Risk Factors for Rubella Transmission in Kuyu District, Ethiopia, 2018: A Case-Control Study.
Authors: Abdulkadir A, Gebrehiwot TT Abstract Background: Rubella is a vaccine-preventable disease associated with a significant morbidity and adverse pregnancy outcomes, mainly if acquired in the first trimester of pregnancy with serious consequences to the fetus. Despite increased episodes of rubella epidemics (127 outbreaks in 2009-2015), rubella national vaccination is not yet introduced in Ethiopia. In January 2018, an increase of fever and rash cases was reported in Kuyu District of Oromia. We investigated the outbreak to confirm rubella, determine risk factors, and guide interventions. Methods: We identi...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - October 24, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Predictors of Major Bleeding and Mortality in Dengue Infection: A Retrospective Observational Study in a Tertiary Care Centre in South India.
Authors: John KJ, Gunasekaran K, Prasad JD, Mathew D, Das S, Sultan N, Abraham AM, Iyyadurai R Abstract We conducted a retrospective observational study to describe the clinical profile and outcomes of patients admitted with a diagnosis of dengue fever in a tertiary hospital in South India. A total of 159 patients admitted from April 2014 to October 2018 were included in the study. Vomiting (70.4%), myalgia (60.4%), headache (42.1%), abdominal pain (38.4%), bleeding (38%), and rash (37.1%) were the most common symptoms at presentation. The mean duration of hospital stay was 4.9 days (SD ± 2.4),...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - October 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Pathology of A(H5N8) (Clade 2.3.4.4) Virus in Experimentally Infected Chickens and Mice.
We report the identification of novel HPAIV A(H5N8) clade 2.3.4.4 virus that was isolated from sick domestic duck at commercial farm during the second wave of spread that began in October and affected poultry (ducks; chiсkens) in several European regions of Russia and Western Siberia in 2016. The strain was highly lethal in experimental infection of chickens and mice with IVPI = 2.34 and MLD50 = 1.3log10⁡ EID50, accordingly. Inoculation of chickens with the HPAIV A/H5N8 demonstrated neuroinvasiveness, multiorgan failure, and death of chickens on the 3rd day post inoculation. Virus replicated in all collected organ sam...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - July 30, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Human Herpes Virus Type 8 (HHV-8), Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1), and Syphilis among Female Sex Workers in Malindi, Kenya.
Authors: Nzivo MM, Lwembe RM, Odari EO, Kang'ethe JM, Budambula NLM Abstract The prevalence of Human Herpes Virus type 8 (HHV-8), Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and syphilis is high in Sub-Saharan Africa. Studies on HHV-8 in Kenya are few and data on its coinfection with HIV and syphilis scanty. This cross-sectional study among female sex workers (FSWs) in Malindi, Kenya, aimed to determine the prevalence of HHV-8, HIV, and syphilis mono/coinfections and identify associated risk factors. A total of 268 FSWs consented and were administered a structured questionnaire and screened for antibodies against HHV-8, HI...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - July 20, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Total Delay in Treatment of Tuberculosis and Associated Factors among New Pulmonary TB Patients in Selected Health Facilities of Gedeo Zone, Southern Ethiopia, 2017/18.
Conclusions: There was higher median total delay in treatment of TB (60 days) and an overall prevalence of 50.9% unacceptable/longer total delay in treatment of TB. Female gender, rural residence, not attending formal education, visiting nonformal health facility as first health care seeking, having poor knowledge of TB, and having antibiotic treatment before TB diagnosis were identified as independent significant associated factors. PMID: 31275370 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - July 6, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Awareness and Malaria Prevention Practices in a Rural Community in the Ho Municipality, Ghana.
In this study, we examined the awareness of malaria prevention practices among indigenes of Godokpe, a rural community in the Ho Municipality of Ghana. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional survey that used a self-developed questionnaire recruited 246 residents of Godokpe who were aged 18 years and above using a systematic sampling technique. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze data into descriptive and analytical statistics. The descriptive statistics comprised frequency, percentage, and means. Also, analytical statistics of cross tabulation was conducted considering a p
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - June 28, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Assessing the Impact of Isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT) on Tuberculosis Incidence and Predictors of Tuberculosis among Adult Patients Enrolled on ART in Nekemte Town, Western Ethiopia: A Retrospective Cohort Study.
Conclusion: Isoniazid preventive therapy use was associated with significant reduction in tuberculosis incidence, even in the absence of Tuberculin Skin Test (TST). Therefore, isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) coverage should be used more widely, with special emphasis given to patients at higher risk of tuberculosis. The study shows that the absence of TST testing should not be a limitation. PMID: 31186628 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - June 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Current Perspectives on Treatment of Gram-Positive Infections in India: What Is the Way Forward?
Authors: Kulkarni AP, Nagvekar VC, Veeraraghavan B, Warrier AR, Ts D, Ahdal J, Jain R Abstract The emerging antimicrobial resistance leading to gram-positive infections (GPIs) is one of the major public health threats worldwide. GPIs caused by multidrug resistant bacteria can result in increased morbidity and mortality rates along with escalated treatment cost and hospitalisation stay. In India, GPIs, particularly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prevalence among invasive S. aureus isolates, have been reported to increase exponentially from 29% in 2009 to 47% in 2014. Apart from MRSA, rising preva...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - May 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Utilization of Insecticide Treated Bed Nets (ITNs) among Caregivers of Children under Five Years in the Ho Municipality.
In this study, we examined the utilisation of ITN among caregivers of children under five years in Ho municipality of Ghana. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study recruited 283 household representatives through a multistage sampling method. A questionnaire was used to collect the data and was analyzed using STATA version 14. Descriptive and inferential statistics were adopted in presenting the data. Results: Ownership of ITN was higher (80.7%) than its utilisation (41.7%). The age of caregiver was strongly associated with the utilisation of ITN (AOR=2.00, 95% CI=0.00, 0.02, p
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - May 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Channa striata (Ikan Gabus) Extract and the Acceleration of Tuberculosis Treatment: A True Experimental Study.
The objective of the study is to determine the effect of Channa striata extract toward the acceleration of tuberculosis treatment. The study used true experiment, in which the intervention of the study was Channa striata supplementation to respondent. In addition, Chi-square was used to analyze the data with SPSS version 22. The result is the proportion of respondent classified in negative category in intervention group within week 0, week 1, week 2, week 3, and week 4 being 10.7%, 35.9%, 56.3%, 70.9%, and 90.3%, respectively. Besides, the proportion of respondent classified in negative category in control group within wee...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - April 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern and Biofilm Formation in Clinical Isolates of Enterococcus spp.
Authors: Shridhar S, Dhanashree B Abstract Enterococcus is a commensal in the intestine and is now emerging as a drug-resistant pathogen. It produces different virulence factors. Enterococcus surface protein (esp) is a virulence factor that helps in the adhesion, but its role in biofilm formation is still contradictory. Moreover, in many bacterial species, strong biofilm producer exhibits multidrug resistance. Hence, this study is done to know the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Enterococcus spp. and to correlate the drug resistance with biofilm production and esp gene. Enterococcal isolates were collected ...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - April 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Daclatasvir and Sofosbuvir Therapy Enhance Monocyte Phenotypic Changes in Naive Chronic Hepatitis C Patients: A Prospective Cohort Study.
Conclusion: CHC infection promotes a proinflammatory and profibrotic monocytes profile. SOF/DCV therapy efficiently decreases viral load, reduces fibrosis potentials, attenuates monocyte activation, normalizes monocytes phenotypic abnormalities, and modulates monocyte subsets recruitment and differentiation later in the liver. PMID: 30941170 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - April 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Vaccine Prophylaxis of Pneumococcal Infections in Children under Conditions of Severe Flood in the Amur River Basin.
Conclusion: Comparative statistical analysis revealed a high degree of effectiveness of regional programs with the methods of immunoprophylaxis of pneumococcal infections. PMID: 30906320 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - March 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Current Practice and Barriers to an Early Antimicrobial Conversion from Intravenous to Oral among Hospitalized Patients at Jimma University Specialized Hospital: Prospective Observational Study.
Authors: Beyene Berha A, Kassie GM Abstract Objective: The aim of the present study was to explore the current practice and its barriers to an early antimicrobial conversion from intravenous (IV) to oral (PO) therapy among hospitalized patients. Method: Hospital based prospective observational study was conducted to assess the practice of an early antimicrobial IV to PO conversion and its barriers using medical chart and case-specific physicians' interviews, respectively, from February to September, 2014. Patient charts and medication records were reviewed for appropriateness of IV to PO conversion program ever...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - March 16, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Vaginal Dysplasia and HIV: An African American and Caribbean American Cohort Study.
Conclusion: In this cohort of Caribbean American and African American women living with HIV diagnosed with VaIN, Caribbean Americans had the highest grade of VaIN at baseline, but more African Americans progressed to more advanced stages of the disease. PMID: 30693024 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - January 31, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Brucella Seroprevalence in a High-Risk Population in Greece: A Cross-Sectional Study.
Conclusions: Healthy livestock farmers may present with positive Rose Bengal test but this translates to true seroprevalence in only a small proportion. Livestock farmers have no significant seroprevalence that may obscure diagnosis of acute brucellosis in clinical settings. PMID: 30675154 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - January 26, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

An Examination of Bacterial Contamination of Models Used in Anatomy Laboratories.
Conclusion: The necessity of washing hands before and after working on the models and the necessity of occasionally disinfecting the models have emerged. PMID: 30662459 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - January 24, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Effects of UVC Irradiation on Growth and Apoptosis of Scedosporium apiospermum and Lomentospora prolificans.
Authors: Muangkaew W, Suwanmanee S, Singkum P, Pumeesat P, Luplertlop N Abstract Scedosporium apiospermum and Lomentospora prolificans are important fungal species isolated from immunocompromised patients. Previous studies have demonstrated that these filamentous fungi exist as saprophytes in the soil and showed the highest minimum inhibitory concentration to several drugs. We aimed to examine how UVC affects the S. apiospermum and L. prolificans by investigating the role of UVC on growth, induction of apoptosis by ethidium bromide (EB)/acridine orange (AO) staining, and transcriptomic study of caspase recruitment ...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - January 12, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

The Role of Pneumococcal Virulence Factors in Ocular Infectious Diseases.
Authors: Benton AH, Marquart ME Abstract Streptococcus pneumoniae is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic pathogen that can cause severe infections such as pneumonia, meningitis, septicemia, and middle ear infections. It is also one of the top pathogens contributing to bacterial keratitis and conjunctivitis. Though two pneumococcal vaccines exist for the prevention of nonocular diseases, they do little to fully prevent ocular infections. This pathogen has several virulence factors that wreak havoc on the conjunctiva, cornea, and intraocular system. Polysaccharide capsule aids in the evasion of host complement s...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - December 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Comparative Antiviral Efficacy of Generic Sofosbuvir versus Brand Name Sofosbuvir with Ribavirin for the Treatment of Hepatitis C.
Conclusion: Generic versions of sofosbuvir reported in this study are safe and efficacious to treat hepatitis C. However, bioequivalency studies of all generic DAAs need to be performed before wider use of such drugs for the treatment of hepatitis C. PMID: 30364048 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - October 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Association between Virulence Factors and Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Compared to Nonproducing Isolates".
Corrigendum to "Association between Virulence Factors and Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Compared to Nonproducing Isolates". Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis. 2018;2018:1023076 Authors: Gharrah MM, Mostafa El-Mahdy A, Barwa RF Abstract [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2017/7279830.]. PMID: 30344604 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - October 24, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Monthly or Weekly Supplementation with Cholecalciferol 20,000 IU in People Living with HIV: Results from a Nested Cohort Study.
Conclusion: A higher rate of 25(OH)D level normalization can be achieved via weekly supplementation. For several PLWH, even a weekly dose of cholecalciferol 20,000 IU might not be adequate to maintain 25(OH)D levels>30 ng/mL without an initial "loading" dose. The response to supplementation is poorly predictable at an individual level. PMID: 30245713 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - September 26, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Evaluation of Adverse Drug Reaction Profile of Drugs Used as First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy.
Conclusion: Gastrointestinal effects were the most commonly observed group of ADRs, with nausea being the most common ADR, the others being gastritis and diarrhoea. The other ADRs included rash, hepatotoxicity, blood dyscrasias like anaemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia, and fatigue. Few cases of lactic acidosis, peripheral neuropathy, headache, lipoatrophy, and pancreatitis were reported. PMID: 30174689 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - September 4, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice toward Antibiotic Use among Harar City and Its Surrounding Community, Eastern Ethiopia.
Conclusion: In the present study, widespread use of antibiotics was reported, most of this antibiotics being accessed without prescription. Respondent exhibited poor knowledge and attitude toward antibiotics use. There were also malpractices such as failing to take full dose. Therefore, educational interventions on antibiotics use and its association with drug resistance are needed to promote judicious use of antibiotic. Introducing and enforcing antibiotics regulations should be also considered to reduce antibiotics self-prescription. PMID: 30174690 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - September 4, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Predictors of Mortality in Scrub Typhus Infection Requiring Intensive Care Admission in Tertiary Healthcare Centre of Nepal.
This study aimed to explore the predictors of mortality from scrub typhus infection in patients requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 120 patients with serum ELISA IgM positive for scrub typhus (optical density ≥ 0.5) admitted at the medical ICU of Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital between April 2016 and September 2017. Data was extracted from patient medical records and electronic database of the hospital. The outcome measurement was mortality (Yes/No) due to the infection. A multivariate binary logistic regression analysis (p
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - July 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Toxoplasma gondii in Blood Donors: A Study in Boyer-Ahmad County, Southwest Iran.
In this study, consumption of undercooked meats, job, and contact with soil were independent risk factors associated with T. gondii infection, which can be considered as potential sources of T. gondii infection. PMID: 29849610 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - June 2, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Transmission Dynamics of Bovine Anaplasmosis in a Cattle Herd.
In this study, an age-structured deterministic model for the transmission dynamics of bovine anaplasmosis was developed; the model incorporates symptomatic and asymptomatic cattle classes. Sensitivity analysis was carried out to determine the parameters with the highest impact on the reproduction number. The dominant parameters were the bovine natural and disease-induced death rates, disease progression rate in adult cattle, the mechanical devices transmission probability and contact rates, the pathogen contamination, and decay rates on the mechanical devices. The result of the sensitivity analysis suggests that control st...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - June 2, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Influence of Handprint Culture Training on Compliance of Healthcare Workers with Hand Hygiene.
Authors: Fouad H, Halim MMA, Algebaly HF, Elmallakh NA Abstract Objective: We aimed to study the effect of visual observation of bacterial growth from handprints on healthcare workers' (HCWs) compliance with hand hygiene (HH). Settings: Medical and postoperative cardiac surgery units. Design: Prospective cohort study. Subject: The study included 40 HCWs. Intervention: Each HCW was interviewed on 3 separate occasions. The 1st interview was held to obtain a handprint culture before and after a session demonstrating the 7 steps of HH using alcohol-based hand rub, allowing comparison of results before a...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - May 2, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Retrospective Assessment of Antibiotics Prescribing at Public Primary Healthcare Facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Conclusion. There was a high rate of antibiotics prescribing in the health centers often empirically which might exacerbate the antimicrobial resistance situation in the country. Large-scale study should be conducted to fully understand the prescribing pattern and identify the associated factors thereby design and implement appropriate interventions. PMID: 29681933 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - April 25, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Prevalence and Associated Symptoms of Helicobacter pylori Infection among Schoolchildren in Kassala State, East of Sudan.
Conclusions. The prevalence of H. pylori infection among schoolchildren in Kassala city has been documented. Although the majority of the disease was associated with several gastrointestinal symptoms, the role of infection in the etiology of abdominal symptoms needs further investigations. PMID: 29568312 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - March 24, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Early Human Migrations (ca. 13,000 Years Ago) or Postcontact Europeans for the Earliest Spread of Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis to the Americas.
Authors: Mark S Abstract For over a century, it has been widely accepted that leprosy did not exist in the Americas before the arrival of Europeans. This proposition was based on a combination of historical, paleopathological, and representational studies. Further support came from molecular studies in 2005 and 2009 that four Mycobacterium leprae single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and then 16 SNP subtypes correlated with general geographic regions, suggesting the M. leprae subtypes in the Americas were consistent with European strains. Shortly thereafter, a number of studies proposed that leprosy first came to ...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - December 20, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Families Living with Blood-Borne Viruses: The Case for Extending the Concept of "Serodiscordance".
Families Living with Blood-Borne Viruses: The Case for Extending the Concept of "Serodiscordance". Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis. 2017;2017:4352783 Authors: Persson A, Newman CE, Hamilton M, Bryant J, Wallace J, Valentine K Abstract The concept of "serodiscordance" (mixed infection status) is primarily associated with epidemiological concerns about HIV transmission risk in couples. We make the case for extending this concept to include families with mixed HIV and viral hepatitis status. Social research on couples with mixed HIV and hepatitis C status has laid an important foundati...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - December 14, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Serum Ferritin: A Backstage Weapon in Diagnosis of Dengue Fever.
We examined 30 cases of clinically and serologically confirmed dengue fever and 22 cases of OFI. Ferritin level in dengue cohort was significantly higher than the OFI group (p
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 4, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Local Diversity and Biting Pattern of Anopheles Species in Southern Minahasa.
Authors: Pinontoan OR, Supadmanaba IGP, Manuaba IBA, Sukrama IDM, Manuaba IBP Abstract BACKGROUND: To optimize the preventive measures of malaria, it is important to synchronize the efforts with the behavior of local Anopheles species. However, the data of Anopheles species and their behavior in Indonesia is still lacking. METHOD: Explorative research was conducted from April to September 2016 in Southern Minahasa district. The Anopheles mosquito was baited by using animal and human (indoor or outdoor) from 18.00 to 06.00 hours. Then, the species were identified and Man Biting Rate (MBR) and Man/Animal Biting p...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - August 29, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Association between Virulence Factors and Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Compared to Nonproducing Isolates.
In conclusion, this study suggests a correlation between ESBL production and some virulence factors. Therefore, success of treatment depends mainly on increased clinicians awareness and enhanced testing by laboratories to reduce the spread of these isolates. PMID: 28684959 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - July 9, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Epidemiological and Clinical Parameters Features of Patients with Clonorchiasis in the Geum River Basin, Republic of Korea.
This study was conducted to evaluate the infection rates of Clonorchis sinensis and laboratory findings in infected people. The 3,167 fecal samples, from nine villages in Okcheon-gun, were examined. PMID: 28529523 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - May 24, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Hematological Parameters and Hemozoin-Containing Leukocytes and Their Association with Disease Severity among Malaria Infected Children: A Cross-Sectional Study at Pawe General Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.
Authors: Birhanu M, Asres Y, Adissu W, Yemane T, Zemene E, Gedefaw L Abstract Hematological parameter changes are the most common complications in malaria. We aimed to determine the hematological parameters and hemozoin-containing leukocytes and their association with disease severity in malaria infected children aged between 1 and 15 years. A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted at Pawe General Hospital from July 31 to December 30, 2014. Demographic and clinical data were collected using structured questionnaire. Blood specimen was collected from each study participant for hematological investigation...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - March 19, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Sulfated Glycans and Related Digestive Enzymes in the Zika Virus Infectivity: Potential Mechanisms of Virus-Host Interaction and Perspectives in Drug Discovery.
In this report, the possible mechanisms of action played by glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) displayed at the surface proteoglycans of host cells, and likely in charge of interactions with surface proteins of the ZIKV, are highlighted. As is common for the most viruses, these sulfated glycans serve as receptors for virus attachment onto the host cells and consequential entry during infection. The applications of (1) exogenous sulfated glycans of different origins and chemical structures capable of competing with the virus attachment receptors (supposedly GAGs) and (2) GAG-degrading enzymes able to digest the virus attachment rece...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - February 20, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Prevalence, Characteristics, and One-Year Follow-Up of Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection in Isfahan City, Iran.
Conclusions. The primary object of this study was determination of prevalence of cCMV infection in Iran as a developing country, which was at the lower range compared with other such countries. cCMV infection may result in short-term impairment in growth. PMID: 28070187 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - January 12, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Antimicrobial Stewardship: A Cross-Sectional Survey Assessing the Perceptions and Practices of Community Pharmacists in Ethiopia.
Conclusion. The present study revealed positive perceptions and practices of community pharmacists towards antimicrobial stewardship. Yet, some weak areas like integration of AMS program in community pharmacies, the significance of interprofessional involvement, and dispensing of antimicrobials without a valid prescription still need improvement. PMID: 27994621 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - December 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Clinical Significance of Molecular Diagnostic Tools for Bacterial Bloodstream Infections: A Systematic Review.
Authors: Rutanga JP, Nyirahabimana T Abstract Bacterial bloodstream infection (bBSI) represents any form of invasiveness of the blood circulatory system caused by bacteria and can lead to death among critically ill patients. Thus, there is a need for rapid and accurate diagnosis and treatment of patients with septicemia. So far, different molecular diagnostic tools have been developed. The majority of these tools focus on amplification based techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which allows the detection of nucleic acids (both DNA and small RNAs) that are specific to bacterial species and sequencing o...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - December 17, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Retracted: Contamination of Hospital Water Supplies in Gilan, Iran, with Legionella pneumophila, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Authors: Infectious Diseases IP Abstract [This retracts the article DOI: 10.1155/2015/809842.]. PMID: 27818683 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 9, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Evaluation and Verification of the Global Rapid Identification of Threats System for Infectious Diseases in Textual Data Sources.
Authors: Huff AG, Breit N, Allen T, Whiting K, Kiley C Abstract The Global Rapid Identification of Threats System (GRITS) is a biosurveillance application that enables infectious disease analysts to monitor nontraditional information sources (e.g., social media, online news outlets, ProMED-mail reports, and blogs) for infectious disease threats. GRITS analyzes these textual data sources by identifying, extracting, and succinctly visualizing epidemiologic information and suggests potentially associated infectious diseases. This manuscript evaluates and verifies the diagnoses that GRITS performs and discusses novel a...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - October 6, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Epidemiological Mapping of Human Onchocerciasis in Transmission Suspected Districts of Bale, Borena, and West Arsi Zones of Eastern Ethiopia.
In this study a total of 2560 study participants were surveyed of which 1332 were female (52%) and 122 were male (48%). The age group of 21-30 years was highest (34.4%) and that of age> 51 years was the lowest (3.1%) study participants. The survey result revealed that none of the study participants regardless of age, sex, and location demonstrated skin snip Onchocerca microfilariae. The prevalence of microfilariae and community microfilarial load (CMFL) were 0% and 0 mf/s, respectively. The finding implied that there is no onchocerciasis in the area and, therefore, there is no need for interventions. Black fly di...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - September 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Predictors of Staphylococcus aureus Colonization and Results after Decolonization.
Authors: Malcolm TL, Robinson le D, Klika AK, Ramanathan D, Higuera CA, Murray TG Abstract Protocols for the screening and decolonization of Staphylococcus aureus prior to total joint arthroplasty (TJA) have become widely adopted. The goals of this study were to determine: (1) whether implementation of a screening protocol followed by decolonization with mupirocin/vancomycin and chlorhexidine reduces the risk of revision compared with no screening protocol (i.e., chlorhexidine alone) and (2) whether clinical criteria could reliably predict colonization with MSSA and/or MRSA. Electronic medical records of primary pa...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - August 19, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Evaluation of Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus Isolates by Years.
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the antibiotic resistance profile of S. aureus isolates over several years in various clinical specimens from our hospital. Materials and Methods. S. aureus strains from 2009 to 2014 were isolated from various clinical samples at Yuzuncu Yil University, Dursun Odabas Medical Center, Microbiology Laboratory, and their antibiotic susceptibility test results were retrospectively investigated. The isolates were identified by conventional methods, and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by the Phoenix (Becton Dickinson, USA) automated system method according to Clinical and Laborat...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - June 3, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Using MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry to Identify Drug Resistant Staphylococcal Isolates from Nonhospital Environments in Brunei Darussalam.
Authors: Chong KS, Shazali SA, Xu Z, Cutler RR, Idris A Abstract Drug resistant bacteria have been a growing threat to the community and hospitals due to the misuse of antibiotics by humans, industrialization, and lack of novel antimicrobials currently available. Little is known about the prevalence of drug resistant bacteria in nonhealthcare environments in Brunei Darussalam and about how antibiotic resistant genes are transferred within these environments. Human contact points from different types of environments in Brunei Darussalam, varying from urban to jungle settings, were swabbed and cultured onto selective...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - May 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Parasitaemia and Its Relation to Hematological Parameters and Liver Function among Patients Malaria in Abs, Hajjah, Northwest Yemen.
This study included 67 suspected falciparum malarial patients attended in clinics and rural Abs Hospital (Tehama, Hajjah), Yemen, from October 2013 to April 2014. The diagnosis of malaria was confirmed by thick and thin film with Giemsa staining of malaria parasite. Hematological parameters and serum levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and bilirubin (total and direct) as test indicators of liver function were studied. Patients with parasitaemia tended to have significantly lower hemoglobin, hematocrit, white blood cell count, lymphocytes, and platelets, compared w...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - April 7, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Impact of HIV Infection and Zidovudine Therapy on RBC Parameters and Urine Methylmalonic Acid Levels.
Conclusion. Although non-zidovudine therapy may be associated with macrocytosis (MCV> 95 fL), zidovudine therapy and ART naivety may not. Suboptimal level of vitamin B12 as measured by high UMMA though highest in ART-naïve subjects was common in all HIV-infected subjects. PMID: 26989408 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - March 20, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

The Optimal Management of Acute Febrile Encephalopathy in the Aged Patient: A Systematic Review.
Authors: Sheybani F, Naderi H, Sajjadi S Abstract The elderly comprise less than 13 percent of world population. Nonetheless, they represent nearly half of all hospitalized adults. Acute change in mental status from baseline is commonly seen among the elderly even when the main process does not involve the central nervous system. The term "geriatric syndrome" is used to capture those clinical conditions in older people that do not fit into discrete disease categories, including delirium, falls, frailty, dizziness, syncope, and urinary incontinence. Despite the growing number of elderly population, especia...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - March 20, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research