The simultaneous effects of spatial and social networks on cholera transmission.

This study uses social network and spatial analytical methods simultaneously to understand cholera transmission in rural Bangladesh. Both have been used separately to incorporate context into health studies, but using them together is a new and recent approach. Data include a spatially referenced longitudinal demographic database consisting of approximately 200,000 people and a database of all laboratory-confirmed cholera cases from 1983 to 2003. A complete kinship-based network linking households is created, and distance matrices are also constructed to model spatial relationships. A spatial error-social effects model tested for cholera clustering in socially linked households while accounting for spatial factors. Results show that there was social clustering in five out of twenty-one years while accounting for both known and unknown environmental variables. This suggests that environmental cholera transmission is significant and social networks also influence transmission, but not as consistently. Simultaneous spatial and social network analysis may improve understanding of disease transmission. PMID: 22187553 [PubMed]
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

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by Hilary A. Dolstad, Molly F. Franke, Kenia Vissieres, Jean-Gregory Jerome, Ralph Ternier, Louise C. Ivers Diarrheal illness is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children in Haiti, and the impact of diarrheal illness was compounded by a cholera outbreak between 2010 and 2019. Our understanding of risk factors for diarrhea among children during this outbreak is limited. We conducted a secon dary analysis of data collected as part of a cholera vaccine effectiveness study to identify factors associated with medically attended diarrhea among children in central Haiti from October of 2012 through November of 2016...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
The A chains of ADP-ribosylating toxins exploit Hsp90 for translocation into the host cytosol. Here, we hypothesize that cis proline residues play a key role in toxin recognition by Hsp90. Our model is largely derived from studies on the unusual interplay between Hsp90 and the catalytic A1 subunit of cholera toxin (CTA1), including the recent identification of an RPPDEI-like binding motif for Hsp90 in CTA1 and several other bacterial toxins. Cis/trans proline isomerization is known to influence protein-protein interactions and protein structure/function, but it has not yet been proposed to affect Hsp90-toxin interactions. ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Precipitation and temperature are important meteorological factors that influence the incidence of climate-sensitive communicable diseases. Future studies need to consider more determinants affecting precipitation and temperature fluctuations for better simulation and prediction of the incidence of climate-sensitive communicable diseases.
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
We describe the molecular epidemiology of cholera in South Africa during 2018-2020. Vibrio cholerae O1 sequence type (ST) 75 recently emerged and became more prevalent than the V. cholerae O1 biotype El Tor pandemic clone. ST75 isolates were found across large spatial and temporal distances, suggesting local ST75 spread.PMID:34670657 | DOI:10.3201/eid2711.211144
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
This study describes the apparent discontinuation of cholera transmission in Haiti since February 2019. Because vulnerabilities persist and vaccination remains limited, our findings suggest that case-area targeted interventions conducted by rapid response teams played a key role. We question the presence of environmental reservoirs in Haiti and discuss progress toward elimination.PMID:34670655 | DOI:10.3201/eid2711.203372
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
Molecular PharmaceuticsDOI: 10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.1c00479
Source: Molecular Pharmaceutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Source Type: research
[Daily Trust] The Adamawa State Government says it has recorded 500 cholera cases with 23 deaths since the outbreak of the disease in the state in September.
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
AbstractDashboards are health information tools, made to illustrate specific indicator sets. They may demonstrate developments over time, geographic distribution, social inequalities or correlations between different factors, use a wide variety of infographics, and are generally updated very frequently. Dashboards can illustrate data for users without statistical knowledge, and are also useful data repositories for more proficient users. Dashboards are a modern approach to an old problem: data visualization. A well-known historical example is John Snow's mapping of cholera cases in London (1854). Current computer technolog...
Source: The European Journal of Public Health - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2021 Sep 28;20(5):550-562. doi: 10.18502/ijaai.v20i5.7405.ABSTRACTInflammation-induced by the interaction of the Vibrio cholerae with the epithelial cells is considered as a main cause of bacteria spreading through the gastrointestinal tract and its consequences. Because of the immunomodulatory and antibacterial properties of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs), this study aimed to investigate the effect of AD-MSCs on the interaction of the bacterial-epithelial cell. Caco-2 differentiated to intestinal epithelial cells co-cultured with AD-MSCs in a 1:1 ratio of the surface area o...
Source: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
led S. Allemailem Morganella morganii is one of the main etiological agents of hospital-acquired infections and no licensed vaccine is available against the pathogen. Herein, we designed a multi-epitope-based vaccine against M. morganii. Predicted proteins from fully sequenced genomes of the pathogen were subjected to a core sequences analysis, followed by the prioritization of non-redundant, host non-homologous and extracellular, outer membrane and periplasmic membrane virulent proteins as vaccine targets. Five proteins (TonB-dependent siderophore receptor, serralysin family metalloprotease, type 1 fimbrial protein, f...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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