NIH Director's Seminar Series

NIH Directors Seminar Series Dr. Xu ’ s Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Systems Biology Center, NHLBI is interested in the basic mechanism guiding the transmission of our second genome- mitochondrial DNA. Mutations in mitochondrial genome have emerged as important factors compromising human health. Although mitochondrial genome is prone to accumulating mutations due to the high spontaneous mutation frequency and a lack of repair mechanisms, the crippling mitochondrial mutation is exceedingly rare in populations. It is puzzling how mothers are able to restrict the transmission of damaging mutations to the next generation. To overcome the unusual mitochondrial genetic system that features uniparental inheritance, polyploidy and amitotic segregation, Dr. Xu ’ s Lab has developed various tools to approach mitochondrial genome. Dr. Xu ’ s Lab found that healthy mitochondria containing wild type genome propagate much more rigorously, and out-compete defective ones afflicted by damaging mutations in the female germ line. The model of replication competition based on the integrity of individual genomes explains the strong purifying selection observed in human and other animal models, and challenges the existing dogma known as bottleneck inheritance as an effective mean to prevent the accumulation of mtDNA mutations. Dr. Xu ’ s work also revealed a translation boost on the mitochondrial surface to facilitate the synthesis and import of nuclear encoded mitocho...
Source: Videocast - All Events - Category: General Medicine Tags: Upcoming Events Source Type: video

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Publication date: December 2019Source: Materials Science and Engineering: C, Volume 105Author(s): Mingshu Xiao, Lihu Gao, Arun Richard Chandrasekaran, Jianfeng Zhao, Qian Tang, Zhibei Qu, Fei Wang, Li Li, Yang Yang, Xueli Zhang, Ying Wan, Hao PeiAbstractDevelopment of biomedical materials for proper collagen deposition is of great importance to accelerate wound healing and thus achieving skin regeneration. Here, we report guanosine quartet hydrogels loaded with recombinant human-source collagen (G4-RHC) that can be used as medical patches for wound repair. The G4-RHC hydrogels are flexible, and when wrapped onto the skin s...
Source: Materials Science and Engineering: C - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 August 2019Source: Seminars in Cell &Developmental BiologyAuthor(s): Dominic Julian, Ethan W. Hollingsworth, Katherine Julian, Jaime ImitolaAbstractHuman central nervous system (CNS) regeneration is considered the holy grail of neuroscience research, and is one of the most pressing and difficult questions in biology and science. Despite more than 20 years of work in the field of neural stem cells (NSCs), the area remains in its infancy as our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that can be leveraged to improve CNS regeneration in neurological diseases is still growing. Here...
Source: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 August 2019Source: Journal of Theoretical BiologyAuthor(s): M. Chowkwale, G.J. Mahler, P. Huang, B.T. MurrayAbstractEndothelial to mesenchymal transformation (EndMT) is a process in which endothelial cells gain a mesenchymal-like phenotype in response to mechanobiological signals that results in the remodeling or repair of underlying tissue. While initially associated with embryonic development, this process has since been shown to occur in adult tissue remodeling including wound healing, fibrosis, and cancer. In an attempt to understand the role of EndMT in cancer progression and meta...
Source: Journal of Theoretical Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
ConclusionSurgical reconstruction affords excellent to good results for majority of the patients with post-cholecystectomy BDI. As longer delay in definitive repair and previous attempt at repair were associated with unsatisfactory long-term outcome, early referral to a specialized hepatobiliary surgery unit is recommended.
Source: Journal of Visceral Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
In this study, we identified a cluster of DNA repair-related proteins that interact with ALDOB in the colon adenocarcinoma cell line HCT116. Expression analysis of colon adenocarcinoma data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA-COAD data, n = 551) indicated that ALDOB mRNA expression was significantly higher in specimens with microsatellite instability (MSI) than in specimens with microsatellite stability (MSS). Regarding prognosis, colon adenocarcinoma patients with high ALDOB mRNA expression had longer overall survival (OS). Higher expression of ALDOB protein was significantly correlated with MMR deficiency (d-MMR) in forma...
Source: Pathology Research and Practice - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
AbstractIntroductionTo determine whether the placement of an interscalene brachial plexus block (IBPB) with general anaesthesia before shoulder arthroscopy would be effective in establishing a clear visual field and in shortening the surgical procedure.MethodThis prospective randomized control trial study included 152 patients who had undergone arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Group A received IBPB and group B did not receive IBPB. A visual clarity scale (VCS) was determined by arthroscopic visualization. The systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), duration of surgical procedure, VC...
Source: International Orthopaedics - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: TF-TAVI can be performed successfully in patients with aortic disease or previous endovascular aortoiliac intervention. Simultaneous and sequential (T)EVAR is feasible. PMID: 31416046 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Journal of Invasive Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Tags: J Invasive Cardiol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 August 2019Source: British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial SurgeryAuthor(s): A. Sanjuan-Sanjuan, S. Heredero-Jung, M. Ogledzki, R. Arévalo-Arévalo, A. Dean-FerrerAbstractOur aim was to report the incidence of asymmetry of the lower eyelid (that manifests itself as flattening of the eyelid fat) as a long-term complication of the surgical approach of unilateral fractures of the orbital floor. We retrospectively reviewed the aesthetic appearance of the lower eyelid in 43 patients after repair of such fractures. Long-term asymmetry seen as asymmetrical flattening of the eye...
Source: British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
Objective: To determine the audiologic improvement after middle cranial fossa (MCF) approach to repair spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (sCSF) leaks. Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Tertiary referral center. Patients: Twenty-four consecutive patients (27 ears) with temporal bone sCSF leak over a 4-year period. Patient age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), location of CSF leak, recurrence of CSF leak, and presence of encephalocele(s) were recorded. Intervention: Audiometric testing in patients undergoing MCF repair of temporal bone sCSF leak. Main Outcome Measures: Comparison of preo...
Source: Otology and Neurotology - Category: ENT & OMF Tags: MIDDLE EAR AND MASTOID DISEASE Source Type: research
Background: Few studies report hearing preservation following middle cranial fossa (MCF) floor defect repair. Objective: To investigate audiological outcomes following MCF floor defect repair using a modified MCF suprapetrous approach. Study Design: Retrospective cohort. Setting: Tertiary referral center. Patients: Eleven patients, with MCF floor defects. Interventions: MCF floor defect surgical repairs with either fascia or fascia and bone graft. Main Outcome Measured: Hearing outcomes. Results: Eleven patients (two men) aged 34 to 82 years (median, 62 yrs) were identified. All patients were operate...
Source: Otology and Neurotology - Category: ENT & OMF Tags: MIDDLE EAR AND MASTOID DISEASE Source Type: research
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