First-Line Therapy in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients Not Candidates for Curative Surgery
Abstract Metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. Novel cytotoxic and biologic therapies have been developed; however, their optimal use in terms of patient selection, drug combinations, and regimen sequences must be better defined. The FDA-approved drugs include fluoropyrimidines (5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with or without leucovorin (LV), capecitabine), irinotecan, oxaliplatin, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody bevacizumab, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab for RAS wild-type patients, the ...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - February 18, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Is There a Role for Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Rectal Cancer?
Abstract Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy trials demonstrated a reduction in local failure and an increase in survival of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer submitted to upfront surgery. The standard-of-care shifted to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy when the German Rectal Cancer Study Group Trial demonstrated the benefit of neoadjuvant compared to adjuvant fluoropyrimidine chemoradiotherapy in lower rates of local failure, lower toxicity in patients optimally resected with total mesorectal excision (TME), and higher rate of sphincter-sparing surgery. Overall survival (OS) was equivalent in both arms. The benefi...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - February 15, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Translational Considerations on the Outlook of Immunotherapy for Colorectal Cancer
Abstract Immunotherapy is an emerging strategy for many types of cancers and is already a standard treatment for malignant melanoma. Several aspects of colorectal cancer would appear to make it a good target for immunotherapy. Colorectal cancer is associated with a high mutation burden that may generate tumor-specific neo-epitopes that could elicit adaptive immune responses. Tumors with infiltrating immune cells appear to have better clinical outcome and response to chemotherapy. Patients with impaired DNA repair mechanisms have circulating antibodies and T cells that recognize resulting frameshift peptides, and a...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - February 10, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Hepatic Resection for Extrahepatic Metastatic Disease: When Is It Reasonable?
Abstract The presence of limited and resectable extrahepatic metastases (EHM) in addition to colorectal liver metastases (LM) is no longer a contraindication to surgery. Long-term survival (between 25 and 30 % at 5 years) is possible for highly selected patients. The site of occurrence is a key prognostic factor. Results are best for lung EHM and limited peritoneal metastases (PM), lower when EHM invade the proximal hepatic lymph nodes, and worse for other EHM. Treatment decision making is difficult when faced with an infinite number of possible combinations between the different sites of metastases, the...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - February 10, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

What Are the Best Questionnaires To Capture Anorectal Function After Surgery in Rectal Cancer?
This article reviews various questionnaires for capturing anorectal function after surgery in rectal cancer, discussing their attributes and suitability for different evaluation contexts. (Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports)
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - February 1, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Prediction of Colorectal Cancer or Colonic Neoplasia Risk: From Symptoms to Scores
Abstract A large part of colorectal cancer (CRC) could be prevented if our current knowledge of risk factors was used to identify high-risk patients and to provide them efficient and adapted screening. Algorithms allowing the estimation of the individual risk of currently having or developing a CRC has been developed. Though these scores have a real potential in triage ability, their clinical impact as triage tools or to design tailored preventive action remains poor. (Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports)
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - January 17, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Colonoscopy for Colorectal Cancer Screening: Current Challenges and Future Directions
Abstract It is estimated that over 50,000 people will die from colorectal cancer (CRC) in 2014, making CRC the third leading cause of cancer death in the USA. During the last decade, we gained a better understanding of CRC pathophysiology and improved techniques for CRC prevention. Colonoscopy, as a cancer prevention measure, is essential in this task. Our article will review several aspects of colonoscopy and its use in CRC prevention. In addition, we will cover non-technical aspect such as quality measures, improving colonoscopy uptake, new bowel preparation formulations, sedation, and quality metrics. Next, we ...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - December 11, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Identifying Appropriate Colorectal Cancer-Associated Antigens for the Clinical Trials
Abstract Clinical trials using immunotherapy as a targeted approach to the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) have limited clinical efficacy. Lack of proper identification of colorectal cancer-associated antigens and complexity of immunological functions could have hampered the proper therapeutic development. The review focuses on the tumor-associated antigens (TAA) that have been tested in clinical trial setting for treatment of advanced CRC. Since many of the tumor-associated antigens including carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-hCG), MUC1, guanylyl cyclase C ...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - December 11, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

MUTYH Status and Colorectal Cancer Risk: Implication for Surveillance
Abstract MUTYH polyposis (MAP) is responsible for approximately 10 and 30 % of classical and attenuated forms of adenomatous colorectal polyposes, respectively. The underlying molecular mechanism is a biallelic germline mutation of the MUTYH gene responsible for the failure of the base excision repair (BER) DNA repair system with subsequent accumulation of somatic transversion mutations. The cumulative risk of colorectal cancer is very high in the absence of adequate care. Lifelong close colonoscopic surveillance with polypectomies is recommended. Surgery (total rather than partial colectomy) is re...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - December 11, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Are NSAIDs Coming Back to Colorectal Cancer Therapy or Not?
Abstract Despite adjuvant chemotherapy, between 20 and 50 % of patients with stage II/III colorectal cancer (CRC) will suffer recurrence, usually as incurable metastatic disease. Attempts to improve the efficacy of adjuvant regimens with addition of biologics have failed, and there is therefore a pressing need for novel therapeutic approaches. Inflammatory mediators, including the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme family, are commonly upregulated in CRC and known to promote tumour growth in preclinical models. COX inhibition by aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may exert an antineopl...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - November 12, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

How Can Next-Generation Sequencing (Genomics) Help Us in Treating Colorectal Cancer?
Abstract Next-generation sequencing methods have exponentially increased the amount of genomic information available to scientists and clinicians. This review will explain the evolution of tumor gene sequencing and identify its potential to accelerate therapeutic progress by using colorectal cancer to illustrate the benefits of this type of analysis. A milestone in sequencing occurred when The Cancer Genome Atlas investigators characterized the genomes of 276 colorectal cancer samples, with the resulting information expected to provide future clinical applications and help to guide the treatment of colorectal can...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - November 12, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Mechanisms by Which Pleiotropic Amphiphilic n −3 PUFA Reduce Colon Cancer Risk
Abstract Colorectal cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related mortality in both men and women worldwide. Genetic susceptibility and diet are primary determinants of cancer risk and tumor behavior. Experimental, epidemiological, and clinical data substantiate the beneficial role of n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in preventing chronic inflammation and colon cancer. From a mechanistic perspective, n−3 PUFA are pleiotropic and multifaceted with respect to their molecular mechanisms of action. For example, this class of dietary lipid uniquely alters membrane structure/cytoskeletal functio...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - November 12, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Can Circulating MicroRNAs Become the Test of Choice for Colorectal Cancer?
Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA strings of 19–25 nucleotides, encoded by eukaryotic genomic DNA, which function in the posttranscriptional regulation of target gene expression via base pairing with complementary sequences in messenger RNAs (mRNAs), to induce mRNA degradation and translational inhibition. Aberrant miRNA modifications occur at a very early stage in colorectal cancer (CRC) development and are widely described as essential players in its progression. As circulating cell-free miRNAs have become identified, the potential of cell-free miRNAs in the blood or other body fluids fo...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - November 12, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Anti-EGFR Resistance in Colorectal Cancer: Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives
Abstract Anti-EGFR therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) has improved survival outcome. However, many patients do not respond to this therapy and almost all patients develop resistance after a few months of treatment. Since 2008, the therapy has been restricted to patients without mutations in KRAS, an important target in the EGFR pathway, as these patients do not benefit from anti-EGFR therapy. Recently, this has been changed to an all-RAS wild-type strategy. Despite these restrictions, still 40 to 60 % of mCRC patients are resistant. New biomarkers need to be identified in order to improve patient...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - November 12, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Role of Predictive Molecular Biomarkers for the Treatment of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major public health problem in the USA and globally. Over the past 20 years, significant advances have been made in the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Recent efforts have focused on developing molecular biomarkers to further define the subset of patients with mCRC who would derive a substantial benefit from anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy. Activating mutations in KRAS and NRAS are a predictive marker for resistance to anti-EGFR therapy in mCRC. BRAF V600E and PIK3CA mutations have been reported as negative ...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - November 12, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Dendritic Cell Cancer Vaccines for Treatment of Colon Cancer
Abstract Despite advances in treatment modalities, colorectal cancer (CRC) still accounts for about half a million deaths yearly worldwide. The majority of metastatic CRC are unresectable, and of those who undergo resection, few are cured. Advances in chemotherapy and targeted therapy have improved survival, but options remain limited, making the case for incorporating novel modalities in CRC treatment paradigm. Our improved understanding of the tumor immune microenvironment had led to the development of novel immunotherapeutic agents that have been tested in clinical trials such as cancer vaccines. Cancer vaccin...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - November 12, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Targeting Cancer Stem Cells by Phytochemicals: a Multimodal Approach to Colorectal Cancer
Abstract Cancer stem cells (CSCs) exist within a tumor as a rare subpopulation, with the capacity of self-renewal and the ability to differentiate into heterogeneous population of cancer cells. CSCs are increasingly being implicated in tumor recurrence thereby further augmenting the menace of the malignant disease. Characterization of CSCs has unearthed their pivotal role in all the hallmarks of cancer including tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, metastasis and drug resistance, thereby designating cancer as a “stem cell disease.” Here, we discuss the limitations of current therapeutic strategies that spare C...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - October 3, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Histone Demethylases in Colon Cancer
Abstract Cell growth and proliferation are controlled through different posttranslational modifications including demethylation, a process regulated by the demethylase enzymes. This review focuses on our current understanding of functional and therapeutic potentials of histone demethylases in colon cancer. Colon cancer is the third most common malignancy worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the USA. The key protein families responsible for demethylation of histones, histone demethylases, have emerged as new therapeutic targets in different cancer types including colon cancer. These families a...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - September 30, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Targeting Notch Signaling in Colorectal Cancer
Abstract The activation of Notch signaling is implicated in tumorigenesis in the colon due to the induction of pro-survival signaling in colonic epithelial cells. Chemoresistance is a major obstacle for treatment and for the complete eradication of colorectal cancer (CRC); hence, the inhibition of Notch is an attractive target for CRC and several groups are working to identify small molecules or monoclonal antibodies that inhibit Notch or its downstream events; however, toxicity profiles in normal cells and organs often impede the clinical translation of these molecules. Dietary agents have gained momentum for tar...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - September 21, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Peptide Vaccines for Treatment of Colon Cancer: Have We Made Progress?
Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosis and cause of cancer-related death in the USA. It accounts for more than one million cases diagnosed each year worldwide. In the past 10 years, new drugs have been approved, but the survival times are still modest. Alternative therapeutic strategies are clearly needed. A large number of tumor antigens and epitopes recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) have been identified in CRC. Cancer vaccines, designed to activate immune effectors (T cells and antibodies), to prevent recurrence, or to treat advanced cancers, have demonstrated ...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - September 17, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Adoptive Cell Therapy for Colon Cancer: the Right Choice?
Abstract Despite significant advances in the treatment and prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC), not all tumors respond to current treatment modalities and patients with advanced disease continue to have a poor prognosis. New treatment strategies are needed to improve long-term survival in colorectal cancer patients with metastatic disease. Adoptive cell therapy is a novel approach that uses one’s own immune cells to target tumor cells directly. For the last two decades, a wide variety of methods have been described. T-lymphocyte-based immunotherapy may be a promising alternative treatment capable of mediati...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - September 9, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Role of Prolactin and Its Receptor in Colorectal Cancer
Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer related deaths in the USA. Worldwide, up to 5 % of all reported cancer cases are due to CRC, with ∼60 % occurring in industrially developed or developing countries. Environmental factors ranging from changing dietary habits to environmental toxins are associated with the development of CRC. Germline mutations in APC, TP53, and DNA mismatch repair genes contribute to nearly 35 % of the registered CRC cases and are by far the best-studied factors for CRC. Hormones are critical regulatory factors produced by the body to regulate ...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - September 7, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

New Targets and New Drug Development in Colorectal Cancer
Abstract Despite improvements in clinical outcomes of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) over the past decades, prognosis remains poor, with a 5-year survival rate of less than 10 %. Fluoropyrimidine-based regimens have defined the standard of care for metastatic disease. However, with the identification of different genetic alterations involved in tumor cell signaling pathways, understanding the molecular pathogenesis of CRC has become of increasing importance in order to select personalized targeted therapies from which patients may potentially benefit. RAS mutations have proven to predict response to a...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - September 1, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Clinical End Points and Relevant Clinical Benefits in Advanced Colorectal Cancer Trials
Discussion of which variable represents the benefits derived from the adoption of a new treatment in a more reliable manner is of vital importance, both for the design of future clinical trials and for the interpretation of their results, and also to transfer them satisfactorily into clinical practice. Overall survival remains the end point which reflects the clinical benefit most clearly, followed by quality of life and patients’ reported outcomes. However, it may not always be feasible to choose overall survival as the primary end point. Must progression-free survival or other surrogate end points replace overall s...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - September 1, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Oxaliplatin Neurotoxicity
Abstract Oxaliplatin (OXA) is a first-line agent in the systemic treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC). OXA-induced neuropathy is the most prominent adverse effect, both during and after the completion of chemotherapy. OXA neurotoxicity (OXA-NTX) is a dose-limiting, frequent, and long-lasting adverse event that may compromise therapeutic outcome and the quality-of-life of CRC patients. Increased knowledge of the pathophysiology and clinical profile of this neuropathy is being achieved. Two types of neuropathy are usually observed, and evidence suggests a link between the acute symptoms and the development of chron...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - September 1, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Optimization of Anti-EGFR Treatment of Advanced Colorectal Cancer
Abstract Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies are currently used for treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Although they have improved clinical outcome for these metastatic patients, only a small percentage benefit from the treatment. This limited efficacy is related to the lack of validated biomarkers that could aid better selection of the patients most likely to benefit. Although several biomarkers have been identified in recent years, we still do not know how to administer these drugs in a “personalized, targeted manner”. The purpose of this review is to summarize...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - September 1, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Prognostic Impact of Deficient DNA Mismatch Repair and KRAS and BRAF V600E Mutations in Patients with Lymph-Node-Positive Colon Cancer
Abstract Although tumor stage remains the key determinant of colorectal cancer prognosis and treatment, there is considerable stage-independent variability in clinical outcome. Molecular markers hold promise for explaining variations in clinical behavior, and may identify patient subsets with differential efficacy and survival after adjuvant chemotherapy, which is the standard of care for patients with lymph-node-positive, i.e., stage III, colon cancer. An increased understanding of the molecular evolution and progression of colorectal cancer has identified two major pathways of tumorigenesis that are characteriz...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - September 1, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Pulmonary Metastasectomy for Colorectal Cancer: Recent Reports Prompt a Review of the Available Evidence
Abstract Pulmonary metastasectomy for colorectal cancer is commonplace surgery, but the practice has grown on the basis of follow-up studies. These studies base their conclusion on the effectiveness of metastasectomy on the survival rates at 5 years of very highly selected patients. Three publications in the last year, a registry study, a meta-analysis and a randomised controlled trial of monitoring and early detection of cancer recurrence, prompted a review of the evidence. A critical examination of the evidence suggests that much of the apparent benefit may be due to selection of patients most likely to survive...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - September 1, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Adjuvant Therapy in Combination with Resection of Colorectal Cancer Metastasis to the Liver or Lungs
Abstract Surgical resection is associated with prolonged survival for patients with limited lung or liver metastatic colorectal cancer. The benefit of resection of colorectal liver metastases is widely accepted. However, after complete resection of colorectal liver metastases, up to 70 % of patients develop recurrence. Oncosurgical strategies, including complete resection and chemotherapy, have been developed to improve oncological outcome and to reduce recurrence after resection of colorectal liver metastases. Chemotherapy in combination with liver resection can be administered before, after, or before and ...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - September 1, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Update on the Colon Health and Life-Long Exercise Change Trial: A Phase III Study of the Impact of an Exercise Program on Disease-Free Survival in Colon Cancer Survivors
Abstract The Colon Health and Life-Long Exercise Change (CHALLENGE) trial is evaluating the effects of a 3-year exercise program on disease-free survival in 962 patients with resected high-risk stage II or stage III colon cancer. The purpose of this commentary is to provide an update on the CHALLENGE trial. As of December 31, 2013, the trial had randomized 250 patients in 20 Canadian centers and 26 Australian centers, with further expansion planned. Early barriers to accrual are reported and strategies to improve accrual are discussed. Of the 250 patients randomized to date, 89 % have stage III colon cancer,...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - September 1, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Adjuvant HIPEC in Colorectal Cancer
Abstract Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) of colorectal origin has historically been regarded as fatal, with worse prognosis than other metastatic manifestations of the same origin. During the last three decades, complete cytoreductive surgery associated with adjuvant hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has led to improvement of outcome, with long-term survival being achieved for selected patients. This treatment is on the verge of becoming the standard of care for this metastatic disease. In this paper we review the rationale for HIPEC, the results obtained, and define its current indications. Future...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - September 1, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

To HIPEC or Not to HIPEC? That Is The Question
(Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports)
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - September 1, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Accuracy of Predefined Hypotheses in Colon Cancer Adjuvant Phase III Trials: Observations and Recommendations
Abstract Adjuvant colon cancer trials compare survival of patients receiving either a standard, approved regimen or a new investigational treatment after curative surgical resection of tumor. The target accrual of trials is on the basis of the statistical power required to reveal survival benefit, and depends on predefined hypotheses regarding the expected results for the control group and the differences in treatment effects between the control and the investigational group. In this review we assess the validity of predefined hypotheses in phase III adjuvant trials of colon cancer treatment published between 198...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - September 1, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Optimization of the Development of Old and New EGFR and MAP Kinase Inhibitors for Colorectal Cancer
Abstract The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream signaling pathways are crucially important in the biology of colorectal cancer (CRC). In the past few years, EGFR kinase and its major downstream effector, the RAS/RAF/MAPK/ERK pathway, have been attractive targets for development of new therapy for treatment of metastatic CRC (mCRC). Cetuximab and panitumumab, two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the EGFR, are the first targeted agents approved as personalized medicine for treatment of mCRC. Recently, inhibition of MEK1/2 has been seen as a promising approach for blocking MAPK-mediated p...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - September 1, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Optimization of Patient Selection for Surgical Approach to Peritoneal Metastases from Gastrointestinal Cancer Using Cytoreductive Surgery and Perioperative Chemotherapy
Abstract Gastrointestinal cancer can metastasize by hematogenous routes to the liver, by lymphatic channels to regional lymph nodes, and by penetration of the bowel wall to the peritoneal surfaces. For patients who have isolated peritoneal metastases, a new management plan with curative intent has evolved over the last 30 years. Now patients with peritoneal dissemination are evaluated by the multidisciplinary team for treatment by cytoreductive surgery plus perioperative chemotherapy. Major progress in the treatment of peritoneal metastases has occurred as a result of more clearly defined selection criteria....
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - September 1, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Vitamin D for Prevention and Treatment of Colorectal Cancer: What is the Evidence?
Abstract Vitamin D insufficiency is highly prevalent in the U.S., particularly among colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. These low levels of vitamin D are concerning given increasing evidence that vitamin D may have health benefits beyond skeletal outcomes. Prospective observational studies suggest that higher vitamin D levels are associated with lower risk of incident CRC and improved survival for patients with established CRC, and randomized clinical trials are urgently needed to establish causality. Moreover, there remains a great need to improve prognosis for patients with CRC, and investigating vitamin D as a ...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - September 1, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Do We Need another Antiangiogenesis Agent for Colorectal Cancer: are Bevacizumab and Aflibercept the Same?
(Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports)
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - September 1, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

DNA Methylation and Colorectal Cancer
Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the major cancers in the world and the second death-causing cancer in the USA. CRC development involves genetic and epigenetic alterations. Changes in DNA methylation status are believed to be involved at different stages of CRC. Promoter silencing via DNA methylation and hypomethylation of oncogenes alters gene expression and can be used as a tool for the early detection of colonic lesions. DNA methylation use as a diagnostic and prognostic marker has been described for many cancers including CRC. CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) is one of the underlying CRC mechan...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - August 31, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research