Epac1 (Exchange Protein Directly Activated by cAMP 1) Upregulates LOX-1 (Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor 1) to Promote Foam Cell Formation and Atherosclerosis Development.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates a fundamental role of cAMP/Epac1 signaling in vascular remodeling by promoting ox-LDL uptake and foam cell formation during atherosclerosis lesion development. Therefore, Epac1 represents a promising, unexplored therapeutic target for atherosclerosis. PMID: 33054390 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - October 15, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Robichaux WG, Mei FC, Yang W, Wang H, Sun H, Zhou Z, Milewicz DM, Teng BB, Cheng X Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Macrophage Biology in Cardiovascular Diseases.
Abstract Macrophages have key functional role in the pathogenesis are various cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and aortic aneurysm. Their accumulation within the vessel wall leads to sustained local inflammatory responses characterized by secretion of chemokines, cytokines, and matrix protein degrading enzymes. Here, we summarize recent findings on macrophage contribution to cardiovascular disease published in ATVB. In this issue, we focus on the origin, survival/death, and phenotypic switching of macrophages within vessel walls. PMID: 33054391 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Arte...
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - October 15, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Khoury MK, Yang H, Liu B Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Pregnancy and Preeclampsia Are Associated With Acute Adverse Peripheral Arterial Events.
This study sought to establish pregnancy and preeclampsia as risk factors for acute peripheral arterial events. Approach and Results: All women who gave birth between 1998 and 2020 within a multicenter health care system were identified. Births that occurred in women 50 years of age were excluded. Primary outcome was any acute peripheral arterial event that was symptomatic or required intervention. Cox regression model was used to evaluate the association between vascular events and pregnancy as a time-varying covariate. The pregnancy exposure period was from the estimated date of conception to 3 months postpartum. There w...
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - October 15, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: DeCarlo C, Boitano LT, Molina RL, Weinberg I, Conrad MF, Eagleton MJ, Dua A Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Recent Advances in Vascular Imaging.
Abstract Recent advances in vascular imaging have enabled us to uncover the underlying mechanisms of vascular diseases both ex vivo and in vivo. In the past decade, efforts have been made to establish various methodologies for evaluation of atherosclerotic plaque progression and vascular inflammatory changes in addition to biomarkers and clinical manifestations. Several recent publications in Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology highlighted the essential roles of in vivo and ex vivo vascular imaging, including magnetic resonance image, computed tomography, positron emission tomography/scintigraphy, u...
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - October 15, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Nishimiya K, Matsumoto Y, Shimokawa H Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Targeting Transcription Factor Nrf2 (Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2) for the Intervention of Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Dementia.
Abstract Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) is an age-related, mild to severe mental disability due to a broad panel of cerebrovascular disorders. Its pathobiology involves neurovascular dysfunction, blood-brain barrier disruption, white matter damage, microRNAs, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and gut microbiota alterations, etc. Nrf2 (Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) is the master regulator of redox status and controls the transcription of a panel of antioxidative and anti-inflammatory genes. By interacting with NF-κB (nuclear factor-κB), Nrf2 also fine-tunes the cellu...
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - October 15, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yang T, Zhang F Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Fibroblast Nox2 (NADPH Oxidase-2) Regulates ANG II (Angiotensin II)-Induced Vascular Remodeling and Hypertension via Paracrine Signaling to Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that fibroblast Nox2 plays a crucial role in the development of ANG II-induced vascular remodeling and hypertension in vivo. Mechanistically, fibroblast Nox2 may regulate paracrine signaling to medial vascular smooth muscle cells via factors, such as GDF6. PMID: 33054395 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - October 15, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Harrison CB, Trevelin SC, Richards DA, Santos CXC, Sawyer G, Markovinovic A, Zhang X, Zhang M, Brewer AC, Yin X, Mayr M, Shah AM Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Monosomy X in Female Mice Influences the Regional Formation and Augments the Severity of Angiotensin II-Induced Aortopathies.
CONCLUSIONS: The absence of a second X chromosome promotes diffuse Ang II-induced aortopathies in females. PMID: 33054396 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - October 15, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: AlSiraj Y, Thatcher SE, Blalock E, Saintilnord WN, Daugherty A, Lu HS, Luo W, Shen YH, LeMaire SA, Arnold AP, Cassis LA Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

KLF4 (Kruppel-Like Factor 4)-Dependent Perivascular Plasticity Contributes to Adipose Tissue inflammation.
CONCLUSIONS: Perivascular cells within the AT microvasculature dynamically respond to DIO and modulate tissue inflammation and metabolism in a KLF4-dependent manner. PMID: 33054397 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - October 15, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Bulut GB, Alencar GF, Owsiany KM, Nguyen AT, Karnewar S, Haskins RM, Waller LK, Cherepanova OA, Deaton RA, Shankman LS, Keller SR, Owens GK Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Naive CD8+ T Cells Expressing CD95 Increase Human Cardiovascular Disease Severity.
CONCLUSIONS: CD8+ TSCM cells are increased in humans with high CVD. As these TSCM cells promote atherosclerosis, targeting them may attenuate atherosclerotic plaque progression. PMID: 33054398 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - October 15, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Padgett LE, Dinh HQ, Wu R, Gaddis DE, Araujo DJ, Winkels H, Nguyen A, McNamara CA, Hedrick CC Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Endothelial HMGB1 Is a Critical Regulator of LDL Transcytosis via an SREBP2-SR-BI Axis.
CONCLUSIONS: Endothelial HMGB1 regulates LDL transcytosis by prolonging the half-life of SREBP2, enhancing SR-BI expression. Translocation of HMGB1 to the nucleus in response to LDL requires SR-BI. PMID: 33054399 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - October 15, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ghaffari S, Jang E, Nabi FN, Sanwal R, Khosraviani N, Wang C, Steinberg BE, Goldenberg NM, Ikeda J, Lee WL Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Platelets Promote Thromboinflammation in SARS-CoV-2 Pneumonia.
nuz P Abstract OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary thrombosis is observed in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pneumonia. Aim was to investigate whether subpopulations of platelets were programmed to procoagulant and inflammatory activities in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with pneumonia, without comorbidities predisposing to thromboembolism. Approach and Results: Overall, 37 patients and 28 healthy subjects were studied. Platelet-leukocyte aggregates, platelet-derived microvesicles, the expression of P-selectin, and active fibrinogen receptor on platelets were quantified by flow cytometry. The profi...
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - October 14, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Taus F, Salvagno G, Canè S, Fava C, Mazzaferri F, Carrara E, Petrova V, Barouni RM, Dima F, Dalbeni A, Romano S, Poli G, Benati M, Denitto S, Mansueto G, Iezzi M, Tacconelli E, Lippi G, Bronte V, Minuz P Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Platelet Extracellular Vesicles: Beyond the Blood.
Abstract Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a means of cell-to-cell communication and can facilitate the exchange of a broad array of molecules between adjacent or distant cells. Platelets are anucleate cells derived from megakaryocytes and are primarily known for their role in maintaining hemostasis and vascular integrity. Upon activation by a variety of agonists, platelets readily generate EVs, which were initially identified as procoagulant particles. However, as both platelets and their EVs are abundant in blood, the role of platelet EVs in hemostasis may be redundant. Moreover, findings have challenged the sign...
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - October 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Puhm F, Boilard E, Machlus KR Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Endogenous THBD (Thrombomodulin) Mediates Angiogenesis in the Ischemic Brain.
CONCLUSIONS: Endogenous THBD acts as a protective factor in the brain during ischemic stroke and enhances vessel diameter and proliferation. These previously unknown properties of THBD could offer new opportunities to affect vessel function after ischemia and thereby improve stroke outcome. PMID: 33028093 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - October 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Wenzel J, Spyropoulos D, Assmann JC, Khan MA, Stölting I, Lembrich B, Kreißig S, Ridder DA, Isermann B, Schwaninger M Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Desert Hedgehog-Driven Endothelium Integrity Is Enhanced by Gas1 (Growth Arrest-Specific 1) but Negatively Regulated by Cdon (Cell Adhesion Molecule-Related/Downregulated by Oncogenes).
CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, these results demonstrate that Gas1 is a positive regulator of Dhh in ECs while Cdon is a negative regulator. Interestingly, Cdon blocking molecules may then be used to promote endothelium integrity, at least in inflammatory conditions. PMID: 33028094 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - October 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Chapouly C, Hollier PL, Guimbal S, Cornuault L, Gadeau AP, Renault MA Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Stem/Progenitor Cells and Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.
Abstract Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease characterized by endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling. Despite significant advancement in our understanding of the pathogenesis of PAH in recent years, treatment options for PAH are limited and their prognosis remains poor. PAH is now seen as a severe pulmonary arterial vasculopathy with structural changes driven by excessive vascular proliferation and inflammation. Perturbations of a number of cellular and molecular mechanisms have been described, including pathways involving growth factors, cytokines, metabolic signaling, elastase...
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - October 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Pu X, Du L, Hu Y, Fan Y, Xu Q Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Cholesterol-Induced Phenotypic Modulation of Smooth Muscle Cells to Macrophage/Fibroblast-like Cells Is Driven by an Unfolded Protein Response.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that UPR is necessary and sufficient to drive phenotypic switching of SMCs to cells that resemble modulated SMCs found in atherosclerotic plaques. Preventing a UPR in hyperlipidemic mice diminishes atherosclerotic burden, and our data suggest that preventing SMC transition to dedifferentiated cells expressing macrophage and fibroblast markers contributes to this decreased plaque burden. PMID: 33028096 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - October 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Chattopadhyay A, Kwartler CS, Kaw K, Li Y, Kaw A, Chen J, LeMaire SA, Shen YH, Milewicz DM Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Oxidative Stress Product, 4-Hydroxy-2-Nonenal, Induces the Release of Tissue Factor-Positive Microvesicles From Perivascular Cells Into Circulation.
CONCLUSIONS: HNE promotes the release of TF+ microvesicles from perivascular cells into the circulation. HNE-induced increased TF activity contributes to intravascular coagulation and inflammation. PMID: 33028097 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - October 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ansari SA, Keshava S, Pendurthi UR, Rao LVM Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Coronary Vascular Function and Cardiomyocyte Injury: A Report WISE-CVD.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that higher u-hscTnI is associated with coronary vascular dysfunction in women with INOCA. This suggests that ischemic cardiomyocyte injury in the setting of coronary vascular dysfunction has the potential to contribute to adverse cardiovascular outcomes observed in these women. Additional studies are needed to confirm and investigate mechanisms underlying these findings in INOCA. REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00832702. PMID: 33028098 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - October 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: AlBadri A, Wei J, Quesada O, Mehta PK, Xiao Y, Ko YA, Anderson RD, Petersen J, Azarbal B, Samuels B, Henry TD, Cook-Wiens G, Handberg EM, Van Eyk J, Pepine CJ, Bairey Merz CN Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Bilaterally Asymmetric Associations Between Extracranial Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis and Ipsilateral Middle Cerebral Artery Stenosis in Symptomatic Patients: A CARE-II Study.
CONCLUSIONS: In the symptomatic arteries, vulnerable plaque features are independently associated with ipsilateral severe MCA stenosis on the left side, but this association is not found on the right side, indicating the associations of atherosclerotic disease between intracranial and extracranial carotid arteries are asymmetrical. PMID: 33028099 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - October 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Shi H, Shao S, Wang G, Zhao X, Li R, Ya B, Sun Q, Watase H, Hippe DS, Yuan C, CARE-II Investigators Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Myeloid-Derived TSP1 (Thrombospondin-1) Contributes to Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Through Suppressing Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1.
CONCLUSIONS: TSP1 contributes to aneurysm pathogenesis, at least in part, by suppressing TIMP1 expression, which subsequently enables inflammatory macrophages to infiltrate vascular tissues. PMID: 33028100 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - October 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yang H, Zhou T, Sorenson CM, Sheibani N, Liu B Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

PAR1 (Protease-Activated Receptor 1) Pepducin Therapy Targeting Myocardial Necrosis in Coronary Artery Disease and Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients Undergoing Cardiac Catheterization: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Phase 2 Study.
CONCLUSIONS: In this first-in-patient experience, PZ-128 added to standard antiplatelet therapy appeared to be safe, well tolerated, and potentially reduced periprocedural myonecrosis, thus providing the basis for further clinical trials. REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02561000. PMID: 33028101 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - October 8, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Kuliopulos A, Gurbel PA, Rade JJ, Kimmelstiel CD, Turner SE, Bliden KP, Fletcher EK, Cox DH, Covic L, TRIP-PCI Investigators Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Endothelial BMPR2 Loss Drives a Proliferative Response to BMP (Bone Morphogenetic Protein) 9 via Prolonged Canonical Signaling.
CONCLUSIONS: BMPR2 loss reverses the endothelial response to BMP9, causing enhanced proliferation. This finding has potential implications for the proposed translation of BMP9 as a treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension and suggests the need for focused patient selection in clinical trials. PMID: 32998516 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - September 30, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Theilmann AL, Hawke LG, Hilton LR, Whitford MKM, Cole DV, Mackeil JL, Dunham-Snary KJ, Mewburn J, James PD, Maurice DH, Archer SL, Ormiston ML Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Comparison of the Postprandial Metabolic Fate of U-13C Stearic Acid and U-13C Oleic Acid in Postmenopausal Women.
CONCLUSIONS: The neutrality of 18:0 on plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations is not attributable to a single factor. Compared with 18:1, 18:0 had higher plasma area under the curve because of lower clearance and oxidation rates, underwent both a direct and a multistage conversion to 18:1, and was preferentially incorporated into cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. PMID: 32998517 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - September 30, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Rodríguez-Morató J, Galluccio J, Dolnikowski GG, Lichtenstein AH, Matthan NR Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Internalization of HMGB1 (High Mobility Group Box 1) Promotes Angiogenesis in Endothelial Cells.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: In patients with peripheral artery disease, blockages in arterioles
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - September 30, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Lan J, Luo H, Wu R, Wang J, Zhou B, Zhang Y, Jiang Y, Xu J Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Spontaneous Atherosclerosis in Aged LCAT-Deficient Hamsters With Enhanced Oxidative Stress.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates the development of spontaneous atherosclerotic lesions in aged male and female LCAT-/- hamsters with higher plasma oxidative lipid levels independent of plasma total cholesterol levels, further confirming the antiatherosclerotic role of LCAT. PMID: 32998519 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - September 30, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Guo M, Liu Z, Xu Y, Ma P, Huang W, Gao M, Wang Y, Liu G, Xian X Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

P2X7: An Untapped Target for the Management of Cardiovascular Disease.
Abstract Chronic low-grade inflammation contributes to the development of several diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Adequate strategies to target inflammation in cardiovascular disease are in their infancy and remain an avenue of great interest. The purinergic receptor P2X7 is a ubiquitously expressed receptor that predominately mediates inflammation and cellular death. P2X7 is a ligand-gated cation channel that is activated in response to high concentrations of extracellular ATP, triggering the assembly and activation of the NLRP3 (nuclear oligomerization domain like receptor family pyrin domain contain...
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - September 30, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Shokoples BG, Paradis P, Schiffrin EL Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Free Reelin' Along the Platelet Surface.
PMID: 32966130 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - September 25, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Hicks SM, Gardiner EE Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

"CO"ping With a Sticky Situation.
"CO"ping With a Sticky Situation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2020 Oct;40(10):2344-2345 Authors: Jain K, Tyagi T, Hwa J PMID: 32966131 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - September 25, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jain K, Tyagi T, Hwa J Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Letter by Komamura Regarding Article, "Treatment With Treprostinil and Metformin Normalizes Hyperglycemia and Improves Cardiac Function in Pulmonary Hypertension Associated With Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction".
Letter by Komamura Regarding Article, "Treatment With Treprostinil and Metformin Normalizes Hyperglycemia and Improves Cardiac Function in Pulmonary Hypertension Associated With Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction". Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2020 Oct;40(10):e273 Authors: Komamura K PMID: 32966132 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - September 25, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Komamura K Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Correction to: Hematopoietic ChemR23 (Chemerin Receptor 23) Fuels Atherosclerosis by Sustaining an M1 Macrophage-Phenotype and Guidance of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells to Murine Lesions-Brief Report.
Authors: PMID: 32966133 [PubMed] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - September 25, 2020 Category: Cardiology Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Antenatal Dexamethasone Exposure Impairs the High-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels via Epigenetic Alteration at Gene Promoter in Male Offspring.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed a profound and long-term impact of antenatal dexamethasone exposure on vascular BK via an altered epigenetic pattern from fetal stage to adulthood, advancing understanding of prolonged adverse effects and mechanisms of antenatal glucocorticoids exposure on vascular health in offspring. PMID: 32967457 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - September 23, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Xu T, Zhao M, Li H, Zhou X, Liu B, Sun M, Xu Z, Gao Q Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

VWF (von Willebrand Factor) Is a Critical Mediator of Deep Vein Thrombosis in a Mouse Model of Diet-Induced Obesity.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the critical role of VWF in the complex, thrombo-inflammatory state of obesity. It adds to the growing rationale for targeting VWF-specific interactions in thrombotic disease. PMID: 32967458 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - September 23, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Michels A, Dwyer CN, Mewburn J, Nesbitt K, Kawecki C, Lenting P, Swystun LL, Lillicrap D Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Genome-Wide Polygenic Score, Clinical Risk Factors, and Long-Term Trajectories of Coronary Artery Disease.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship of a genome-wide polygenic score for coronary artery disease (GPSCAD) with lifetime trajectories of CAD risk, directly compare its predictive capacity to traditional risk factors, and assess its interplay with the Pooled Cohort Equations (PCE) clinical risk estimator. Approach and Results: We studied GPSCAD in 28 556 middle-aged participants of the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, of whom 4122 (14.4%) developed CAD over a median follow-up of 21.3 years. A pronounced gradient in lifetime risk of CAD was observed-16% for those in the lowest GPSCAD decile to 48% in t...
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - September 21, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Hindy G, Aragam KG, Ng K, Chaffin M, Lotta LA, Baras A, Regeneron Genetics Center, Drake I, Orho-Melander M, Melander O, Kathiresan S, Khera AV Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

COVID-19 and Respiratory System Disorders: Current Knowledge, Future Clinical, and Translational Research Questions.
This article reviews what is known about the effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection on different parts of the respiratory system, clues to understanding the underlying biology of respiratory disease, and highlights current and future translation and clinical research questions. PMID: 32960072 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - September 21, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Brosnahan SB, Jonkman AH, Kugler MC, Munger JS, Kaufman DA Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Novel Recurrent COL5A1 Genetic Variant Is Associated With a Dysplasia-Associated Arterial Disease Exhibiting Dissections and Fibromuscular Dysplasia.
CONCLUSIONS: COL5A1 c.1540G>A is the first recurring variant recognized to be associated with arterial dissections and mFMD. This variant presents with a phenotype reminiscent of vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. A shared haplotype among probands supports the existence of a common founder. Relatively rare COL5A1 genetic variants predicted to be deleterious by in silico analysis were identified in ≈2.7% of mFMD cases, and as they were enriched in patients with arterial dissections, may act as disease modifiers. Molecular testing for COL5A1 should be considered in patients with a phenotype overlapping with vascular E...
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - September 16, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Richer J, Hill HL, Wang Y, Yang ML, Hunker KL, Lane J, Blackburn S, Coleman DM, Eliason J, Sillon G, D'Agostino MD, Jetty P, Mongeon FP, Laberge AM, Ryan SE, Fendrikova-Mahlay N, Coutinho T, Mathis MR, Zawistowski M, Hazen SL, Katz AE, Gornik HL, Brummett Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Secreted Factors From Proinflammatory Macrophages Promote an Osteoblast-Like Phenotype in Valvular Interstitial Cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Proinflammatory cytokines in M1 conditioned media, notably TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, inhibit the myofibroblast response in VICs and promote their osteogenic differentiation. Together, our work suggests inflammatory M1 macrophages may drive a myofibroblast-to-osteogenic intermediate VIC phenotype, which may mediate the switch from fibrosis to calcification during aortic valve stenosis progression. PMID: 32938214 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - September 16, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Grim JC, Aguado BA, Vogt BJ, Batan D, Andrichik CL, Schroeder ME, Gonzalez-Rodriguez A, Yavitt FM, Weiss RM, Anseth KS Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Free Thiol β2-GPI (β-2-Glycoprotein-I) Provides a Link Between Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Atherosclerotic Coronary Artery Disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Free thiol β2-GPI is a predictor of coronary artery disease presence and extent in stable patients. Free thiol β2-GPI was a better predictor than high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. PMID: 32938215 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - September 16, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Weaver JC, Ullah I, Miao Q, Giannakopoulos B, Rye KA, Kockx M, Kritharides L, Krilis SA Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Activation of M3AchR (Type 3 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor) and Nrf2 (Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2) Signaling by Choline Alleviates Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotypic Switching and Vascular Remodeling.
CONCLUSIONS: These results reveal that choline impedes VSMC phenotypic switching, proliferation, migration, and vascular remodeling by activating M3AChR and Nrf2-antioxidant signaling and suggest a novel role for Nrf2 in VSMC phenotypic modulation. PMID: 32938216 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - September 16, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: He X, Deng J, Yu XJ, Yang S, Yang Y, Zang WJ Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Hypoxia-Mediated Regulation of Histone Demethylases Affects Angiogenesis-Associated Functions in Endothelial Cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study describes an additional level of epigenetic regulation where hypoxia induces redistribution of H3K27me3 around genes implicated in proliferation and angiogenesis. More specifically, we demonstrate that KDM4B and KDM6B play a key role in modulating the expression of the major angiogenic driver VEGFA. PMID: 32938217 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - September 16, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Hsin-Fu Liu O, Kiema M, Beter M, Ylä-Herttuala S, Laakkonen JP, Kaikkonen MU Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Skeletal Muscle Pathology in Peripheral Artery Disease: A Brief Review.
Abstract This brief review summarizes current evidence regarding lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) and lower extremity skeletal muscle pathology. Lower extremity ischemia is associated with reduced calf skeletal muscle area and increased calf muscle fat infiltration and fibrosis on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Even within the same individual, the leg with more severe ischemia has more adverse calf muscle characteristics than the leg with less severe ischemia. More adverse computed tomography-measured calf muscle characteristics, such as reduced calf muscle density, are associate...
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - September 16, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: McDermott MM, Ferrucci L, Gonzalez-Freire M, Kosmac K, Leeuwenburgh C, Peterson CA, Saini S, Sufit R Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Antithrombotic Effects of Combined PAR (Protease-Activated Receptor)-4 Antagonism and Factor Xa Inhibition.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: PAR (protease-activated receptor)-4 antagonism has antiplatelet effects under conditions of high shear stress. We aimed to establish whether PAR4 antagonism had additive antithrombotic activity in the presence of factor Xa inhibition in an ex vivo model of acute arterial injury. Approach and Results: Fifteen healthy volunteers (29±6 years, 7 women) completed a phase zero double-blind randomized controlled crossover trial. Ex vivo platelet activation, platelet aggregation, and thrombus formation were measured following blood perfusion of low shear and high shear stress chambers. Upstream ...
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - September 9, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Meah MN, Raftis J, Wilson SJ, Perera V, Garonzik SM, Murthy B, Everlof JG, Aronson R, Luettgen J, Newby DE Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Tunica-Specific Transcriptome of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm and the Effect of Intraluminal Thrombus, Smoking, and Diameter Growth Rate.
CONCLUSIONS: This tunica-specific analysis of gene expression in a large study enabled the detection of features not previously described in AAA disease. Smoking was associated with increased expression of aneurysm processes, of which adaptive immunity and lipid-related processes correlated with growth rate. PMID: 32907367 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - September 9, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Lindquist Liljeqvist M, Hultgren R, Bergman O, Villard C, Kronqvist M, Eriksson P, Roy J Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Protein-Defined Subspecies of HDLs (High-Density Lipoproteins) and Differential Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in 4 Prospective Studies.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: HDL (high-density lipoprotein) contains functional proteins that define single subspecies, each comprising 1% to 12% of the total HDL. We studied the differential association with coronary heart disease (CHD) of 15 such subspecies. Approach and Results: We measured plasma apoA1 (apolipoprotein A1) concentrations of 15 protein-defined HDL subspecies in 4 US-based prospective studies. Among participants without CVD at baseline, 932 developed CHD during 10 to 25 years. They were matched 1:1 to controls who did not experience CHD. In each cohort, hazard ratios for each subspecies were computed by c...
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - September 9, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sacks FM, Liang L, Furtado JD, Cai T, Davidson WS, He Z, McClelland RL, Rimm EB, Jensen MK Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

NR4A1 Deletion in Marginal Zone B Cells Exacerbates Atherosclerosis in Mice.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal a previously unsuspected role for NR4A1 in the atheroprotective role of MZB cells. PMID: 32907369 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - September 9, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Nus M, Basatemur G, Galan M, Cros-Brunsó L, Zhao TX, Masters L, Harrison J, Figg N, Tsiantoulas D, Geissmann F, Binder CJ, Sage AP, Mallat Z Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Increased ABCA1 (ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1)-Specific Cholesterol Efflux Capacity in Schizophrenia.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with schizophrenia have increased concentrations of atherogenic apoB-containing lipoproteins, decreased concentrations of large HDL particles, but enhanced ABCA1-mediated CEC. In this population, preventative strategies should focus on reducing atherogenic lipoproteins rather than increasing CEC. PMID: 32907370 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - September 9, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Luquain-Costaz C, Kockx M, Anastasius M, Chow V, Kontush A, Jessup W, Kritharides L Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

COVID-19 in the Healthy Patient Population: Demographic and Clinical Phenotypic Characterization and Predictors of In-Hospital Outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS: In healthy patient population, COVID-19 remains significantly associated with morbidity and mortality. While age remains the most important predictor of in-hospital outcomes, thromboinflammatory interactions are also associated with worse clinical outcomes regardless of age in healthy patients. PMID: 32907371 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - September 9, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ronderos Botero DM, Omar AMS, Sun HK, Mantri N, Fortuzi K, Choi Y, Adrish M, Nicu M, Bella JN, Chilimuri S Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Regulation of IL (Interleukin)-33 Production in Endothelial Cells via Kinase Activation and Fas/CD95 Upregulation.
CONCLUSIONS: Herein, we described a new mechanism involved in the control of IL-33 production in lung ECs exposed to allergens. PMID: 32907372 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - September 9, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Duez C, Gross B, Marquillies P, Ledroit V, Ryffel B, Glineur C Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Associations Between Plasma Ceramides and Cerebral Microbleeds or Lacunes.
CONCLUSIONS: In a population-based sample, the plasma ceramide C16:0/24:0 ratio was associated with CMBs and was stronger for women. Plasma ceramides are differentially associated with cerebral small vessel pathologies. PMID: 32878474 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - September 2, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ighodaro ET, Graff-Radford J, Syrjanen JA, Bui HH, Petersen RC, Knopman DS, Jack CR, Zuk SM, Vemuri P, Mielke MM Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Cascade Screening for Familial Hypercholesterolemia in South Africa: The Wits FIND-FH Program.
CONCLUSIONS: Using phenotype cascade screening, the Wits FIND-FH program has screened an average of 30 subjects monthly of whom 68% had a clinical diagnosis of FH with ≈60% genetically confirmed. The program is identifying a small but growing number of Black South Africans with FH. Interestingly, 37 subjects (7.7%) who underwent DNA testing were found to have ≥2 FH-causing variants. PMID: 32878475 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology)
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - September 2, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Raal FJ, Bahassi EM, Stevens B, Turner TA, Stein EA Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research

Perivascular Adipose Tissue and Vascular Perturbation/Atherosclerosis.
Abstract Atherosclerosis is orchestrated by complex interactions between vascular and inflammatory cells. Traditionally, it has been considered to be an intimal inflammatory disease, characterized by endothelial dysfunction, inflammatory cell recruitment, lipid oxidation, and foam cell formation. This inside-out signaling paradigm has been accepted as dogma for many years, despite the fact that inflammatory cells are far more prevalent in the adventitia compared with the intima. For decades, the origin of adventitial inflammation in atherosclerosis was unknown. The fact that these inflammatory cells were observed ...
Source: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology - September 2, 2020 Category: Cardiology Authors: Won Kim H, Shi H, Winkler MA, Lee R, Weintraub NL Tags: Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol Source Type: research