Neurofilament light chain in the assessment of patients with multiple sclerosis

ABSTRACT Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune, inflammatory, and degenerative disease of the central nervous system. Axonal degeneration is triggered by inflammation and is the pathological substrate of progressive disability in patients with MS. Therapeutic interventions can reduce inflammatory activity, thus delaying neurodegeneration and the progression of disability. Disease activity and neurodegeneration are assessed mainly through clinical evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging. These measures lack sensitivity and accuracy, so new biomarkers are necessary. Several markers have been studied and to date the most promising is neurofilament light (NfL), a component of the axonal cytoskeleton, which is released into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following axonal damage. In the present study, we review the current knowledge about CSF NfL determination in MS, clinically isolated syndrome, and radiologically isolated syndrome, and critically discuss how CSF NfL measurement may contribute to therapeutic decision-making in these patients.RESUMO A esclerose m últipla (EM) é uma doença autoimune, inflamatória e degenerativa do sistema nervoso central. A degeneração axonal é deflagrada pelo processo inflamatório e é o substrato patológico da incapacidade na EM. As intervenções terapêuticas reduzem a inflamação retardando a neurodegeneração e a progressão da...
Source: Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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Iris Lavon1,2†, Coral Heli1†, Livnat Brill1, Hanna Charbit1,2 and Adi Vaknin-Dembinsky1* 1Department of Neurology and Laboratory of Neuroimmunology, and the Agnes-Ginges Center for Neurogenetics, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel 2Leslie and Michael Gaffin Center for Neuro-Oncology, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel Background: The clinical course of multiple sclerosis ranges from benign with little disease progression and minimal disability, to severe disease requiring intensive medical treatment. There are no reliable circulating biomarkers fo...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Seizures and encephalopathy are not rare in MOG encephalomyelitis, and are commonly associated with cortical and subcortical brain lesions. MOG-encephalomyelitis often presents with clinical meningoencephalitis symptoms and abnormal CSF findings mimicking central nervous system infection in pediatric and young adult patients. Background Immunoglobulin-G against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgG) is considered a potential demyelinating disease-associated autoantibody. Previous experimental studies have established MOG-IgG as a pathogenic antigen rather than an epiphenomenal bystander or a secon...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusions OCB are important biomarkers that can support MRI diagnostics and help to avoid false-positive MS diagnoses. Therefore, the revised McDonalds criteria have increased the importance of the OCB. New biomarkers such as AQP4 have now established themselves in clinical practice, and others such as Anti-MOG and NfL are about to enter clinical routine. An important focus in the search for new biomarkers is the monitoring of therapy efficacy and the prediction of severe side effects. Many other CSF molecules such as CHI3L1, IL-6, or CXCL13 show potential as markers for clinical practice, but further research is nee...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions The momentous advances in spinal imaging in ALS suggest the spinal metrics may soon be used as validated diagnostic, monitoring, and prognostic markers, contributing both to individualized patient care and pharmacological trials. Author Contributions ME, GQ, PB, and P-FP contributed equally to the conceptualization, drafting, and revision of the manuscript. Funding Peter Bede is supported by the Health Research Board (HRB—Ireland; HRB EIA-2017-019), the Iris O'Brien Foundation, the Irish Institute of Clinical Neuroscience IICN—Novartis Ireland Research Grant, and the Research Motor Neur...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Graham Cooper1,2,3, Carsten Finke2,4, Claudia Chien1,3, Alexander U. Brandt1,3,5, Susanna Asseyer1,3, Klemens Ruprecht6, Judith Bellmann-Strobl1,3, Friedemann Paul1,2,3,6*† and Michael Scheel1,3,7† 1NeuroCure Clinical Research Center, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany 2Einstein Center for Neurosciences, Berlin, Germany 3Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine and Charité – Universitä...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
In this study, we show that calorie restriction is protective against age-related increases in senescence and microglia activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in an animal model of aging. Further, these protective effects mitigated age-related decline in neuroblast and neuronal production, and enhanced olfactory memory performance, a behavioral index of neurogenesis in the SVZ. Our results support the concept that calorie restriction might be an effective anti-aging intervention in the context of healthy brain aging. Greater Modest Activity in Late Life Correlates with Lower Incidence of Dementia ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that results from breakdown of immunological tolerance toward the central nervous system. The early course of MS is commonly characterized by repeated acute episodes of focal inflammation within the central nervous system causing neurologic events called relapses, characterized by the development of neurological disabilities and gadolinium-enhancing and demyelinating lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. As the acute inflammation resolves over the course of several weeks, neurologic symptoms may partially or completely resolve. Over time, these acute inflammator...
Source: JAMA - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Semin Neurol 2018; 38: 212-225 DOI: 10.1055/s-0038-1649502Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic central nervous system inflammatory disease of autoimmune etiology, mediated by activated T cells with evolving evidence of a significant contribution from B cells and cells of the innate immune system. The disease is thought to be due to a complex interaction between different genetic and environmental factors. The prevalence of MS is rising all over the world, due on one hand to earlier diagnosis and prolonged survival, and on the other to a true increase in incidence of the disease. The diagnosis of MS remains clinical despite...
Source: Seminars in Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
AbstractIntroductionAntigen-specific immunotherapy could provide a targeted approach for the treatment of multiple sclerosis that removes the need for broad-acting immunomodulatory drugs. ATX-MS-1467 is a mixture of four peptides identified as the main immune-dominant disease-associated T-cell epitopes in myelin basic protein (MBP), an autoimmune target for activated autoreactive T cells in multiple sclerosis. Previous animal studies have shown that ATX-MS-1467 treatment prevented the worsening of signs of disease in experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) in the humanized (DR2  × Ob1)F1 mouse in a d...
Source: Neurology and Therapy - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion:The efficacy of natalizumab was better than alemtuzumab in the treatment of patients in the RRMS group, while there was no significant difference among other stages of MS patients, which provided the theoretical basis and clinical guidance for the treatment of different stages of MS. Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease, in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are demyelinated. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of alemtuzumab and natalizumab in the treatment of different stages of MS patients. Methods: A total of 585 patients diagno...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Trial/Experimental Study Source Type: research
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