Endothelial Glycocalyx as a Shield Against Diabetic Vascular Complications: Involvement of Hyaluronan and Hyaluronidases.

Endothelial Glycocalyx as a Shield Against Diabetic Vascular Complications: Involvement of Hyaluronan and Hyaluronidases. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2018 Jun 07;: Authors: Dogné S, Flamion B, Caron N Abstract The endothelial glycocalyx (EG), which covers the apical surface of the endothelial cells and floats into the lumen of the vessels, is a key player in vascular integrity and cardiovascular homeostasis. The EG is composed of PGs (proteoglycans), glycoproteins, glycolipids, and glycosaminoglycans, in particular hyaluronan (HA). HA seems to be implicated in most of the functions described for EG such as creating a space between blood and the endothelium, controlling vessel permeability, restricting leukocyte and platelet adhesion, and allowing an appropriate endothelial response to flow variation through mechanosensing. The amount of HA in the EG may be regulated by HYAL (hyaluronidase) 1, the most active somatic hyaluronidase. HYAL1 seems enriched in endothelial cells through endocytosis from the bloodstream. The role of the other main somatic hyaluronidase, HYAL2, in the EG is uncertain. Damage to the EG, accompanied by shedding of one or more of its components, is an early sign of various pathologies including diabetes mellitus. Shedding increases the blood or plasma concentration of several EG components, such as HA, heparan sulfate, and syndecan. The plasma levels of these molecules can then be used as sensitive markers of EG degradatio...
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

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Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
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Source: Histology and Histopathology - Category: Cytology Tags: Histol Histopathol Source Type: research
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Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
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Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research
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Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research
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Source: EHP Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
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Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research
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Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research
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