Dynamic assessment of economic and environmental performance index and generation, composition, environmental and human health risks of hospital solid waste in developing countries; A state of the art of review.
Abstract Many studies have been conducted on hospital solid waste management (HSWM) throughout the world, especially developing countries. This interdisciplinary study aims to summarize the available knowledge on the health and environmental risks of hospital solid waste (HSW) and also, develop a dynamic associational assessment among hospital solid waste generation rate (HSWGR), hospital solid waste composition (HSWC), gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, and environmental performance index (EPI) in some developing countries for the first time. The results of this study showed that researchers from India, Chi...
Source: Environment International - August 14, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Ansari M, Ehrampoush MH, Farzadkia M, Ahmadi E Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

An improved mechanism-based model for predicting the long-term formaldehyde emissions from composite wood products with exposed edges and seams.
This study is the first attempt to check the feasibility of including the chemical reaction term in emission modeling and to quantitatively explore the importance of its contribution to long-term formaldehyde emissions, which includes most of the indoor emissions from materials and furniture. PMID: 31421385 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Environment International)
Source: Environment International - August 14, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: He Z, Xiong J, Kumagai K, Chen W Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Regional inequalities in benzene exposures across the European petrochemical industry: A Bayesian multilevel modelling approach.
CONCLUSIONS: While petrochemical facilities in all European Union regions are regulated to be compliant with the annual average benzene limit of 5 μg/m3, uneven exposures still present regional health inequalities. We recommend extending benzene regulations to an hourly or daily limit, alongside the strengthening of regulation for other toxic petrochemical releases. PMID: 31421386 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Environment International)
Source: Environment International - August 14, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Jephcote C, Mah A Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

DEET occurrence in wastewaters: Seasonal, spatial and diurnal variability - mismatches between consumption data and environmental detection.
Abstract DEET (N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide) is one of the most frequently detected trace organic contaminants (TOrC) in wastewaters and is used primarily as an insect repellent. It was introduced for use in the general public in 1957. It is ubiquitously present in the environment and DEET concentrations are usually among the highest reported for TOrCs. Due to recent concerns about possible analytical interferences in detection methods being reported, this study focused on possible artifacts caused by seasonal, spatial, and diurnal variations in wastewater influent concentration of DEET. We also compared usage data to...
Source: Environment International - August 14, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Marques Dos Santos M, Hoppe-Jones C, Snyder SA Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Triple functional small-molecule-protein conjugate mediated optical biosensor for quantification of estrogenic activities in water samples.
Abstract Establishing biosensors to map a comprehensive picture of potential estrogen-active chemicals remains challenging and must be addressed. Herein, we describe an estrogen receptor (ER)-based evanescent wave fluorescent biosensor by using a triple functional small-molecule-protein conjugate as a signal probe for the determination of estrogenic activities in water samples. The signal probe, consisting of a Cy5.5-labelled streptavidin (STV) moiety and a 17β-estradiol (E2) moiety, acts simultaneously as signal conversion, signal recognition and signal report elements. When xenoestrogens compete with the E2...
Source: Environment International - August 14, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Liu L, Zhou X, Lu Y, Shi H, Ma M, Yu T Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Inflammation and acute traffic-related air pollution exposures among a cohort of youth with type 1 diabetes.
CONCLUSIONS: Indicators of inflammation were associated with estimated traffic-related air pollutant exposures in this study population of youth with type 1 diabetes. Thus youth with type 1 diabetes may be at increased risk of air pollution-related inflammation. These findings and the racial/ethnic and gender differences observed deserve further exploration. PMID: 31419765 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Environment International)
Source: Environment International - August 13, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Puett RC, Yanosky JD, Mittleman MA, Montresor-Lopez J, Bell RA, Crume TL, Dabelea D, Dolan LM, D'Agostino RB, Marcovina SM, Pihoker C, Reynolds K, Urbina E, Liese AD Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in China: Who are faced with a greater effect?
CONCLUSION: Male residents in urban areas, in the lower economic or lower education counties are faced with a greater effect of PM2.5 on the incidence rate of lung cancer in China. The findings emphasize the need for public health intervention and urban planning initiatives targeting the urban-rural, educational or economic disparities in health associated with air pollution exposure. Future prediction on air pollution-induced health effects should consider such socioeconomic disparities, especially for the dominant urban-rural disparity in China. PMID: 31415963 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Environment International)
Source: Environment International - August 12, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Guo H, Chang Z, Wu J, Li W Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Water productivity in meat and milk production in the US from 1960 to 2016.
Abstract Global demand for livestock products is rising, resulting in a growing demand for feed and potentially burdening freshwater resources to produce this feed. To offset this increased pressure on water resources, the environmental performance of livestock sector should continue to improve. Over the last few decades, product output per animal and feedstuff yields in the US have improved, but before now it was unclear to what extent these improvements influenced the water productivity (WP) of the livestock products. In this research, we estimate changes in WP of animal products from 1960 to 2016. We consider f...
Source: Environment International - August 12, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Mekonnen MM, Neale CMU, Ray C, Erickson GE, Hoekstra AY Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Multi-omics analysis reveals niche and fitness differences in typical denitrification microbial aggregations.
Abstract Suspended floc and fixed biofilm are two commonly applied strategies for heterotrophic denitrification in wastewater treatment. These two strategies use different carbon sources and reside within different ecological niches for microbial aggregation, which were hypothesized to show distinct microbial structures and metabolic fitness. We surveyed three floc reactors and three biofilm reactors for denitrification and determined if there were distinct microbial aggregations. Multiple molecular omics approaches were used to determine the microbial community composition, co-occurrence network and metabolic pat...
Source: Environment International - August 12, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Deng Y, Ruan Y, Ma B, Timmons MB, Lu H, Xu X, Zhao H, Yin X Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Colonization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria on roots reduces the risk of PAH contamination in vegetables.
Abstract This is a primary investigation on the mitigation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (phenanthrene as a model PAH) contamination in vegetables including water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk), pakchoi (Brassica campestris) and Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis) using a gfp-labeled PAH-degrading bacterium (RS1-gfp). Effective root colonization led to dense RS1-gfp populations inhabiting the rhizosphere and endosphere of the vegetables, which subsequently led to a reduction in phenanthrene accumulation and risk in vegetables. When compared with the controls without RS1-gfp, the amount of phenanthrene accu...
Source: Environment International - August 9, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Chen S, Ma Z, Li S, Waigi MG, Jiang J, Liu J, Ling W Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Low toxin doses change plant size distribution in dense populations - Glyphosate exposed Hordeum vulgare as a greenhouse case study.
Abstract Numerous intentionally released toxins persist in agricultural or natural environments at low concentrations. Such low toxin doses are regularly associated with hormesis, i.e., growth stimulation, and they are suspected to affect mortality and within-population plant size distribution in dense plant stands. However, it is not known whether all these low-dose effects exist when plants grow in soil. We exposed barley to a range of low glyphosate doses and let the plants grow in dense stands for several weeks in soil. Six experiments were done that contained altogether 10,260 seedlings in 572 pots. We evalua...
Source: Environment International - August 8, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Belz RG, Sinkkonen A Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Children's exposure to phthalates and non-phthalate plasticizers in the home: The TESIE study.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Phthalates and their potential replacements, including non-phthalate plasticizers, are ubiquitous in home environments due to their presence in building materials, plastics, and personal care products. As a result, exposure to these compounds is universal. However, the primary pathways of exposure and understanding which products in the home are associated most strongly with particular exposures are unclear. OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate the relationships between phthalates and non-phthalate plasticizers in paired samples of house dust, hand wipes, and their corresponding metabolit...
Source: Environment International - August 7, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Hammel SC, Levasseur JL, Hoffman K, Phillips AL, Lorenzo AM, Calafat AM, Webster TF, Stapleton HM Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Effect of air pollutant emission reduction policies on hospital visits for asthma in Seoul, Korea; Quasi-experimental study.
Abstract To improve air quality and reduce adverse health effects due to air pollutants, Seoul metropolitan government has introduced emission reduction policies in Seoul metropolitan area since 2007. As a result, air quality in Seoul has improved. However, no study has reported whether emission reduction policies have affected respiratory morbidities in Korea. Thus, we aimed to assess an association between air pollutant emissions and ambient concentrations, and the effect of implemented emission reduction policies on asthma. The population of Daejeon, one of the metropolitan cities in Korea other than Seoul was ...
Source: Environment International - August 7, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Kim H, Kim H, Lee JT Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

In vitro and in vivo effects of a mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol, and a trace metal, cadmium, alone or in a mixture on the intestinal barrier.
Abstract Deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the most widespread mycotoxins in Europe, and cadmium (Cd), a widespread environmental pollutant, are common food contaminants. They exert adverse effects on different organs including kidney, liver, and intestine. The intestine is a common target of DON and Cd when they are ingested. Most studies have focused on their individual effects whereas their combined toxicity has rarely been studied. The aim of this study was thus to evaluate their individual and combined effects on the intestinal barrier function in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, Caco-2 cells were treated with increas...
Source: Environment International - August 7, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Luo S, Terciolo C, Bracarense APFL, Payros D, Pinton P, Oswald IP Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Soil and the intensification of agriculture for global food security.
Abstract Soils are the most complex and diverse ecosystem in the world. In addition to providing humanity with 98.8% of its food, soils provide a broad range of other services, from carbon storage and greenhouse gas regulation, to flood mitigation and providing support for our sprawling cities. But soil is a finite resource, and rapid human population growth coupled with increasing consumption is placing unprecedented pressure on soils through the intensification of agricultural production - the increasing of crop yield per unit area of soil. Indeed, the human population has increased from ca. 250 million in the y...
Source: Environment International - August 7, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Kopittke PM, Menzies NW, Wang P, McKenna BA, Lombi E Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Temporal variation in indoor transfer of dirt-associated environmental bacteria in agricultural and urban areas.
konen A Abstract An agricultural environment and exposure to diverse environmental microbiota has been suggested to confer protection against immune-mediated disorders. As an agricultural environment may have a protective role, it is crucial to determine whether the limiting factors in the transfer of environmental microbiota indoors are the same in the agricultural and urban environments. We explored how sampling month, garden diversity and animal ownership affected the indoor-transfer of environmental microbial community. We collected litter from standardized doormats used for 2 weeks in June and August 2015 a...
Source: Environment International - August 7, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Hui N, Parajuli A, Puhakka R, Grönroos M, Roslund MI, Vari HK, Selonen VAO, Yan G, Siter N, Nurminen N, Oikarinen S, Laitinen OH, Rajaniemi J, Hyöty H, Sinkkonen A Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Drought exposure as a risk factor for child undernutrition in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review and assessment of empirical evidence.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Droughts affect around 52 million people globally each year, a figure that is likely to increase under climate change. OBJECTIVES: To assess the strength of empirical evidence on drought exposure as a risk factor for undernutrition in children
Source: Environment International - August 7, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Belesova K, Agabiirwe CN, Zou M, Phalkey R, Wilkinson P Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Ultra-processed food consumption and exposure to phthalates and bisphenols in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013-2014.
We examined effect measure modification by age group, race/ethnicity, and poverty:income ratio and assessed associations with minimally processed food intake. RESULTS: In adjusted models, higher energy from ultra-processed food was associated with higher urinary concentrations of MCPP, MCNP, and MCOP but not MBzP, ∑DEHP, or bisphenols. Each 10% higher energy from ultra-processed food was associated with 8.0% (95% CI: 5.6%, 10.3%) higher urinary MCOP concentrations, with a stronger association among children than adolescents or adults. Ultra-processed sandwiches/hamburgers, French fries/other potato products, and i...
Source: Environment International - August 6, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Buckley JP, Kim H, Wong E, Rebholz CM Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Industrial air pollution and mortality in the Taranto area, Southern Italy: A difference-in-differences approach.
CONCLUSIONS: The DID approach is intuitively simple and reduces confounding by design. Under the multiple assumptions of this approach, the study indicates an effect of industrial PM10 on natural mortality, especially in the elderly population. PMID: 31398654 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Environment International)
Source: Environment International - August 6, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Leogrande S, Alessandrini ER, Stafoggia M, Morabito A, Nocioni A, Ancona C, Bisceglia L, Mataloni F, Giua R, Mincuzzi A, Minerba S, Spagnolo S, Pastore T, Tanzarella A, Assennato G, Forastiere F, CSA Puglia Study Group (see acknowledgements) Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Generalized additive models: Building evidence of air pollution, climate change and human health.
Abstract Advances in statistical analysis in the last few decades in the area of linear models enhanced the capability of researchers to study environmental procedures. In relation to general linear models; generalized linear models (GLM) provide greater flexibility in analyzing data related to non-normal distributions. Considering this, the current review explains various applications of the generalized additive model (GAM) to link air pollution, climatic variability with adverse health outcomes. The review examines the application of GAM within the varied field, focusing on the environment and meteorological dat...
Source: Environment International - August 6, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Ravindra K, Rattan P, Mor S, Aggarwal AN Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Seminal plasma metabolites mediate the associations of multiple environmental pollutants with semen quality in Chinese men.
In this study, based on the association analysis between arsenic, PAE and PFC exposure and semen quality parameters (i.e., semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm count, progressive motility, total motility and normal morphology) in a Chinese male population, we explored the seminal plasma metabolic signatures that may mediate the exposure-outcome relations by using the meet-in-metabolite-analysis (MIMA) approach. As a result, a negative association was found between DMA and sperm concentration, whereas MEHP and PFHxS were positively associated with sperm count and concentration, respectively. Metabolomics analysis reveal...
Source: Environment International - August 5, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Huang Q, Liu L, Wu Y, Wang X, Luo L, Nan B, Zhang J, Tian M, Shen H Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Potential role of PM2.5 in melanogenesis.
Abstract Ambient particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) is one of the main components of air pollutants, which can absorb many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals. The effect of PM2.5 on human skin and its biological significance in skin homeostasis remain incompletely understood. Previous studies demonstrated that PM2.5 can activate aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), generate reactive oxygen species, and induce skin inflammation. These processes may be involved in melanocyte homeostasis and melanogenesis. We hypothesize that AhR signaling may be responsible for PM2.5-related hyperpigmentation. PMID: 31394397 [...
Source: Environment International - August 5, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Peng F, Tsuji G, Zhang JZ, Chen Z, Furue M Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Exposure to ambient air pollution and the incidence of congestive heart failure and acute myocardial infarction: A population-based study of 5.1 million Canadian adults living in Ontario.
We examined the shape of concentration-response associations using shape-constrained health impact functions. From 2001 to 2015, there were 422,625 and 197,628 incident cases of CHF and AMI, respectively. In the fully adjusted analyses, the HRs of CHF corresponding to each interquartile range increase in exposure were 1.05 (95% CI: 1.04-1.05) for PM2.5, 1.02 (95% CI: 1.01-1.04) for NO2, 1.03 (95% CI: 1.02-1.03) for O3, and 1.02 (95% CI: 1.02-1.03) for Ox, respectively. Similarly, exposure to PM2.5, O3, and Ox were positively associated with AMI. The concentration-response relationships were different for individual polluta...
Source: Environment International - August 3, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Bai L, Shin S, Burnett RT, Kwong JC, Hystad P, van Donkelaar A, Goldberg MS, Lavigne E, Copes R, Martin RV, Kopp A, Chen H Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Rapid determination of the electroporation threshold for bacteria inactivation using a lab-on-a-chip platform.
Abstract Electroporation based locally enhanced electric field treatment (LEEFT) is an emerging bacteria inactivation technology for drinking water disinfection. Nevertheless, the lethal electroporation threshold (LET) for bacteria has not been studied, partly due to the tedious work required by traditional experimental methods. Here, a lab-on-a-chip device composed of platinum electrodes deposited on a glass substrate is developed for rapid determination of the LET. When voltage pulses are applied, an electric field with a linear strength gradient is generated on a channel between the electrodes. Bacterial cells ...
Source: Environment International - August 3, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Wang T, Chen H, Yu C, Xie X Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Association between neighbourhood green space and biological markers in school-aged children. Findings from the Generation XXI birth cohort.
CONCLUSION: We found a cross-sectional negative association between accessibility to green space near schools and AL in children, suggesting that the provision of green space may contribute to improvements in population health beginning early in life. PMID: 31387021 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Environment International)
Source: Environment International - August 3, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Ribeiro AI, Tavares C, Guttentag A, Barros H Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Air pollution, particulate matter composition and methylation-based biologic age.
CONCLUSION: Air pollution was associated with epigenetic age, a marker of mortality and disease risk, among certain PM2.5 component profiles. PMID: 31387022 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Environment International)
Source: Environment International - August 3, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: White AJ, Kresovich JK, Keller JP, Xu Z, Kaufman JD, Weinberg CR, Taylor JA, Sandler DP Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Endotoxin and particulate matter emitted by livestock farms and respiratory health effects in neighboring residents.
CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to livestock farm emitted particulate matter is associated with respiratory health effects and atopic sensitization in non-farming residents. Results indicate endotoxin to be a potentially plausible etiologic agent, suggesting non-infectious aspects of microbial emissions from livestock farms to be important with respect to public health. PMID: 31387023 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Environment International)
Source: Environment International - August 3, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: de Rooij MMT, Smit LAM, Erbrink HJ, Hagenaars TJ, Hoek G, Ogink NWM, Winkel A, Heederik DJJ, Wouters IM Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Determinants of persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations in human breast milk of a cross-sectional sample of primiparous mothers in Belgium.
CONCLUSIONS: Dietary and non-dietary determinants predict individual POP concentrations in breast milk. PMID: 31387080 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Environment International)
Source: Environment International - August 3, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Aerts R, Van Overmeire I, Colles A, Andjelković M, Malarvannan G, Poma G, Den Hond E, Van de Mieroop E, Dewolf MC, Charlet F, Van Nieuwenhuyse A, Van Loco J, Covaci A Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Co-exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals, four common polymorphisms in microRNA genes, and their gene-environment interactions: Influences on oxidative damage levels in Chinese coke oven workers.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Human are often simultaneously exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals, yet relatively little is known regarding their co-exposure effects on oxidative damage. Genetic factors and the gene-environment interactions can also determine the severity of oxidative damage. Four polymorphisms in microRNA (miRNA) genes (rs11614913, rs2292832, rs2910164, and rs3746444) have been well-studied to be associated with oxidative damage-related diseases. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influences of PAH-metal co-exposure, four polymorphisms, and their interactions on oxidative damage l...
Source: Environment International - August 2, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Xie Y, Lin T, Yang M, Zhang Z, Deng N, Tang M, Xiao Y, Guo H, Deng Q Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Associations between persistent organic pollutants and risk of breast cancer metastasis.
CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that 2.3.7.8-TCDD and some PCBs contribute to the development of tumor metastasis and other hallmarks of cancer aggressiveness. While these results should be considered with caution, this is the first study to identify such potential risk factors. Larger longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm our results. Clinical Trial Protocol Record: 2013-A00663-42. PMID: 31382183 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Environment International)
Source: Environment International - August 2, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Koual M, Cano-Sancho G, Bats AS, Tomkiewicz C, Kaddouch-Amar Y, Douay-Hauser N, Ngo C, Bonsang H, Deloménie M, Lecuru F, Le Bizec B, Marchand P, Botton J, Barouki R, Antignac JP, Coumoul X Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Isotope fractionation approach to characterize the reactive transport processes governing the fate of hexachlorocyclohexanes at a contaminated site in India.
In this study, the potential of carbon isotope fractionation and EF for characterizing uptake of HCHs into plants and accumulation in the food web were examined. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study using the combination of stable isotope fractionation and EF to track the reactive transport processes in a complex environment including the food web. PMID: 31382184 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Environment International)
Source: Environment International - August 2, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Wu L, Liu Y, Liu X, Bajaj A, Sharma M, Lal R, Richnow HH Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Short-term exposure to air pollution and incidence of stroke in the Women's Health Initiative.
CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort of post-menopausal US women, daily NO2 and NOx were associated with higher risk of hemorrhagic stroke, but ambient levels of four other air pollutants were not associated with higher risk of total stroke, ischemic stroke, or ischemic stroke subtypes. PMID: 31382185 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Environment International)
Source: Environment International - August 2, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Sun S, Stewart JD, Eliot MN, Yanosky JD, Liao D, Tinker LF, Eaton CB, Whitsel EA, Wellenius GA Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Neurological symptoms associated with oil spill response exposures: Results from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Coast Guard Cohort Study.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence of a cross sectional association between crude oil exposures and acute neurological symptoms in a sample of U.S. Coast Guard responders. Additionally, it suggests that exposure to both crude oil and oil dispersant may result in stronger associations and that heat may interact synergistically with oil exposures resulting in more acute neurological symptoms. Future investigations are needed to confirm these findings. PMID: 31382236 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Environment International)
Source: Environment International - August 2, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Krishnamurthy J, Engel LS, Wang L, Schwartz EG, Christenbury K, Kondrup B, Barrett J, Rusiecki JA Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Burden of typical diseases attributed to the sources of PM2.5-bound toxic metals in Beijing: An integrated approach to source apportionment and QALYs.
Abstract PM2.5-bound toxic metals (TMs) are derived from various sources, and they can cause many adverse health effects on the human body. To effectively reduce the disease burden of TMs by controlling the relative sources, an integrated approach of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and source-apportionment (positive matrix factorization, PMF) was proposed and applied to some typical diseases induced by TMs in 2017 in Beijing. The estimation included two parts; first, the number of potentially affected people was calculated based on the source mass contribution from PMF and the inhalation unit risk of TMs; seco...
Source: Environment International - August 1, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Liu J, Chen Y, Cao H, Zhang A Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Integrating in silico models and read-across methods for predicting toxicity of chemicals: A step-wise strategy.
This article discusses a framework on weight of evidence published by EFSA to identify the stepwise approach for systematic integration of results or values obtained from these "non-testing methods". Key criteria and best practices for selecting and evaluating individual in silico models are also described, together with the means to combining the results, taking into account any limitations, and identifying strategies that are likely to provide consistent results. PMID: 31377600 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Environment International)
Source: Environment International - August 1, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Benfenati E, Chaudhry Q, Gini G, Dorne JL Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Temperature, placental abruption and stillbirth.
CONCLUSIONS: Independent of maternal ambient air pollutant exposure, we found evidence of an association between apparent temperature increases in the week preceding an event and risk of stillbirth. Risks for stillbirth varied by race/ethnicity. Further, in the first study to evaluate the impact of temperature on a specific complication during pregnancy, the risks were higher among mothers with placental abruption. PMID: 31376592 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Environment International)
Source: Environment International - July 31, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Rammah A, Whitworth KW, Han I, Chan W, Hess JW, Symanski E Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Urinary bisphenol S concentrations: Potential predictors of and associations with semen quality parameters among men attending a fertility center.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified dietary and lifestyle factors associated with BPS exposure, suggesting potential avenues for reducing exposures. We also observed negative associations between BPS and semen parameters, especially among overweight and obese men. PMID: 31376593 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Environment International)
Source: Environment International - July 31, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Ghayda RA, Williams PL, Chavarro JE, Ford JB, Souter I, Calafat AM, Hauser R, Mínguez-Alarcón L Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Lack of association between particulate air pollution and blood glucose levels and diabetic status in peri-urban India.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not provide evidence that residential exposures to PM2.5 or BC are associated with blood glucose or prevalence of prediabetes/diabetes in this population. Associations with personal exposure may have been affected by unmeasured confounding, highlighting a challenge in using personal exposure estimates in air pollution epidemiology. These associations should be further examined in longitudinal studies. PMID: 31376594 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Environment International)
Source: Environment International - July 31, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Curto A, Ranzani O, Milà C, Sanchez M, Marshall JD, Kulkarni B, Bhogadi S, Kinra S, Wellenius GA, Tonne C Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Fate of dissolved organic nitrogen during the Anammox process using ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry.
Abstract Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) is a cost-effective process for treating highly nitrogenous wastewater. However, the fate of organic nitrogen during Anammox treatment is still unclear, which limits its practical application. In this work, the changes in the quality of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in coal liquefaction wastewater (CLW) during Anammox were studied in relation to its chemical composition, which was determined by Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). The molecular-level characterization of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the Anammox slu...
Source: Environment International - July 31, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Zhang L, Peng Y, Ge Z, Xu K Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Legacy and alternative per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in the U.S. general population: Paired serum-urine data from the 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Abstract Concerns are heightened from detecting environmentally persistent man-made per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in drinking water systems around the world. Many PFAS, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), remain in the human body for years. Since 1999-2000, assessment of exposure to PFOS, PFOA, and other select PFAS in the U.S. general population has relied on measuring PFAS serum concentrations in participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Manufacturers have replaced select chemistries ("legacy" PFAS) with PFAS with s...
Source: Environment International - July 31, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Calafat AM, Kato K, Hubbard K, Jia T, Botelho JC, Wong LY Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Occurrence and cycling of trace elements in ultramafic soils and their impacts on human health: A critical review.
Abstract The transformation of trace metals (TMs) in natural environmental systems has created significant concerns in recent decades. Ultramafic environments lead to potential risks to the agricultural products and, subsequently, to human health. This unique review presents geochemistry of ultramafic soils, TM fractionation (i.e. sequential and single extraction techniques), TM uptake and accumulation mechanisms of ultramafic flora, and ultramafic-associated health risks to human and agricultural crops. Ultramafic soils contain high levels of TMs (i.e. Cr, Ni, Mn, and Co) and have a low Ca:Mg ratio together with ...
Source: Environment International - July 31, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Vithanage M, Kumarathilaka P, Oze C, Karunatilake S, Seneviratne M, Hseu ZY, Gunarathne V, Dassanayake M, Ok YS, Rinklebe J Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Urinary metabolites of organophosphate esters (OPEs) are associated with chronic kidney disease in the general US population, NHANES 2013-2014.
This study aims to investigate the association between OPEs exposure and chronic kidney disease (CKD) among the general US adult population by employing data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2013-2014. Among 1578 adults who were not currently pregnant, the associations of the urinary OPE metabolites with two CKD-related parameters, i.e., estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), and CKD were assessed. To account for urine dilution, in addition to conventional creatinine-adjustment, covariate-adjusted creatinine standardization, which controls for...
Source: Environment International - July 30, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Kang H, Lee J, Lee JP, Choi K Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

A spatial approach to climate-resilient infrastructure in coastal social-ecological systems: The case of dumbeong in Goseong County, South Korea.
Abstract Sustainable landscape planning and management of coastal habitats has become an integral part of the global agenda due to anthroprogenic pressures and climate change-induced events. As an example of human-engineered infrastructure that enhances the sustainability and resilience of coastal social-ecological systems (SES), we have presented the dumbeong system, a farmer-engineered and managed irrigation system based on Korean traditional ecological knowledge. We analyzed the spatial relationship of dumbeongs with coastal landscape attributes and droughts in Goseong County in South Korea. We used generalized...
Source: Environment International - July 30, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Kim G, Kang W, Lee D, Vaswani RT, Chon J Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Soil biota, antimicrobial resistance and planetary health.
Abstract The concept of planetary health acknowledges the links between ecosystems, biodiversity and human health and well-being. Soil, the critical component of the interconnected ecosystem, is the most biodiverse habitat on Earth, and soil microbiomes play a major role in human health and well-being through ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling, pollutant remediation and synthesis of bioactive compounds such as antimicrobials. Soil is also a natural source of antimicrobial resistance, which is often termed intrinsic resistance. However, increasing use and misuse of antimicrobials in humans and animals in r...
Source: Environment International - July 30, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Zhu YG, Zhao Y, Zhu D, Gillings M, Penuelas J, Ok YS, Capon A, Banwart S Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Experimental and modelling evaluations of sulfide formation in a mega-sized deep tunnel sewer system and implications for sewer management.
Abstract Mega-sized deep tunnel sewer systems are indispensable infrastructures to convey the sewage and/or stormwater to the centralized sewage treatment works in large cities with dense populations and limited land. The rapid urbanization in China and other countries is boosting the construction of the deep tunnel sewer systems. However, the formation of sulfide, which induces serious odor nuisance and sewer corrosion, has not been investigated in such sewer systems. Taking a real Sewage Conveyance System (SCS) with 23.3 km-long and 70-160 m-deep interconnected tunnels in Hong Kong as a representative exampl...
Source: Environment International - July 30, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Liang ZS, Sun J, Chau HK, Leong EI, Wu D, Chen GH, Jiang F Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Bioaccumulation of potentially toxic elements by submerged plants and biofilms: A critical review.
Abstract The accumulation of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in aquatic ecosystems has become a global concern, as PTEs may exert a wide range of toxicological impacts on aquatic organisms. Submerged plants and the microorganisms attached to their surfaces, however, have displayed great potential as a means of coping with such pollution. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the transport pathways of PTEs across sediment and organisms as well as their accumulation mechanisms in the presence of submerged plants and their biofilms. The majority of previous studies have demonstrated that submerged plants and their...
Source: Environment International - July 29, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Geng N, Wu Y, Zhang M, Tsang DCW, Rinklebe J, Xia Y, Lu D, Zhu L, Palansooriya KN, Kim KH, Ok YS Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Organophosphate pesticide metabolite concentrations in urine during pregnancy and offspring attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and autistic traits.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study of maternal urinary DAP metabolite concentrations during pregnancy, we did not observe associations with ADHD and autistic traits in children. These are important null observations because of the relatively high background DAP concentrations across pregnancy, the relatively large sample size, and the 10-year follow-up of the offspring. Given the measurement error inherent in our OP pesticide exposure biomarkers, future studies using more urine samples are needed to accurately measure OP pesticide exposure over pregnancy in relation to ADHD and autistic traits. PMID: 31369979 [PubMed - as sup...
Source: Environment International - July 29, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: van den Dries MA, Guxens M, Pronk A, Spaan S, El Marroun H, Jusko TA, Longnecker MP, Ferguson KK, Tiemeier H Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Evolution of the life cycle primary PM2.5 emissions in globalized production systems.
Abstract Production system-related air pollution emissions are dominant components in global emission reduction targets and in realizing relevant sustainable development goals (SDGs). To better understand the air pollution emissions induced by globalized production systems through a life cycle perspective, environmental extended multiregional input-output (EE-MRIO) analysis was applied to calculate the primary product-based emissions and the final product-based emissions embodied in the global production systems. Combined with two types of linkage analysis, named the hypothetical extraction method (HEM) and the em...
Source: Environment International - July 29, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Zhang H, Li R, Chen B, Lin H, Zhang Q, Liu M, Chen L, Wang X Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Biomonitoring of organophosphate triesters and diesters in human blood in Jiangsu Province, eastern China: Occurrences, associations, and suspect screening of novel metabolites.
In this study, we measured levels of 16 OP triesters and 4 OP diesters in n = 99 human blood samples of non-occupationally exposed adults (aged 18-87) from Jiangsu Province, eastern China. Based on the measured concentrations, statistical difference and correlativity were calculated to characterize the population diversity and potential sources of OP triester and diester. Di (2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (DEHP) and 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP) were found in many participants' blood, with median concentrations of 1.2 (range: n.d. - 44.7, detection frequency: 99%) and 0.85 (n.d. - 28.8, 68%) ng mL-1, respectively. ...
Source: Environment International - July 29, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Ya M, Yu N, Zhang Y, Su H, Tang S, Su G Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research

Occurrence, distribution and human exposure to 20 organophosphate esters in air, soil, pine needles, river water, and dust samples collected around an airport in New York state, United States.
In this study, concentrations of 20 OPEs, comprising seven alkyl-OPEs, three chlorinated (Cl)-OPEs, seven aryl-OPEs, and three oligomeric-OPEs, were determined in outdoor air, soil, pine needles, river water, and outdoor dust samples collected around an airport in Albany, New York, in 2018. Elevated ∑OPE concentrations were found in outdoor air, soil, pine needles, outdoor dust, and river water in the ranges of 1320-20,700 pg/m3 (median: 3880), 1.16-73.1 (14.3) ng/g dry weight (dw), 23.2-534 (102) ng/g (dw), 153-2140 (824) ng/g (dw), and 174-24,600 (1250) ng/L, respectively. The total OPE concentrations in air, soil,...
Source: Environment International - July 27, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Li W, Wang Y, Kannan K Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research