Fusobacterium nucleatum and the Immune System in Colorectal Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo summarize the relationship between colorectal cancer (CRC), immunity, and the gut microbiome, focusing on the population ofFusobacterium, particularlyFusobacterium nucleatum, which may mediate CRC initiation and progression by inhibiting host anti-tumor immunity.Recent FindingsThe onset and advancement of CRC involves genetic and epigenetic alterations and are modified by dietary and environmental factors. There is increasing evidence suggesting that gut bacteria, such asFusobacterium nucleatum, may promote CRC development. The mechanisms through whichFusobacterium nucleatum from the oral cavity...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - September 6, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Current Status of Nodal Staging in Rectal Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review current practice in MRI-based nodal staging in rectal cancer and assess the associated evidence.Recent FindingsNodal staging is less accurate than other MRI-detected prognostic markers such as circumferential resection margin status, extramural venous invasion and T stage. Previous research has focused on matching MRI and pathology findings but crucially N stage has never been shown to have prognostic importance on MRI. Recent pathological evidence suggests that tumour deposits may be more important than nodal status and these can be clearly distinguished from nodal metastases on MRI.Summ...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - August 28, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Current Trends in the Surgical Management of Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCancers of colorectal origin are the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the USA, and with the improvements in chemotherapy and other therapeutic modalities, there are more options for the management of metastatic disease. The liver is the most common site of colorectal metastasis, and treating the disease to the liver may lead to prolonged survival and possible cure. Our understanding of tumor biology and the refinement of surgical techniques have resulted in significantly improved outcomes. The treatment of colorectal liver metastasis is complex and thus requires a multidisciplinary ...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - July 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Current Status, Recent Advances, and Future Directions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewImmune checkpoint inhibitors have shown very promising outcomes in the subset of metastatic colorectal cancers (CRCs) that are mismatch repair deficient (dMMR)/microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H). We reviewed the existing literature on immune checkpoint inhibitors in colorectal cancers to highlight the recent advances and future directions.Recent FindingsThe significance of immune check point inhibitors in dMMR/MSI-H metastatic CRCs has been validated by several studies employing anti-programmed death cell receptor (anti-PD1) and anti-PDL1 antibodies single agent or in combination with anti-CTL...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - July 10, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Current Trends in Systemic Therapies in Elderly Patients With Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe incidence of colorectal cancer increases with age and the population is aging, making treatment of elderly patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) an increasingly common part of oncology practice. We review the literature regarding systemic treatment of colorectal cancer in the elderly population.Recent FindingsMost of the data for toxicity and efficacy of systemic therapies for mCRC in older patients comes from subgroup analysis of pooled phase II and III trials of both chemotherapy and targeted agents. These studies suggest that combination chemotherapy and targeted therapy are well...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - July 9, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Should Anti-EGFR Agents Be Used in Right-Sided RAS Wild-type Advanced Colorectal Cancer?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewColorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide with a high mortality rate at the advanced stages of the disease. Treatment options are dependent on the stage of the disease, patients ’ performance status, and the specific molecular makeup of the tumor. Adding an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody (anti-EGFR mAb) to conventional chemotherapy in molecularly selected patients (i.e., RAS wild-type) leads to a survival advantage. We aim to review the latest e vidence on the influence of primary tumor location (PTL) on treatment response to chemotherapy combined ...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - June 17, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Duration of Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Colon Cancer: Current Standards and New Updates
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAdjuvant therapy for 6  months is the standard of care for stage III colon cancer. The use of oxaliplatin-based therapy over fluoropyrimidine alone increases toxicity, including dose-dependent peripheral neuropathy. Evaluation of a shorter duration of adjuvant therapy was therefore warranted, aiming to reduce toxicity wh ile maintaining clinical efficacy.Recent FindingsThe International Duration Evaluation of Adjuvant chemotherapy (IDEA) collaboration was a pivotal prospective pooled analysis of 6 randomized phase III trials across 12 countries. IDEA evaluated the non-inferiority of 3 versus 6...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - June 17, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Trends in Colorectal Cancer Surveillance: Current Strategies and Future Innovations-
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review article strives to reflect on the historic surveillance debate in colorectal cancer, outline current strategies, and guidelines, and discuss new techniques being explored in surveilling colorectal adenocarcinoma.Recent FindingsWithin the past decade, major governing bodies have proposed surveillance guidelines with the goal of earlier identification of cancer recurrence, thereby possibly reducing the morbidity and mortality of necessary interventions. With the innovation of tissue-specific tumor markers and fluorescence endoscopy, the approach to surveillance may be changing. The use of...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - April 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Current Trends in Colorectal Cancer Screening
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe following review is to assess the current methods, both non-invasive and invasive, in colorectal cancer screening and discuss novel screening techniques.Recent FindingsColorectal cancer continues to affect millions of people across the world. Through increased and widespread adoption of various screening methods, the rates of colon cancer-related deaths are decreasing. However, this decline has not been observed worldwide, possibly due to the lack of widespread screening adoption. Although there are many methods for screening colorectal cancer, colonoscopy remains the gold standard, due to high...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - April 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Targeted Therapy in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Current Standards and Novel Agents in Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTreatment options for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer continue to advance as the therapeutic implications of the molecular subtypes of this disease are becoming better understood. DNA sequencing and mismatch repair assessment are now standard of care analyses for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer This review describes important aspects of the biology of the clinically relevant molecular subtypes of colorectal cancer based on the current standard of care testing. In addition, the clinical treatment strategies available now and potentially in the future for these colorectal cancer...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - March 20, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Duplex Interaction of Microbiome with Chemoradiation and Immunotherapy: Potential Implications for Colorectal Cancer
AbstractPurpose of reviewGut microbiota has the ability to modify the metabolism of wide array of therapeutic drugs. Current treatment modalities used in colorectal cancer have a narrow therapeutic index with a side effects profile that decreases tolerance to these treatments and adversely affects treatment outcome. Harnessing the gut microbiota ability to modify oncotherapeutic drugs metabolism and hence efficacy, could be potentially used to improve treatment outcomes in colorectal cancer patients. This review will shed lights on important findings from recent microbiome interaction studies which would hopefully serve as...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - March 12, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Current Trends in the Management of Low Rectal Tumors: Transanal Total Mesorectal Excision
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe access of the low rectum is a surgical challenge and, in case of cancer, the outcome of the patient depends on the quality of the surgery. The transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME) is a surgical technique with a combined abdominal and perineal approach. We review the literature for technical aspect of taTME as well as comparisons with other techniques.Recent FindingsComparison with laparoscopic total mesorectal excision and taTME was summarized in a meta-analysis which showed better oncological results with lower circumferential margin involvement and better completeness of the mesorectum...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - March 8, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Systemic Therapy in BRAF V600E-Mutant Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Recent Advances and Future Strategies
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review seeks to detail the clinical and pathologic features specific toBRAFV600E colorectal cancer. Application of novel preclinical findings translated into the clinic for the development of new therapeutic options for patients withBRAFV600E metastatic colorectal cancer will be detailed.Recent FindingsWhile BRAF inhibitors as monotherapy do not have the same clinical activity for colorectal cancer relative to other solid tumors harboring an oncogenicBRAFV600E mutation, combination approaches targeting BRAF + MEK + EGFR hold promise for patients withBRAFV600E colorectal cancer.SummarySimultane...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - March 6, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC) and Cytoreductive Surgery (CRS) for Colorectal Cancer: Potential for Individualized Care, Review of Current Treatment Trends, Recent Advancements, and a Look into the Future
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPeritoneal metastases (PM) secondary to colorectal cancer is associated with a poor prognosis. However, cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermia intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC) has risen to a more accepted roll in the treatment of peritoneal metastatic disease for various cancers; colorectal cancer is no exception. This review aims to discuss the recent updates and findings for treatment of peritoneal disease secondary to colorectal cancer, especially with respect to individualized patient factors that affect outcomes.Recent FindingsThere are many new studies showing the validity of cytored...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - February 21, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Deciphering the Colorectal Cancer Gut Microbiota: Association vs. Causality
AbstractPurpose of ReviewStudies have identified differences between the gut microbiota of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients versus healthy individuals. In this review, we assess the scientific literature to determine if gut microbes should be considered causal, co-varying, or a necessary but not sufficient agent in CRC development.Recent FindingsOral bacteria may influence CRC susceptibility. Colonic biofilms in both sporadic and hereditary CRC suggest these bacteria are present in early neoplasia. Pathogenic drivers and opportunistic passenger bacteria may underlie direct effect of the gut microbiota on carcinogenesis.Sum...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - February 20, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Current Surgical Strategies in the Management of Rectal Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe surgical approach to rectal cancer has become significantly more complex with the introduction of neoadjuvant therapies and organ preservation strategies. Optimal radiological imaging in association with relevant clinical findings provides critical information for final surgical management decision. The present review focuses on the surgical alternatives available in different clinical scenarios for the management of rectal cancer.Recent FindingsMost of evidence for surgical management of rectal cancer is provided by non-randomized studies. However, a few randomized clinical trials have attempt...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - February 13, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Techniques for Colorectal Anastomotic Construction Following Proctectomy and Variables Influencing Anastomotic Leak
AbstractPurpose of ReviewExamine the various technical considerations for pelvic colorectal reconstruction with respective functional and anastomotic healing outcomes. Additionally, several adjuncts to reduce anastomotic complications are individually explored to understand their relative impact on anastomotic healing.Recent FindingsThe benefit of a colorectal reservoir reconstruction instead of a straight anastomosis, in respect to leak and functional outcomes, is marginal, if any. Recent randomized evidence has shown no difference in morbidity, mortality, survival, leakage, or functional outcomes. Unfortunately, anastomo...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - February 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A Surgeon ’s Guide to Treating Older Patients With Colorectal Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewReview strategies to improve outcomes of colorectal cancer treatment in older patients.Recent FindingsOlder colorectal patients face many barriers to recovery during their initial inpatient stay following surgery and after leaving the hospital. In addition to the risk of inpatient morbidity and mortality, older patients are more likely to require post-acute care services to face nutritional deficits and to experience complications of chemoradiation.SummaryIn order to improve outcomes for older patients with colorectal cancer, it is important for surgeons to recognize their unique needs and to devel...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - February 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Current Status of Maintenance Systemic Therapies in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: 2018 Update
This article is an update of the 2017 review by Quidde et al. and evaluates the most recent data on maintenance strategies in MCRC.Recent FindingsInduction followed by maintenance and if feasible re-induction treatment does not seem to be inferior to continuous full-dose treatment for patients with MCRC responding to first-line combination regimen but without options for secondary resection or local ablation. Active maintenance seems to be superior to complete stop after at least 3  months of induction treatment in terms of progression-free survival and may add some benefit in terms of OS. The addition of PD-L1 inhibi...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - January 24, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

What Is the Future of Circulating Tumor Cells in Colorectal Cancer?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo introduce recent progress on circulating tumor cell (CTC) research in colorectal cancer (CRC) and to highlight clinical application of CTCs from detection to assessment of treatment response.Recent FindingsCTC biological characteristics in CRC play an important role in the detection of CTCs. The in vitro culture of CTCs from CRC patients (cell lines and organoids) can potentially facilitate rapid drug testing and treatment prediction. CTC detection should be standardized with improved detection rate in CRC; further, clinical investigation is still needed to clarify its potential as a tool for ea...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - November 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Colorectal Cancer and Metabolism
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMetabolic reprogramming is essential for the rapid proliferation of cancer cells and is thus recognized as a hallmark of cancer. In this review, we will discuss the etiologies and effects of metabolic reprogramming in colorectal cancer.Recent FindingsChanges in cellular metabolism may precede the acquisition of driver mutations ultimately leading to colonocyte transformation. Oncogenic mutations and loss of tumor suppressor genes further reprogram CRC cells to upregulate glycolysis, glutaminolysis, one-carbon metabolism, and fatty acid synthesis. These metabolic changes are not uniform throughout t...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - November 16, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Novel Targets in Advanced Colorectal Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAlthough current guidelines suggest only testing for RAS and BRAF mutations as well as MMR deficiency in metastatic colon cancer, there are many other promising therapeutic targets that are being studied. We aim to review the recent literature and evidence behind some of these novel targets.Recent FindingsMany of these targets such as NTRK, ROS, ALK, and HER2 are being studied in current clinical trials and hold great potential in changing the treatment landscape for metastatic colorectal cancer.SummaryCurrent molecular testing algorithms may need to be expanded to allow better target discovery and...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - November 6, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Demystifying the Differences Between Tumor-Initiating Cells and Cancer Stem Cells in Colon Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTumor-initiating cells and cancer stem cells refer to a subpopulation of self-renewing cells involved in tumor initiation and tumor maintenance, respectively. With this review, we aimed to define the functional and molecular differences between both cell types in the context of colon cancer.Recent FindingsRecent evidence suggests that the two major stem cell populations in the normal intestinal crypt have tumor-initiating capacity and could be the cell-of-origin in colon cancer. Activation of the Wnt/ β-catenin pathway (an early event in mouse intestinal carcinogenesis) in the crypt base colum...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - October 31, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Role of Energy Balance on Colorectal Cancer Survival
The objective of the current review was to describe the role of energy balance on survival and the potential mechanisms of this relationship in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC).Recent FindingsEnergy balance consists of total energy expenditure and dietary intake over time, although these components have been sparsely characterized in CRC. Several large trials have suggested that BMI around 28  kg/m2 at diagnosis is most advantageous for survival and that severe weight loss (i.e., body mass index loss ≥ 7% or ≥ 10% baseline weight) is associated with poor survival. These patterns are likely due...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - October 31, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Role of HER2 Testing in Advanced Colorectal Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAbout 1/3 of all metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients may harbor a mutation in theKRAS orNRAS gene suggesting inefficacy of EGFR inhibitors cetuximab and panitumumab. In spite of tailoring treatment inRAS wild-type patients to receive EGFR inhibitors, not all show response.Recent FindingsStudies have shown that HER2-neu amplification/alteration in addition to alteration inBRAF andPI3KA may explain resistance to EGFR inhibitors. Several pre-clinical studies have identified that HER2-neu amplification can result in both de novo and acquired resistance to EGFR inhibitors. Recently, several cli...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - October 29, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Insights Into the Relationship Between Gut Microbiota and Colorectal Cancer
AbstractPurpose of reviewThere is growing evidence to suggest that gut microbiota plays an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Western diet is associated with gut microbial dysbiosis, which leads to inflammation, oxidative stress, and genotoxic effects, all common risk factors for colorectal cancer.Recent findingsFusobacterium nucleatum,Helicobacter pylori,Bacteroides fragilis,Escherichia coli,and Streptococcus bovis are the main bacterial species associated with colorectal carcinogenesis. Gut microbiota transforms both diet- (meat, processed meat products, fat) and host (bile acids)-derived precursors into carcin...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - October 22, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Microbiome and Colorectal Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe trillions of microbes collectively referred to as the human microbiota inhabit the human body and establish a beneficial relationship with the host. It is clear however that dysbiosis impacting microbial diversity in the gut may lead to the development of inflammatory and malignant gastrointestinal diseases including colorectal cancer (CRC). We provide a literature review of the recent influx of information related to the alterations in gut microbiota composition that influences CRC incidence and progression.Recent FindingsA growing body of evidence implicates altered gut microbiota in the deve...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - October 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Total Neoadjuvant Therapy (TNT) in Rectal Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes the relevant literature on the use of total neoadjuvant therapy (TNT) for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. It highlights the most notable literature published and briefly discusses future directions.Recent FindingsRecent randomized trials evaluating TNT show improved rates of pathologic complete response and patient treatment tolerance with this approach.SummaryThe rationale for TNT includes the poor patient tolerance of adjuvant chemotherapy and the persistent risk of distant disease in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer, despite improvements in local ...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - October 9, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

What Is the Best Systemic Therapy for Left-sided RAS Wild-type Metastatic Colorectal Cancer?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThere is a significant difference in embryological origin, gene expression, gene mutation profile, and microbiome between the right-sided and left-sided colon. It has been shown that the sidedness of primary colorectal cancer is a significant prognostic factor and predictive to the clinical benefit of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody-containing chemotherapy in patients with metastatic CRC. Herein, current clinical recommendations for the treatment of patients with left-sidedRAS wild-type mCRC are reviewed.Recent FindingsRetrospective analyses of prior randomized trials (CRYSTAL...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - October 2, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Role of Liver-Directed Therapy in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewColorectal cancer liver metastasis is a major clinical problem, and surgical resection is the only potentially curative treatment. We seek to discuss various liver-directed therapy modalities and explore their roles in the evolving realm of treatment strategies for metastatic colorectal cancer.Recent FindingsClinical outcomes for patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases have improved as more patients undergo potentially curative resection and as the armamentarium of systemic treatment and liver-directed therapies continues to expand. Liver-directed therapies have been developed as adjuncts ...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - October 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Evolving Tissue and Circulating Biomarkers as Prognostic and Predictive Tools in Colorectal Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe success of precision medicine relies heavily on biomarkers. Validated biomarkers that help stratify risk and guide treatments in patients with colorectal cancers are limited. With advances in genomics, immune landscapes and technological assays, there are increasing numbers of biomarkers that show potential to guide treatment decisions in the clinic. In this article, we review the key emerging biomarkers including tissue-based gene-based expression biomarkers, microRNA and immune signatures along with circulating tumour DNA in plasma, biomarkers of anti-angiogenic agents.Recent FindingsMismatch...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - October 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Young Patients with Colorectal Cancer: Risk, Screening, and Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWhile the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer have been declining in the USA in the last decades, there is a considerable increase in the incidence of this malignancy in the young adult patients. Several environmental and genetic factors have been studied and known to be associated with colorectal cancer. However, the exact causes of this increase are not clear. Therefore, in this review, we aimed to provide insights in terms of novel findings and avenues of research that may lead to a better way to treat this population of patients.Recent FindingsObesity and its associated behaviors, such...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - October 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Molecular Variances Between Right- and Left-sided Colon Cancers
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDuring the past few years, several important clinical and molecular differences have been observed simply based on anatomic tumor location of colorectal cancer. With this review, we aimed to give an updated overview of the recent findings on tumor location as a surrogate of embryological, molecular, and clinical differences that have a direct impact on our daily clinical practice.Recent FindingsIncreasing evidence has demonstrated a role for the microbiota in shaping inflammatory environments and promoting CRC growth and spread, and now we know that bacterial phylotypes vary depending on the primar...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - October 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Overview of Microsatellite Instability and Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Colorectal Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review examines the pathophysiological features of microsatellite instability (MSI) high colorectal cancer and discusses recent clinical studies of immune checkpoint inhibitors for MSI high colorectal cancer.Recent FindingsEmerging clinical data demonstrated durable clinical activity and safety of PD-1 blockade agents in diverse cancers, and PD-1 blockade agents have led to a paradigm shift in the cancer therapy. Although initial clinical data showed disappointing result of anti-PD-1 therapy in unselected metastatic colorectal cancer, recent data demonstrated promising results with significant...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - September 28, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Role of Liver-Directed Therapy in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewColorectal cancer liver metastasis is a major clinical problem, and surgical resection is the only potentially curative treatment. We seek to discuss various liver-directed therapy modalities and explore their roles in the evolving realm of treatment strategies for metastatic colorectal cancer.Recent FindingsClinical outcomes for patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases have improved as more patients undergo potentially curative resection and as the armamentarium of systemic treatment and liver-directed therapies continues to expand. Liver-directed therapies have been developed as adjuncts ...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - September 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Evolving Tissue and Circulating Biomarkers as Prognostic and Predictive Tools in Colorectal Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe success of precision medicine relies heavily on biomarkers. Validated biomarkers that help stratify risk and guide treatments in patients with colorectal cancers are limited. With advances in genomics, immune landscapes and technological assays, there are increasing numbers of biomarkers that show potential to guide treatment decisions in the clinic. In this article, we review the key emerging biomarkers including tissue-based gene-based expression biomarkers, microRNA and immune signatures along with circulating tumour DNA in plasma, biomarkers of anti-angiogenic agents.Recent FindingsMismatch...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - August 31, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Molecular Variances Between Right- and Left-sided Colon Cancers
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDuring the past few years, several important clinical and molecular differences have been observed simply based on anatomic tumor location of colorectal cancer. With this review, we aimed to give an updated overview of the recent findings on tumor location as a surrogate of embryological, molecular, and clinical differences that have a direct impact on our daily clinical practice.Recent FindingsIncreasing evidence has demonstrated a role for the microbiota in shaping inflammatory environments and promoting CRC growth and spread, and now we know that bacterial phylotypes vary depending on the primar...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - August 17, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Young Patients with Colorectal Cancer: Risk, Screening, and Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWhile the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer have been declining in the USA in the last decades, there is a considerable increase in the incidence of this malignancy in the young adult patients. Several environmental and genetic factors have been studied and known to be associated with colorectal cancer. However, the exact causes of this increase are not clear. Therefore, in this review, we aimed to provide insights in terms of novel findings and avenues of research that may lead to a better way to treat this population of patients.Recent FindingsObesity and its associated behaviors, such...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - August 16, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Preoperative Selection and Optimization for Liver Resection in Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases
AbstractPurpose of ReviewColorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in incidence and the leading cause of death among males and females. Colorectal cancer liver metastatic disease (CRCLM) is the most common cause of death in these patients. Liver resection is the best treatment modality to be offered for CRCLM patients; however, most patients are not good candidates for liver resection. The scope of this review is to discuss the preoperative selection process and the optimization methods that can be used to maximize the eligibility for liver resection in CRCLM.Recent FindingsThe advancement in perioperative manageme...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - August 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Deciphering the Far-Reaching Functions of Non-coding RNA in Colorectal Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewColorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the deadliest forms of cancer worldwide, and researchers are continuously striving to discover novel therapeutic targets and treatment methods. Many of the molecular mechanisms central to CRC development and progression have yet to be elucidated. The goal of this review is to highlight the most recent findings and theories behind the role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in CRC.Recent FindingsRecent work has indicated that ncRNAs, RNA molecules that are not translated into protein, play significant roles in cellular events directly affecting CRC cell proliferation, migr...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - August 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Functional Imaging Predictors of Response to Chemoradiation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEarly prediction of response to chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer has the potential to minimize surgical intervention in patients with complete response, while allowing non-responding patients to explore more aggressive treatments. Functional imaging detection of tumoral microstructural and metabolic changes presents a valuable tool for preoperative chemoradiation response assessment.Recent FindingsDiffusion-weighted MRI has increasingly been incorporated into study protocols, with the apparent diffusion coefficient largely found to be the most robust global predictor of neoadjuva...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - August 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Current Trends on the Status of Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTransanal endoscopic surgery (TES) is the standard of care for the local excision of large rectal adenomas and selected rectal cancers: an “en bloc” full-thickness local excision is performed, with limited risk of specimen fragmentation and positive resection margins, and subsequent significantly lower risk of recurrence and better survival than after conventional transanal excision with retractors. We perform a literature review a iming at assessing the current trends on the status of TES.Recent FindingsPatients undergoing TES report significantly lower rates of postoperative complicat...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - August 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Deciphering the Far-Reaching Functions of Non-coding RNA in Colorectal Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewColorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the deadliest forms of cancer worldwide, and researchers are continuously striving to discover novel therapeutic targets and treatment methods. Many of the molecular mechanisms central to CRC development and progression have yet to be elucidated. The goal of this review is to highlight the most recent findings and theories behind the role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in CRC.Recent FindingsRecent work has indicated that ncRNAs, RNA molecules that are not translated into protein, play significant roles in cellular events directly affecting CRC cell proliferation, migr...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - July 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Preoperative Selection and Optimization for Liver Resection in Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases
AbstractPurpose of ReviewColorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in incidence and the leading cause of death among males and females. Colorectal cancer liver metastatic disease (CRCLM) is the most common cause of death in these patients. Liver resection is the best treatment modality to be offered for CRCLM patients; however, most patients are not good candidates for liver resection. The scope of this review is to discuss the preoperative selection process and the optimization methods that can be used to maximize the eligibility for liver resection in CRCLM.Recent FindingsThe advancement in perioperative manageme...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - July 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Functional Imaging Predictors of Response to Chemoradiation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewEarly prediction of response to chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer has the potential to minimize surgical intervention in patients with complete response, while allowing non-responding patients to explore more aggressive treatments. Functional imaging detection of tumoral microstructural and metabolic changes presents a valuable tool for preoperative chemoradiation response assessment.Recent FindingsDiffusion-weighted MRI has increasingly been incorporated into study protocols, with the apparent diffusion coefficient largely found to be the most robust global predictor of neoadjuva...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - June 28, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Current Trends on the Status of Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTransanal endoscopic surgery (TES) is the standard of care for the local excision of large rectal adenomas and selected rectal cancers: an “en bloc” full-thickness local excision is performed, with limited risk of specimen fragmentation and positive resection margins, and subsequent significantly lower risk of recurrence and better survival than after conventional transanal excision with retractors. We perform a literature review a iming at assessing the current trends on the status of TES.Recent FindingsPatients undergoing TES report significantly lower rates of postoperative complicat...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - June 22, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Outcomes of Rectal Cancer Patients With Low Sphincter-Preserving Operations Compared to Patients With Abdominoperineal Resection
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe surgical management for low rectal cancer patients has evolved as a result of the introduction of preoperative chemoradiotherapy and innovative technical developments. As a result, abdominoperineal resection (APR) for low rectal cancer has decreased over time. Further, the introduction of intersphincteric resection and preoperative chemoradiotherapy has made it possible to proceed with sphincter preservation. However, the oncologic and functional outcomes of intersphincteric resection have been questioned because of the narrow radical margin and sphincter excision. We review the literature to e...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - June 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research