Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Potential benefits of gene editing for the future of poultry farming.
Abstract The chicken is an exemplar of efficient intensive animal agriculture and provides two valuable food products, chicken meat and eggs. Only aquaculture is better, by efficiency, but poultry is still top, by mass of animal protein produced as food in the global context. However this efficiency and intensive production comes with a number of challenges. Though the genetics of selective breeding have led to dramatic improvements in yield, efficiency and product quality, traits that relate to disease and welfare outcomes have not been so tractable. These two issues are major impacts to the industry in terms of ...
Source: Transgenic Research - July 20, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tizard ML, Jenkins KA, Cooper CA, Woodcock ME, Challagulla A, Doran TJ Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Application of genome editing in farm animals: cattle.
Abstract Milk and meat from cattle and buffaloes contribute 45% of the global animal protein supply, followed by chickens (31%), and pigs (20%). In 2016, the global cattle population of 1.0 billion head produced 6.5 billion tons of cows' milk, and 66 million tons of beef. In the past century, cattle breeding programs have greatly increased the yield per animal with a resultant decrease in the emissions intensity per unit of milk or beef, but this has not been true in all regions. Genome editing research in cattle to date has focused on disease resistance (e.g. tuberculosis), production (e.g. myostatin knockout; pr...
Source: Transgenic Research - July 20, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Van Eenennaam AL Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Application of genome editing in aquatic farm animals: Atlantic salmon.
Abstract Gene editing offers opportunities to solve fish farming sustainability issues that presently hampers expansion of the aquaculture industry. In for example Atlantic salmon farming, there are now two major bottlenecks limiting the expansion of the industry. One is the genetic impact of escaped farmed salmon on wild populations, which is considered the most long-term negative effect on the environment. Secondly and the utmost acute problem is the fish parasite salmon lice, which is currently causing high lethality in wild salmonids due to high concentrations of the parasite in the sea owing to sea cage salmo...
Source: Transgenic Research - July 20, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Wargelius A Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Future-proofing regulation for rapidly changing biotechnologies.
Abstract Our understanding of DNA structure and how it interacts with the environment to give form and function at the organism level is growing at an unprecedented pace which shows no sign of slowing. These developments have already led to many new products and will continue to underpin as yet unpredicted future developments in biotechnology. However, this potential will not be realised unless the mechanisms for risk assessment, regulatory approval, product claims and labelling etc. are fit for purpose, have the confidence of all stakeholders and are sufficiently agile to support this rapidly changing field. The ...
Source: Transgenic Research - July 20, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Jones HD Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Current risk assessment approaches for environmental and food and feed safety assessment.
Abstract Foundational activities at the international level underlie current risk and safety assessment approaches for genetically engineered/modified organisms (GEOs/GMOs). Early risk assessment considerations beginning with the OECD 'Blue Book' established risk/safety assessment as the characterization of the organism and its environmental release; establishment and persistence in the environment; and human and ecological effects, analyzed in principle through existing methods. Important in this context was recognition that GEOs/GMOs as a class did not represent new risks relative to products of traditional plan...
Source: Transgenic Research - July 20, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Wolt JD Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Risk and safety considerations 2: genetic variations and potential risks-traditional breeding and genome editing.
PMID: 31321694 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Transgenic Research)
Source: Transgenic Research - July 20, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tabei Y Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Where are we with unintended effects in genome editing applications from DNA to phenotype: focus on plant applications.
y, France Abstract Agriculture has benefited from various conventional techniques for plant breeding, including chemical- or radiation-induced mutagenesis, and to some extent from transgenesis. Genome editing techniques are likely to allow straightforward, cost-effective and efficient gene-specific modifications for identified genetic traits associated to agronomic interest. As for previous plant breeding techniques, genome editing techniques need an appraisal for unintended effects. Hence, an evaluation of potential specific risks associated with genome editing must be considered. The Scientific Committee of...
Source: Transgenic Research - July 20, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Troadec MB, Pagès JC, the Scientific Committee of the High Council for biotechnology, France Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Problem formulation and phenotypic characterisation for the development of novel crops.
Abstract Phenotypic characterisation provides important information about novel crops that helps their developers to make technical and commercial decisions. Phenotypic characterisation comprises two activities. Product characterisation checks that the novel crop has the qualities of a viable product-the intended traits have been introduced and work as expected, and no unintended changes have been made that will adversely affect the performance of the final product. Risk assessment evaluates whether the intended and unintended changes are likely to harm human health or the environment. Product characterisation fol...
Source: Transgenic Research - July 20, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Raybould A Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Regulatory aspects of gene editing in Argentina.
Abstract Argentina is a world leader in regards to regulation and adoption of genetically modified (GM) crops. As a consequence, the regulatory aspects of gene editing applied to agriculture were considered proactively by the Argentinian regulators, who implemented simple but solid pioneering regulatory criteria for gene edited crops. At present, the Argentine regulatory system is fully able to establish if a gene-edited crop should be classified (and handled) either as a GM crop or a conventional new variety. To this end, the concept of "novel combination of genetic material" derived from the Cartagena ...
Source: Transgenic Research - July 20, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Lema MA Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Clarifying the regulation of genome editing in Australia: situation for genetically modified organisms.
Abstract Australia's gene technology regulatory scheme (GT Scheme) regulates activities with genetically modified organisms (GMOs, organisms modified by gene technology), including environmental releases. The scope of regulation, i.e. what organisms are and are not regulated, is set by the Gene Technology Act 2000 (GT Act) and GT Regulations 2001 (GT Regulations). The GT Act gives broad, overarching definitions of 'gene technology' and 'GMO' but also provides for exclusions and inclusions in the GT Regulations. Whether organisms developed with genome editing techniques are, or should be, regulated under countries'...
Source: Transgenic Research - July 20, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Thygesen P Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Clarifying the regulation of genome editing in Australia: situation for food.
PMID: 31321699 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Transgenic Research)
Source: Transgenic Research - July 20, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Kelly L Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Canadian regulatory aspects of gene editing technologies.
Abstract The development of gene editing techniques, capable of producing plants and animals with new and improved traits, is revolutionizing the world of plant and animal breeding and rapidly advancing to commercial reality. However, from a regulatory standpoint the Government of Canada views gene editing as another tool that will join current methods used to develop desirable traits in plants and animals. This is because Canada focusses on the potential risk resulting from the novelty of the trait, or plant or animal product entering the Canadian environment or market place, rather than the process or method by ...
Source: Transgenic Research - July 20, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ellens KW, Levac D, Pearson C, Savoie A, Strand N, Louter J, Tibelius C Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

The EU regulatory framework on genetically modified organisms (GMOs).
This article provides an overview of EU GMO legislation and implementation of the EU Court of Justice ruling on organisms obtained by mutagenesis techniques, issued in July 2018. It also updates on the recent initiatives by the European Commission and EU Member States on new developments in biotechnology. The manuscript is based on the author's contribution at the OECD Conference on Genome Editing, Applications in Agriculture, Implications for Health, Environment and Regulation held in Paris on 28-29 June 2018. It is complemented with updated information. PMID: 31321701 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Transgenic Research)
Source: Transgenic Research - July 20, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bruetschy C Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Regulation of genome edited technologies in India.
Abstract In India, genetically modified organisms and products thereof are regulated under the "Rules for the manufacture, use, import, export and storage of hazardous microorganisms, genetically engineered organisms or cells, 1989" (referred to as Rules, 1989) notified under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. These Rules are implemented by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Department of Biotechnology and State Governments though six competent authorities. The Rules, 1989 are supported by series of guidelines on contained research, biologics, confined field trials, food safety ...
Source: Transgenic Research - July 20, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Chimata MK, Bharti G Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Innovation and the regulation of products of agricultural biotechnology in the United States of America.
Abstract The policy of the United States government is to seek regulatory approaches, consistent with applicable laws, that protect health and the environment while reducing unnecessary regulatory burdens and avoiding unjustifiably inhibiting innovation, stigmatizing new technologies, or creating unnecessary trade barriers [Adapted from the National Strategy for Modernizing the Regulatory System for Biotechnology Products, Product of the Emerging Technologies Interagency Policy Coordination Committee's Biotechnology Working Group (OSTP 2016)]. U.S. agencies are focused on delivering health and environmental protec...
Source: Transgenic Research - July 20, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: McCammon SL, Mendelsohn M Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Meeting report of the OECD conference on "Genome Editing: Applications in Agriculture-Implications for Health, Environment and Regulation".
Meeting report of the OECD conference on "Genome Editing: Applications in Agriculture-Implications for Health, Environment and Regulation". Transgenic Res. 2019 Jul 15;: Authors: Friedrichs S, Takasu Y, Kearns P, Dagallier B, Oshima R, Schofield J, Moreddu C Abstract The "OECD Conference on Genome Editing: Applications in Agriculture-Implications for Health, Environment and Regulation" was held on the 28-29 June 2018 at the OECD headquarter and conference centre in Paris, France. It brought together policy makers, academia, innovators and other stakeholders involved in the topic, i...
Source: Transgenic Research - July 15, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Friedrichs S, Takasu Y, Kearns P, Dagallier B, Oshima R, Schofield J, Moreddu C Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

The maize α-zein promoter can be utilized as a strong inducer of cellulase enzyme expression in maize kernels.
In this study, we tested three endosperm promoters for expression of a cellulase gene. Promoters tested were rice globulin and glutelin promoters and a maize 19 kDa α-zein promoter. The rice promoters were used in two tandem expression constructs as well. Although the rice promoters were active in producing stable amounts of cellulase, the α-zein promoter was by far the most effective: as much as 9% of total soluble protein was recovered from seed of several independent events and plants. One or two inserts were detected by Southern blot in several lines, indicating that copy number did not appear to be re...
Source: Transgenic Research - July 1, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Vicuna Requesens D, Gonzalez Romero ME, Devaiah SP, Chang YK, Flory A, Streatfield S, Ring R, Phillips C, Hood NC, Marbaniang CD, Howard JA, Hood EE Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Pluripotent stem cell-derived organogenesis in the rat model system.
Abstract Rats make an excellent model system for studying xenotransplantation since, like mice pluripotent stem cell lines, such as embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells as well as gene knock-outs are also available for rats, besides rats have larger organs. The emergence of new genome-editing tools combined with stem cell technology, has revolutionized biomedical research including the field of regenerative medicine. The aim of this manuscript is to provide an overview of the recent progresses in stem cell-derived organ regeneration involving "gene knock-out" and "blastocyst compl...
Source: Transgenic Research - June 28, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Hirabayashi M, Goto T, Hochi S Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Assessment of potential impacts associated with gene flow from transgenic hybrids to Mexican maize landraces.
tínez JM, Meng C Abstract Genetically modified (GM) maize has been grown and safely consumed on a global scale since its commercialization in 1996. However, questions have been raised about the potential impact that GM maize could have on native maize landraces in Mexico, which is the center of origin and diversity of maize. This research was conducted to evaluate potential changes to maize landraces in an unlikely event of transgene introgression. For this study, two GM traits that confer insect protection and herbicide tolerance in maize (MON 89034 and MON 88017), designated as VT3Pro, were intr...
Source: Transgenic Research - June 27, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Duncan B, Leyva-Guerrero E, Werk T, Stojšin D, Baltazar BM, García-Lara S, Zavala-López M, de la Fuente-Martínez JM, Meng C Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Association between sheath blight resistance and chitinase activity in transgenic rice plants expressing McCHIT1 from bitter melon.
In this study, we inoculated rice plants with hyphae of the highly pathogenic strain RH-9 of rice SB fungus Rhizoctonia solani to obtain eight stable transgenic rice lines harbouring the chitinase gene (McCHIT1) of bitter melon with good SBR in the T5 generation. The mean disease index for SB of wild-type plants was 92% and 37-44% in transgenic lines. From 24 h before until 120 h after inoculation with R. solani, chitinase activity in stable transgenic plants with increased SBR was 2.0-5.5 and 1.8-2.7 times that of wild-type plants and plants of a disease-susceptible stable transgenic line, respectively. The corr...
Source: Transgenic Research - June 18, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Zhang C, Huang M, Sang X, Li P, Ling Y, Zhao F, Du D, Li Y, Yang Z, He G Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Production of a mutant of large-scale loach Paramisgurnus dabryanus with skin pigmentation loss by genome editing with CRISPR/Cas9 system.
This study demonstrated that CRISPR/Cas9 system could be practically performed to modify large-scale loach tyr to produce an albino mutant of high ornamental and commercial value, and for the first time showed successful use of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for genome editing in a Cobitidae species. PMID: 31183663 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Transgenic Research)
Source: Transgenic Research - June 10, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Xu X, Cao X, Gao J Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

A proteomic-based approach to study underlying molecular responses of the small intestine of Wistar rats to genetically modified corn (MON810).
Abstract A genetically modified (GM) commercial corn variety, MON810, resistant to European corn borer, has been shown to be non-toxic to mammals in a number of rodent feeding studies carried out in accordance with OECD Guidelines. Insect resistance results from expression of the Cry1Ab gene encoding an insecticidal Bt protein that causes lysis and cell death in susceptible insect larvae by binding to midgut epithelial cells, which is a key determinant of Cry toxin species specificity. Whilst whole animal studies are still recognised as the 'gold standard' for safety assessment, they only provide indirect evidence...
Source: Transgenic Research - June 6, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Al-Harbi A, Lary S, Edwards MG, Qusti S, Cockburn A, Poulsen M, Gatehouse AMR Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Neighbouring crop diversity mediates the effect of Bt cotton on insect community and leaf damage in fields.
Abstract Effects of large-scale cultivation of transgenic crops on agricultural biodiversity remain unclear, particularly in the context of complex ecological interactions between transgenic crops and other organisms. Here we conducted a comprehensive survey to investigate the number of species, population abundance, community evenness and dominance of insects and weeds as well as leaf damage to weeds in Bt and non-Bt cotton fields at 27 sites across northern China. The role of neighbouring crop diversity around cotton fields in controlling insects and weeds in the cotton fields was also assessed. In addition, we ...
Source: Transgenic Research - May 25, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Liu Y, Luo Z Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Enhanced foreign protein accumulation in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves co-infiltrated with a TMV vector and plant cell cycle regulator genes.
Abstract In this short communication, we report that the cell cycle checkpoint genes At-CycD2 and At-CDC27a from Arabidopsis thaliana enhance the transient heterologous protein expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. We selected a well-studied and widely used virus expression vector based on TMV for the delivery of recombinant proteins into the host plant. Co-infiltration of TMV-gfp and binary expression vectors carrying the At-CycD2 and At-CDC27a genes, respectively, resulted in enhanced GFP fluorescence in agroinoculated leaves. These findings corresponded with the observation of (1) higher mRNA levels for TMV and ...
Source: Transgenic Research - May 16, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Kopertekh L, Schiemann J Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Co-expression of fat1 and fat2 in transgenic pigs promotes synthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Abstract Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are essential for the development and health of mammals, such as humans and livestock. n-3 PUFAs must be supplied by diet due to the absence of a key gene, namely, delta-15 desaturase (fat1), which is responsible for synthesizing n-3 PUFAs from a major type of n-6 PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA). To increase the dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs for humans, fat1-expressing transgenic (TG) livestock have been produced to provide n-3 PUFA-rich meats for humans. However, these TG livestock synthesized n-3 PUFAs from diet-derived, instead of endogenously produced, n-6 PUFAs...
Source: Transgenic Research - April 29, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tang F, Yang X, Liu D, Zhang X, Huang X, He X, Shi J, Li Z, Wu Z Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Host-induced silencing of Mi-msp-1 confers resistance to root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in eggplant.
Abstract RNA interference (RNAi)-based host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) is emerging as a novel, efficient and target-specific tool to combat phytonematode infection in crop plants. Mi-msp-1, an effector gene expressed in the subventral pharyngeal gland cells of Meloidogyne incognita plays an important role in the parasitic process. Mi-msp-1 effector is conserved in few of the species of root-knot nematodes (RKNs) and does not share considerable homology with the other phytonematodes, thereby making it a suitable target for HIGS with minimal off-target effects. Six putative eggplant transformants harbouring a sin...
Source: Transgenic Research - April 6, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Chaudhary S, Dutta TK, Tyagi N, Shivakumara TN, Papolu PK, Chobhe KA, Rao U Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Transcription termination sequences support the expression of transgene product secreted with milk.
Abstract Expression of the reporter gene in transgenic animals depends on the surrounding chromatin environment. Recent genome-wide studies have shown that, in mammals, the entire genome is transcribed. Transcription through a transgene often has a negative effect on the expression of a reporter gene. Here, we compared the ability of well-studied chicken chromatin insulator HS4 and bidirectional transcription terminators from the human genome to support high-level expression of the firefly luciferase gene (Fluc) under control of the previously characterized goat β-casein gene promoter. The insertion of HS4 or...
Source: Transgenic Research - March 28, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Deykin A, Tikhonov M, Kalmykov V, Korobko I, Georgiev P, Maksimenko O Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Evaluation of lettuce chloroplast and soybean cotyledon as platforms for production of functional bone morphogenetic protein 2.
DBS, Aragão FJL Abstract The bone morphogenetic protein BMP2 plays a crucial role in the formation and regeneration of bone and cartilage, which is critical for maintaining skeletal integrity and bone fracture repair. Because of its important role in osteogenic properties it has been commercially produced for clinical use. Here we report attempts to express human BMP2 using two plant systems (lettuce chloroplast and soybean seeds). The rhBMP2 gene (coding for the 13 kDa active polypeptide) was introduced in two regions of the lettuce chloroplast genome. Two homoplasmic events were achieved and RT-PCR ...
Source: Transgenic Research - March 19, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Queiroz LN, Maldaner FR, Mendes ÉA, Sousa AR, D'Allastta RC, Mendonça G, Mendonça DBS, Aragão FJL Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Transgenic crops: trends and dynamics in the world and in Latin America.
, Gómez-Viquez H Abstract Transgenic crops have been the recipient of strong support as well as vigorously opposed opinions since their appearance. In any case, their growth throughout the world has been remarkable, and the production and commercialization of transgenics in Latin America has been especially significant. The purpose of the present study was to analyze transgenic crop production trends around the world and the relationship between the area allocated to the cultivation of transgenic crops and the profits generated by this activity. Data concerning Latin American countries and their participati...
Source: Transgenic Research - March 16, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Barragán-Ocaña A, Reyes-Ruiz G, Olmos-Peña S, Gómez-Viquez H Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Remusatia vivipara lectin and Sclerotium rolfsii lectin interfere with the development and gall formation activity of Meloidogyne incognita in transgenic tomato.
In this study, a binary vector carrying Remusatia vivipara (rvl1) and Sclerotium rolfsii (srl1) lectin genes were introduced independently into Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Pusa Ruby via Agrobacterium tumefaciens for resistance against root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. In total, one hundred and one rvl1 and srl1-transformed plants exhibiting kanamycin resistance were confirmed to carry transgenes as detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with 4.59% transformation efficiency. Genetic analysis of T1 progeny confirmed Mendelian segregation of the introduced genes. Three events each of rvl1 and srl1 transgenic tom...
Source: Transgenic Research - March 13, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bhagat YS, Bhat RS, Kolekar RM, Patil AC, Lingaraju S, Patil RV, Udikeri SS Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Are current EU policies on GMOs justified?
Abstract The European Court of Justice's recent ruling that the new techniques for crop development are to be considered as genetically modified organisms under the European Union's regulations exacerbates the need for a critical evaluation of those regulations. The paper analyzes the regulation from the perspective of moral and political philosophy. It considers whether influential arguments for restrictions of genetically modified organisms provide cogent justifications for the policies that are in place, in particular a pre-release authorization requirement, mandatory labelling, and de facto bans (in the form o...
Source: Transgenic Research - March 5, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Christiansen AT, Andersen MM, Kappel K Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Benefits of genome-edited crops: expert opinion.
Abstract Innovation in agriculture is pervasive. However, in spite of the success stories of twentieth century plant breeding, the twenty-first century has ushered in a set of challenges that solutions from the past century are unlikely to address. However, sustained research and the amalgamation of a number of disciplines has resulted in new breeding techniques (NBTs), such as genome editing, which offer the promise of new opportunities to resolve some of the issues. Here we present the results of an expert survey on the added potential benefits of genome-edited crops compared to those developed through genetic m...
Source: Transgenic Research - March 4, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Lassoued R, Macall DM, Hesseln H, Phillips PWB, Smyth SJ Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Introduction of the harpinXooc-encoding gene hrf2 in soybean enhances resistance against the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae.
Abstract Phytophthora root and stem rot (PRR) caused by an oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae is one of the most devastating and widespread diseases throughout soybean-producing regions worldwide. The diversity and variability of P. sojae races make effective control of the pathogen challenging. Here, we introduced an elicitor of plant defense response, the harpinXooc-encoding hrf2 gene from the rice bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola into soybean and evaluated resistance to P. sojae infection. Molecular analysis confirmed the integration and expression of hrf2 in the transgenic soybean. After i...
Source: Transgenic Research - March 4, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Niu L, Yang J, Zhang J, He H, Xing G, Zhao Q, Guo D, Sui L, Zhong X, Yang X Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Expression of the high molecular weight glutenin 1Ay gene from Triticum urartu in barley.
In this study, we successfully expressed the active 1Ay subunit of Triticum urartu in barley by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with a transformation efficiency of 19.9%. The results of SDS-PAGE revealed that the expressed proteins of 1Ay subunit were present at some grains of each of 46 original T0 plants, showing identical mobility to those of positive standards of T. urartu grain protein and bacteria expressional proteins. In the T2 generation, three homozygous lines, 2-28, 3-11, and 5-6, were identified. The results of scanning electron microscopy showed an increased amount of protein bodies in these transgenic l...
Source: Transgenic Research - February 27, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Yang Q, Li S, Li X, Ma J, Wang J, Qi P, Chen G, Pu Z, Li W, Harwood W, Li Z, Liu BL, Lan X, Deng M, Lu Z, Wei Y, Zheng Y, Jiang Q Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Resistance status of Helicoverpa armigera against Bt cotton in Pakistan.
Abstract Transgenic cotton expressing the toxin Cry1Ac from Bacillus thuringiensis L. (Bt) is widely cultivated in Pakistan after its formal approval in 2010. The exposure of the local target pests to the Cry1Ac endotoxin for this duration might have changed the baseline susceptibility. To probe the status of resistance in one of the main target pests, Helicoverpa armigera, field-collected larvae were reared in the lab for conducting leaf fed bioassays. Twenty-six cotton accessions collected from farmers, including 25 Bt-cotton and one non-Bt, were tested to quantify the level of Cry1Ac, an insecticidal crystallin...
Source: Transgenic Research - February 21, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ahmad S, Cheema HMN, Khan AA, Khan RSA, Ahmad JN Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

Production of functional recombinant cyclic citrullinated peptide monoclonal antibody in transgenic rice cell suspension culture.
Abstract Cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibody has been shown recently to be a promising marker for early detection and diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In order to exploit newly developed therapies for RA, early intervention is crucial in preventing irreversible joint damage. Here, we describe use of a plant expression system to produce a CCP antibody that could be used in the early diagnosis of RA. Heavy and light chain gene sequences of a CCP monoclonal antibody (CCP mAb) were cloned from the hybridoma cell (12G1) and introduced into two separate plant expression vectors under the control of the ri...
Source: Transgenic Research - February 11, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Van Giap D, Jung JW, Kim NS Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research

β-Glucanase specific expression in the intestine of transgenic pigs.
In this study, transgenic pigs specifically expressing β-glucanase gene in the intestine were successfully produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer technology in order to improve digestibility of dietary β-glucan and absorption of nutrients. The β-glucanase activity in the intestinal juice of 4 transgenic pigs was found to be 8.59 ± 2.49 U/mL. The feeding trial results showed that the crude protein digestion of 4 transgenic pigs was significantly increased compared with that of the non-transgenic pigs. In order to investigate the inheritance of the transgene, 7 G1 transgenic pigs w...
Source: Transgenic Research - January 29, 2019 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Guan LZ, Zhao S, Shu G, Jiang QY, Cai GY, Wu ZF, Xi QY, Zhang YL Tags: Transgenic Res Source Type: research