Detection of norovirus epidemic genotypes in raw sewage using next generation sequencing.
In this study, we investigated norovirus occurrence and norovirus RNA levels in 156 samples collected from May 2013 to May 2014, across three different stages (52 samples each) of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We also explored norovirus GII diversity in raw sewage samples by next-sequencing generation (NGS). In addition, we examined norovirus prevalence and molecular epidemiology from acute gastroenteritis cases. Using RT-qPCR, norovirus GI and GII was detected in 38.5% and 96.1% of raw sewage samples, 40.4% and 96.1% of primary effluent samples and 1.9% and 5.8% of final effluent samples, respectively. Norovirus RNA levels varied from 4 to 6.2 log10 genome copies per litre (gc L-1) for GI and from 4.4 to 7.3 log10 gc L-1 for GII. Using MiSeq NGS, we identified 13 norovirus genotypes over the one-year period, with six dominant capsid genotypes, including GII.4, GII.17, GII.5, GII.2, GII.3 and GII.1. GII.4 noroviruses were the most prevalent in wastewater samples (68.5%), and a similar trend was observed in AGE cases (71%). The emergent GII.17 was the second most prevalent genotype (14.3%) identified in the raw sewage samples, however, it was not detected in clinical cases. Due to the high burden of norovirus outbreaks and the lack of vaccine and antiviral drugs, it is essential to understand the genotypic diversity of norovirus at the population level. Complementary data obtained from both clinical and environmental (sewage) samples prov...
CONCLUSIONS: Xyloglucan/gelose plus ORS was effective and safe in treating acute diarrhea in children. PMID: 33028102 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
CONCLUSIONS: This single practice study showed total patient contact was similar over both sample periods, but most contact in 2020 was virtual. Further longitudinal multi-practice studies to confirm these findings and describe future consultation patterns are needed to inform general practice service delivery post-COVID-19. PMID: 33032304 [PubMed - in process]
Curious what people think with pandemic and lack of away rotations.
Publication date: 15 February 2021Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 170Author(s): Brian W. Haas, Fumiko Hoeft, Kazufumi Omura
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2020Source: Academic PediatricsAuthor(s): Bonnie Crume
Authors: Lam PT PMID: 33034296 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2020Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Ícaro Boszczowski, Francisco Chiaravalloti Neto, Marta Blangiardo, Oswaldo Santos Baquero, Geraldine Madalosso, Denise Brandão de Assis, Thais Olitta, Anna S. Levin
We moved into together on March 14. Overnight, we went from being two individuals with whole, separate lives to being a single, quarantined entity.
Los Alamitos students in Orange County were among the first in the state to return to campus. Just across the county line, distance learning remains the norm for Long Beach students, frustrating some families.