Stem cells from human apical papilla decrease neuro-inflammation and stimulate oligodendrocyte progenitor differentiation via activin-A secretion.

Stem cells from human apical papilla decrease neuro-inflammation and stimulate oligodendrocyte progenitor differentiation via activin-A secretion. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2018 Feb 07;: Authors: De Berdt P, Bottemanne P, Bianco J, Alhouayek M, Diogenes A, Llyod A, Gerardo-Nava J, Brook GA, Miron V, Muccioli GG, Rieux AD Abstract Secondary damage following spinal cord injury leads to non-reversible lesions and hampering of the reparative process. The local production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α can exacerbate these events. Oligodendrocyte death also occurs, followed by progressive demyelination leading to significant tissue degeneration. Dental stem cells from human apical papilla (SCAP) can be easily obtained at the removal of an adult immature tooth. This offers a minimally invasive approach to re-use this tissue as a source of stem cells, as compared to biopsying neural tissue from a patient with a spinal cord injury. We assessed the potential of SCAP to exert neuroprotective effects by investigating two possible modes of action: modulation of neuro-inflammation and oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) differentiation. SCAP were co-cultured with LPS-activated microglia, LPS-activated rat spinal cord organotypic sections (SCOS), and LPS-activated co-cultures of SCOS and spinal cord adult OPC. We showed for the first time that SCAP can induce a reduction of TNF-α expression and secretion in inflamed spinal cord tissues an...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research

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In this study, we designed SCI models in vivo and in vitro and then investigated the possible mechanism of successful repair by BMSCs-Exos. In vivo, we established one Sham group and two SCI model groups. The Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) scores showed that BMSCs-Exos could effectively promote the recovery of spinal cord function. The results of the Nissl staining, immunohistochemistry, and TUNEL/NeuN/DAPI double staining showed that BMSCs-Exos inhibited neuronal apoptosis. Western blot analysis showed that the protein expression level of Bcl-2 was significantly increased in the BMSCs-Exos group compared with the PBS gro...
Source: Cell Transplantation - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Transplant Source Type: research
Authors: Tian DZ, Deng D, Qiang JL, Zhu Q, Li QC, Yi ZG Abstract OBJECTIVE: To explore the repair of spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats by umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) through the p38mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 45 healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 180-220 g and aged 6-8 weeks old were randomly divided into group A (SCI model + transplantation of UCMSCs, n=15), group B (sham operation), and group C (SCI model + injection of an equal dose of DMEM, n=15) using a random number table. The morphology of spinal cord tissues ...
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research
Authors: Chen Y, Lian XH, Liao LY, Liu YT, Liu SL, Gao Q Abstract OBJECTIVE: To analyze the mechanism of action by which the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) repair the spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats via the Notch signaling pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 75 male rats aged about 12 weeks old were equally divided into group A (sham operation group), group B (model group), and group C (model group + BMMSCs). The SCI model was established by Allen's method, and the differences in presenilin-1, Hes1 and Notch proteins among the three groups of rats were evaluated via immunohistochemical stai...
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research
The issue with first generation cell therapies for regenerative medicine is that transplanted cells near entirely fail to engraft into tissue. There are exceptions, but for the most part, the cells used in therapy die rather than take up productive work to enhance tissue function. Where benefits occur, they are mediated by the signals secreted by the transplanted cells in the brief period they remain alive. Mesenchymal stem cell therapies that reduce chronic inflammation for some period of time are an example of the type. They are good at that outcome of reduced inflammation, but highly unreliable when it comes to any othe...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
The injured spinal cord is difficult to repair and regenerate. Traditional treatments are not effective. Stem cells are a type of cells that have the potential to differentiate into various cells, including ne...
Source: Stem Cell Research and Therapy - Category: Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
In this study we show, for the first time, significant alterations in cholesterol efflux capacity in adolescents throughout the range of BMI, a relationship between six circulating adipocyte-derived EVs microRNAs targeting ABCA1 and cholesterol efflux capacity, and in vitro alterations of cholesterol efflux in macrophages exposed to visceral adipose tissue adipocyte-derived EVs acquired from human subjects. These results suggest that adipocyte-derived EVs, and their microRNA content, may play a critical role in the early pathological development of ASCVD. Commentary on the Developing UK Government Position on Hea...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
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Source: Journal of Neurochemistry - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Overexpression of TG2 enhances the differentiation of ectomesenchymal stem cells into neuron‑like cells and promotes functional recovery in adult rats following spinal cord injury. Mol Med Rep. 2019 Jul 15;: Authors: Shi W, Que Y, Lv D, Bi S, Xu Z, Wang D, Zhang Z Abstract Ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs) represent a type of adult stem cells derived from the cranial neural crest. These cells are capable of self‑renewal and have the potential for multidirectional differentiation. Tissue transglutaminase type 2 (TG2) is a ubiquitously expressed member of the transglutaminase family of Ca2+‑depend...
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research
Abstract Cytology and histology obstacles have been the main barriers to multiple tissues injury repair. In search of the most promising treatment strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI), stem cell-based transplantation coupled with various materials/technologies have been explored extensively to enhance SCI repair. Chitosan (CS) has demonstrated immense potential for widespread application in the form of scaffolds and micro-particles for SCI repair. The current review summarizes the evidences for stem cell-based transplantation and CS in SCI repair. Stem cells transplantation, which plays a key role in the repair...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research
In this study, autophagy was inhibited in MSCs with lentiviruses expressing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to knock down Becn-1 expression, and autophagy was upregulated in MSCs under nutrient starvation. These MSCs were then labelled with Hoechst and applied to spinal cord-injured rats to evaluate their therapeutic effects. After transplanting MSCs into rats with spinal cord injuries, functional recovery, immunohistochemistry, and remyelination analyses were performed. After inducing autophagy, the MSCs exhibited an accumulation of LC3-positive autophagosomes in the cytoplasm. The expression levels of neurotrophic factors, inc...
Source: Brain Research - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research
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