Evolving Tissue and Circulating Biomarkers as Prognostic and Predictive Tools in Colorectal Cancer

AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe success of precision medicine relies heavily on biomarkers. Validated biomarkers that help stratify risk and guide treatments in patients with colorectal cancers are limited. With advances in genomics, immune landscapes and technological assays, there are increasing numbers of biomarkers that show potential to guide treatment decisions in the clinic. In this article, we review the key emerging biomarkers including tissue-based gene-based expression biomarkers, microRNA and immune signatures along with circulating tumour DNA in plasma, biomarkers of anti-angiogenic agents.Recent FindingsMismatch repair proteins have emerged as predictive biomarkers of immune-oncology agents. Lack of caudal-type homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) expression has been identified as a potential prognostic biomarker identifying a subgroup of patients with high-risk stage 2 colon cancer who would benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. A validated biomarker, Immunoscore, has been proposed as an adjunct to the conventional TNM classification to help with prognostication. Circulating tumour DNA has the potential to be a prognostic and predictive biomarker in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, and by identifying minimal residual disease in stage 2 and 3 colorectal cancer, it can be useful to detect early relapse.SummaryBiomarker discovery and validation has its own challenges, but to truly deliver precision medicine to our patients, it is crucial to understand and ...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: A DNA repair gene score may predict patients likely to have poor response to chemoradiation. This score may be a relevant tool to be investigated in future studies focused on chemoradiation used in the context of organ preservation. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B104. PREDICCIÓN DE RESPUESTA DEFICIENTE A LA RADIO-QUIMIOTERAPIA NEOADYUVANTE EN PACIENTES CON CÁNCER RECTAL UTILIZANDO UNA PUNTUACIÓN DE DESREGULACIÓN DE REPARACIÓN DE ADN: ESCOGER LOS PERDEDORES EN LUGAR DE LOS GANADORES ANTECEDENTES: Los pacientes con cáncer rectal pueden someterse a ...
Source: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Contributions: Colorectal Cancer Source Type: research
Conclusion A great deal of progress is being made in the matter of treating aging: in advocacy, in funding, in the research and development. It can never be enough, and it can never be fast enough, given the enormous cost in suffering and lost lives. The longevity industry is really only just getting started in the grand scheme of things: it looks vast to those of us who followed the slow, halting progress in aging research that was the state of things a decade or two ago. But it is still tiny compared to the rest of the medical industry, and it remains the case that there is a great deal of work yet to be done at all...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Rationale: Lynch syndrome (LS) is an autosomal dominant cancer predisposition condition caused by germline heterozygous mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. However, as one of the MMR genes, PMS2 mutation-induced LS-associated endometrial cancer (LSAEC) was rarely reported. Patient concerns: A 26-year-old female patient suffered from prolonged menstrual period and increased menstrual flow for 2 months. Diagnoses: The patient was diagnosed with cervix CIN III, endometrial cancer (EC), anemia, and LS. Interventions: Total hysterectomy, bilateral salpingectomy, pelvic lymphadenectomy were performed for treatin...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research
Some of the most common symptoms experienced by cancer patients are memory problems, difficulties with multitasking, and reduced attention and concentration. Historically, cancer patients with these symptoms were often diagnosed with depression. Research over the past decade has revealed that many cancer patients experience such symptoms as a consequence of specific damage to the brain caused by either their tumor or their treatment. While radiation to the brain has long been linked to causing cognitive difficulties, the effects of chemotherapy on brain structure and function have only recently been discovered. We now know...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Brain and cognitive health Cancer Memory Radiation Source Type: blogs
In this study, we hypothesized that moderately and chronically reducing ACh could attenuate the deleterious effects of aging on NMJs and skeletal muscles. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed NMJs and muscle fibers from heterozygous transgenic mice with reduced expression of the vesicular ACh transporter (VAChT), VKDHet mice, which present with approximately 30% less synaptic ACh compared to control mice. Because ACh is constitutively decreased in VKDHet, we first analyzed developing NMJs and muscle fibers. We found no obvious morphological or molecular differences between NMJs and muscle fibers of VKDHet and contro...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
ConclusionTo optimize targeting and visualization of the surgical field in right pelvic sidewall/paracolic gutter, robotic arms can be placed in a straight line from above the pubic symphysis extending to the left subcostal line and between the midline vertical and midclavicular lines. Robotic tumor debulking should be considered in selected patients with recurrent ovarian cancer who present with oligo-metastatic disease, in the absence of carcinomatosis.
Source: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
AbstractBackgroundTumour mismatch repair (MMR) predicts benefit of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We conducted a large-scale prospective observational trial on microsatellite instability (MSI) status in mCRC: SCRUM-Japan GI-SCREEN CRC-MSI.MethodsmCRC patients (pts) appropriate for systemic chemotherapy were eligible. Paired tumor and normal DNA extracted from FFPE samples were analyzed by the MSI Analysis System, which includes 5 mononucleotide markers. Tumours exhibiting ≥2 unstable markers were defined as MSI-H, while those with ≤1 were labelled MSI-L/MSS.ResultsFrom 2/2...
Source: Annals of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In conclusion, our data show how oncogenic and tumor-suppressive drivers of cellular senescence act to regulate surveillance processes that can be circumvented to enable SnCs to elude immune recognition but can be reversed by cell surface-targeted interventions to purge the SnCs that persist in vitro and in patients. Since eliminating SnCs can prevent tumor progression, delay the onset of degenerative diseases, and restore fitness; since NKG2D-Ls are not widely expressed in healthy human tissues and NKG2D-L shedding is an evasion mechanism also employed by tumor cells; and since increasing numbers of B cells express NKG2D ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
We present a patient who received nivolumab for heterogeneity of right-sided metastatic colon carcinoma. Intervention: The patient was treated with nivolumab combined with chemotherapy. Outcome: The computed tomography showed mass lesion in the left lobe of liver remained stable while metastasis tumors under envelop of liver were exacerbated after 6 cycles of nivolumab combined with chemotherapy, and later regressed. Lessons: The status of mismatch repair in primary tumor and metastatic liver carcinoma is contradictory but using nivolumab demonstrated encouraging efficacy. This is the first case of pseudo progress...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research
GBM is the most aggressive form of brain cancer. The current standard of care against GBM is a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, after standard treatment, the cancer usually recurs – emphasizing a need for new targets and better alternatives. A promising target is cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), the hyperactivity of which has been shown to have a role in cancer progression. TP5/TFP5, a small peptide inhibitor against CDK5, was developed at the National Institutes of Health and modified to increase its passage through the blood brain barrier. Researchers at the NCI and NINDS demons...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
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