Colorectal Cancer and Metabolism

AbstractPurpose of ReviewMetabolic reprogramming is essential for the rapid proliferation of cancer cells and is thus recognized as a hallmark of cancer. In this review, we will discuss the etiologies and effects of metabolic reprogramming in colorectal cancer.Recent FindingsChanges in cellular metabolism may precede the acquisition of driver mutations ultimately leading to colonocyte transformation. Oncogenic mutations and loss of tumor suppressor genes further reprogram CRC cells to upregulate glycolysis, glutaminolysis, one-carbon metabolism, and fatty acid synthesis. These metabolic changes are not uniform throughout tumors, as subpopulations of tumor cells may rely on different pathways to adapt to nutrient availability in the local tumor microenvironment. Finally, metabolic cross-communication between stromal cells, immune cells, and the gut microbiota enable CRC growth, invasion, and metastasis.SummaryAltered cellular metabolism occurs in CRC at multiple levels, including in the cells that make up the bulk of CRC tumors, cancer stem cells, the tumor microenvironment, and host-microbiome interactions. This knowledge may inform the development of improved screening and therapeutics for CRC.
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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Contributor : Masahiro InoueSeries Type : Expression profiling by arrayOrganism : Homo sapiensRegeneration capacity of intestinal epithelial cells are highly dependent on the status of stemness. In the homeostasis, only a small subset of stem cells is responsible for the turnover of the intestinal epithelium. However, at the injury, such as caused by radiation, intestinal epithelial cells show substantial plasticity for regeneration. Most of the colorectal cancers (CRCs) are differentiated adenocarcinoma, which maintain the expression of both stemness and differentiation markers, suggesting an existence of a similar regene...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by array Homo sapiens Source Type: research
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) ‐human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) carrying a germlineadenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutation infected with a Wnt/ β‐catenin signaling reporter were subjected to (CRISPR/Cas9) in order to generateAPC“second‐hit” mutations.APC targeting resulted in robust Wnt/ β‐catenin signaling activation, loss of pluripotency, and mesendodermal differentiation, indicating that APC has a critical role in the maintenance of hESC self‐renewal. AbstractHuman embryonic stem cells (hESCs) provide an essential tool to investigate early human development, study disease patho...
Source: Stem Cells - Category: Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Embryonic Stem Cells/Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Source Type: research
In this study, we hypothesized that moderately and chronically reducing ACh could attenuate the deleterious effects of aging on NMJs and skeletal muscles. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed NMJs and muscle fibers from heterozygous transgenic mice with reduced expression of the vesicular ACh transporter (VAChT), VKDHet mice, which present with approximately 30% less synaptic ACh compared to control mice. Because ACh is constitutively decreased in VKDHet, we first analyzed developing NMJs and muscle fibers. We found no obvious morphological or molecular differences between NMJs and muscle fibers of VKDHet and contro...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In this study, we aimed to investigate drug metabolism and toxicity based on mouse small intestinal and liver organoids derived from resident stem cells. At first, expressions and activities of CYP subfamilies (CYPs) in intestinal and liver organoids were investigated. Organoids treated with three CYPs-inducers dexamethasone (Dex), β-naphthoflavone (BNF), and 1,4-bis-2-(3, 5-dichloropyridyloxy)-benzene (TCPOBOP) were evaluated for CYPs activities. The CYPs-induced intestinal and liver organoids were confirmed to digest more docetaxel, as colon cancer cell-line survived more in CYPs-induced organoid's medium than in no...
Source: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology - Category: Toxicology Authors: Tags: Toxicol Appl Pharmacol Source Type: research
We humans exhibit a peak cancer incidence in old age, around the early 80s, after which cancer rates decline from that peak. If aging is the continual accumulation of damage, then why do we observe this pattern of cancer incidence with age rather than a continual increase over time? It does not occur in mice, after all. Researchers here provide evidence for the explanation to involve reduced rates of cell division in later life, which may be one of many evolutionary adaptations connected to the unusual longevity of our species when compared with other similarly sized mammals, and particularly other primates. If there is le...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs
Hwan Kang While oncolytic vaccinia virus-based therapy has shown promising results for uncured patients with cancer, its effects on cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) remain unclear. Here, we evaluated the anti-cancer activity of the cancer-favoring oncolytic vaccinia virus (CVV), which was recognized as a promising therapy for stem cell-like colon cancer cells (SCCs) and metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in previous studies. CCA presents major challenges, such as clinical complexity, stem cell cancer characteristics, a high refractory rate, resistance to conventional therapy, and a dismal prognosis. In the present study...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Communication Source Type: research
In this study, the anti-tumour effects of nanoamorphous aspirin-loaded exosomes with exosomes derived from breast and colorectal cancer cells, were comprehensively studied using both in vitro and in vivo models. These exosomes displayed enhanced cellular uptake via both clathrin-dependent and -independent endocytosis pathways, and significantly improved cytotoxicity of aspirin to breast and colorectal cancer cells, accompanied by the enhanced apoptosis and autophagy. Remarkably, this nanoamorphous exosomal platform endowed aspirin with the unprecedented cancer stem cell eradication capacity. Further animal study demonstrat...
Source: International Journal of Pharmaceutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
ng-Hu Chung Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common causes of death in Taiwan. Previous studies showed that Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) can treat poisoning, diarrhea, and various types of cancer. Therefore, we purified a novel ubiquinone derivative, AC009, and investigated its antitumor effects. Cell viability assays revealed that AC009 reduced the viability of several human CRC cell lines. AC009 treatment resulted in cell-cycle arrest/apoptosis, and these effects may occur via caspase and Bcl-2 signaling pathways. We demonstrated that AC009 could significantly inhibit in vivo tumor growth in xenograft mouse mod...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Authors: Pretzsch E, Bösch F, Neumann J, Ganschow P, Bazhin A, Guba M, Werner J, Angele M Abstract Metastasis is the major cause of death in patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC). The most common sites of metastasis are the liver and the peritoneum. Peritoneal carcinomatosis is often considered the end stage of the disease after the tumor has spread to the liver. However, almost half of CRC patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis do not present with liver metastasis. This brings up the question of whether peritoneal spread can still be considered as the end stage of a metastasized CRC or whether it should j...
Source: Journal of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research
In conclusion, these results reveal that PIK3CA is significantly downregulated by miR-27b expression in CSCs. Thus, we presume that miR-27b may be a therapeutic anti-tumor agent for CRC via targeting PI3K p110α. PMID: 31632566 [PubMed]
Source: American Journal of Translational Research - Category: Research Tags: Am J Transl Res Source Type: research
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