Evolving Tissue and Circulating Biomarkers as Prognostic and Predictive Tools in Colorectal Cancer

AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe success of precision medicine relies heavily on biomarkers. Validated biomarkers that help stratify risk and guide treatments in patients with colorectal cancers are limited. With advances in genomics, immune landscapes and technological assays, there are increasing numbers of biomarkers that show potential to guide treatment decisions in the clinic. In this article, we review the key emerging biomarkers including tissue-based gene-based expression biomarkers, microRNA and immune signatures along with circulating tumour DNA in plasma, biomarkers of anti-angiogenic agents.Recent FindingsMismatch repair proteins have emerged as predictive biomarkers of immune-oncology agents. Lack of caudal-type homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) expression has been identified as a potential prognostic biomarker identifying a subgroup of patients with high-risk stage 2 colon cancer who would benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. A validated biomarker, Immunoscore, has been proposed as an adjunct to the conventional TNM classification to help with prognostication. Circulating tumour DNA has the potential to be a prognostic and predictive biomarker in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, and by identifying minimal residual disease in stage 2 and 3 colorectal cancer, it can be useful to detect early relapse.SummaryBiomarker discovery and validation has its own challenges, but to truly deliver precision medicine to our patients, it is crucial to understand and ...
Source: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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In this study, we hypothesized that moderately and chronically reducing ACh could attenuate the deleterious effects of aging on NMJs and skeletal muscles. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed NMJs and muscle fibers from heterozygous transgenic mice with reduced expression of the vesicular ACh transporter (VAChT), VKDHet mice, which present with approximately 30% less synaptic ACh compared to control mice. Because ACh is constitutively decreased in VKDHet, we first analyzed developing NMJs and muscle fibers. We found no obvious morphological or molecular differences between NMJs and muscle fibers of VKDHet and contro...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
ConclusionTo optimize targeting and visualization of the surgical field in right pelvic sidewall/paracolic gutter, robotic arms can be placed in a straight line from above the pubic symphysis extending to the left subcostal line and between the midline vertical and midclavicular lines. Robotic tumor debulking should be considered in selected patients with recurrent ovarian cancer who present with oligo-metastatic disease, in the absence of carcinomatosis.
Source: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
AbstractBackgroundTumour mismatch repair (MMR) predicts benefit of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We conducted a large-scale prospective observational trial on microsatellite instability (MSI) status in mCRC: SCRUM-Japan GI-SCREEN CRC-MSI.MethodsmCRC patients (pts) appropriate for systemic chemotherapy were eligible. Paired tumor and normal DNA extracted from FFPE samples were analyzed by the MSI Analysis System, which includes 5 mononucleotide markers. Tumours exhibiting ≥2 unstable markers were defined as MSI-H, while those with ≤1 were labelled MSI-L/MSS.ResultsFrom 2/2...
Source: Annals of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In conclusion, our data show how oncogenic and tumor-suppressive drivers of cellular senescence act to regulate surveillance processes that can be circumvented to enable SnCs to elude immune recognition but can be reversed by cell surface-targeted interventions to purge the SnCs that persist in vitro and in patients. Since eliminating SnCs can prevent tumor progression, delay the onset of degenerative diseases, and restore fitness; since NKG2D-Ls are not widely expressed in healthy human tissues and NKG2D-L shedding is an evasion mechanism also employed by tumor cells; and since increasing numbers of B cells express NKG2D ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
We present a patient who received nivolumab for heterogeneity of right-sided metastatic colon carcinoma. Intervention: The patient was treated with nivolumab combined with chemotherapy. Outcome: The computed tomography showed mass lesion in the left lobe of liver remained stable while metastasis tumors under envelop of liver were exacerbated after 6 cycles of nivolumab combined with chemotherapy, and later regressed. Lessons: The status of mismatch repair in primary tumor and metastatic liver carcinoma is contradictory but using nivolumab demonstrated encouraging efficacy. This is the first case of pseudo progress...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research
GBM is the most aggressive form of brain cancer. The current standard of care against GBM is a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, after standard treatment, the cancer usually recurs – emphasizing a need for new targets and better alternatives. A promising target is cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), the hyperactivity of which has been shown to have a role in cancer progression. TP5/TFP5, a small peptide inhibitor against CDK5, was developed at the National Institutes of Health and modified to increase its passage through the blood brain barrier. Researchers at the NCI and NINDS demons...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
Antonio Lucena-Cacace1, Masayuki Umeda1, Lola E. Navas2,3 and Amancio Carnero2,3* 1Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan 2CIBERONC, ISCIII, Madrid, Spain 3Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla (IBIS), Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío (HUVR), CSIC, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain Glioma Cancer Stem-Like Cells (GSCs) are a small subset of CD133+ cells with self-renewal properties and capable of initiating new tumors contributing to Glioma progression, maintenance, hierarchy, and complexity. GSCs are highly res...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Michal Yalon1†, Amos Toren1,2†, Dina Jabarin2, Edna Fadida3, Shlomi Constantini3 and Ruty Mehrian-Shai1* 1Pediatric Hemato-Oncology, Edmond and Lilly Safra Children's Hospital and Cancer Research Center, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan, Israel 2The Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel 3Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Dana Children's Hospital, Tel-Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel Pediatric brain tumors are the most common solid tumor type and the leading cause of cancer-related death in children. The immune system plays an important r...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Qingbin Cui1,2, Chao-Yun Cai2, Hai-Ling Gao2,3, Liang Ren1, Ning Ji2,4, Pranav Gupta2, Yuqi Yang2, Suneet Shukla5, Suresh V. Ambudkar5, Dong-Hua Yang2 and Zhe-Sheng Chen2* 1School of Public Health, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangdong, China 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, St. John's University, Queens, NY, United States 3Department of Histology and Embryology, Clinical Medical College, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, China 4Tianjin Key Laboratory on Technologies Enabling Development of Clinical Therapeutics and Diagnostics, School of Pharmacy, Tian...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Reena Goswami1, Gayatri Subramanian2, Liliya Silayeva1, Isabelle Newkirk1, Deborah Doctor1, Karan Chawla2, Saurabh Chattopadhyay2, Dhyan Chandra3, Nageswararao Chilukuri1 and Venkaiah Betapudi1,4* 1Neuroscience Branch, Research Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen, MD, United States 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences, Toledo, OH, United States 3Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY, United States 4Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Clev...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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