Was the First Malaria Vaccine Tested in 1898?

Was the First Malaria Vaccine Tested in 1898? Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2019 May 20;: Authors: Shanks GD Abstract Early trials of killed, whole-cell typhoid vaccine indicated a paradoxical, positive effect on malaria infections. British soldiers in India in 1898 reported> 90% decrease in malaria recurrences after receiving an investigational typhoid vaccine despite no intention or expectation to observe such an outcome. In the 1940s, multiple doses of intravenous typhoid vaccine appeared to control parasitemia and limit reinfection in three syphilis patients purposefully infected with Plasmodium vivax. Several modern vaccines (against human papillomavirus, hepatitis B virus, and malaria) use a detoxified lipid A derived from Salmonella as an immune adjuvant. Early typhoid vaccines could have plausibly functioned as an innate immune stimulus, leading to some protection against malaria. PMID: 31115306 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

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In this study, structural proteins of MERS-CoV were expressed in silkworm larvae and Bm5 cells for the development of vaccine candidates against MERS-CoV and diagnostic methods. The spike (S) protein of MERS-CoV lacking its transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains (SοTM) was secreted into the hemolymph of silkworm larvae using a bombyxin signal peptide and purified using affinity chromatography. The purified SοTM forms small nanoparticles as well as the full-length S protein and has the ability to bind human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), which is a receptor of MERS-CoV. These results indicate that bioactive S...
Source: Journal of Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
Publication date: November 2019Source: Fish &Shellfish Immunology, Volume 94Author(s): Jing Wang, Jia-Jia Du, Biao Jiang, Run-Zhen He, An-Xing LiAbstractShort-term feed deprivation or fasting is commonly experienced by aquaculture fish species and may be caused by seasonal variations, production strategies, or diseases. To assess the effects of fasting on the resistance of Nile tilapia to Streptococcus agalactiae infection, vaccinated and unvaccinated fish were fasted for zero, one, three, and seven days prior to infection. The cortisol levels of both vaccinated and unvaccinated fish first decreased and then increased ...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
ConclusionIn our study, the Met-allele was associated with higher stress levels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study investigating this area. The findings from this study should trigger more investigators to focus on the impact of stress, due to the potential effects of these genes, on medical students.
Source: Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: research
Drop in undergraduate applications attributed to the field's poor public image
Source: Chemical and Engineering News - Category: Chemistry Authors: Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of gross tumor morphology on clinicopathological profile of CRCs in Kashmiri population.MethodsThis 5-year study is a prospective (2 yrs) and retrospective (3 yrs) study conducted from 2011 to 2016 in the Colorectal Surgery Division at Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS), Srinagar, Kashmir, India. Parameters studied were age, sex, site of lesion, clinical presentations, gross tumor morphology, and histopathology of the lesion.ResultsA total of 930 patients with CRC were included. Infiltrative variety was the most common morphology in patients aged 1...
Source: Current Medicine Research and Practice - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2019Source: British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial SurgeryAuthor(s): C.M. Bowe, B. Gurney, S. Whitaker, C. NewlandsAbstractThis is the third of three articles that give an overview of the current evidence for management of the neck and parotid in patients with cutaneous cancers of the head and neck. In this paper we discuss Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) and review the latest evidence for management of the regional nodes.
Source: British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
ConclusionsWith this sequence, we provide the first complete and closed genome sequence of a SASd strain. With this study, we provide an important basis for an understanding of the genetic mechanism that underlie pathogenicity and host adaptation of SASd to sheep.
Source: Gut Pathogens - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
We report a case of an infected chylothorax occurring in a post-cardiac surgery patient caused bySerratia marcescens. Once considered a harmless saprophyte,Serratia marcescens is now recognized as an important opportunistic pathogen causing healthcare-associated infection with a propensity for antimicrobial resistance.
Source: Indian Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
ConclusionPulmonary metastasectomy for lesions originating from head and neck provides good long-term survival. Histological subtype was the only statistically significant prognostic factor.
Source: Indian Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
This study aimed to compare short- and long-term results for patients undergoing either aortic valve-sparing reimplantation (David) procedure (AVr-D) or biological aortic root replacement (Bentall) procedure (ARr-B-bio) for aortic root pathology.MethodsWe compared outcomes for patients who underwent AVr-D (n = 261) or ARr-B-bio (n = 150) between 2000 and 2015 at our institution. The mean age of patients was 55 ± 13 years and 21.7% (n = 89) were female. ARr-B-bio patients were significantly older than AVr-D patients (58 ± 10 vs 53&thins...
Source: Indian Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
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