Medical bioinformatics in melanoma

Purpose of review Bioinformatic insights from next-generation sequencing has been integral in understanding melanoma biology, resistance to treatment and provided new avenues for melanoma treatment. Whole-genome sequencing, whole-exome sequencing and RNA sequencing has redefined the molecular classification of melanoma, revealed distinct genetic aberrations that define clinical subtypes of melanoma and uncovered the diverse heterogeneity that resides in an individual tumor. Recent findings In this review, we will summarize the recent whole-genome study that catalogs the genomic landscape across many melanoma subtypes, the single-cell RNA sequencing studies that interrogates tumor heterogeneity and the personalized vaccine approaches to melanoma treatment. Summary Whole-genome sequencing of diverse subtypes of melanoma revealed acral and mucosal subtypes to have a different genomic landscape compared with cutaneous melanoma. Acral and mucosal melanomas are characterized by low mutation burden and high structural variants. Single-cell RNA sequencing revealed high intratumoral heterogeneity and the existence of rare intrinsic drug-resistant populations. Lastly, vaccination against tumor neoantigens could be a potential personalized medicine therapy for melanoma patients. In summary, bioinformatics research is deeply ingrained in all aspects of melanoma research and will continue to blossom together for many years to come.
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: MELANOMA AND OTHER SKIN NEOPLASMS: Edited by Reinhard Dummer Source Type: research

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Abstract BACKGROUND: Despite the majority of patients do not gain any benefit from dendritic cells (DC) vaccines, this approach has occasionally given rise to dramatic responses in melanoma. Biomarkers are crucial to identify which patients are more likely to respond. We looked for correlations between pre- or post- vaccination biomarkers and clinical outcomes to DC therapy in a cohort of patients with stage IV melanoma receiving a vaccine with autologous ex-vivo expanded DCs pulsed with allogeneic tumor cell lysate. METHODS: Serial serum samples were collected at baseline, week 4 and 12 and they were analyze...
Source: Translational Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: For the primary treatment of iridal melanoma a surgical, eyeball-sparing approach and also when appropriate, radiotherapy can be recommended. In the future, eligible high-risk patients could profit from a tumor vaccination. To date, there is no effective systemic treatment for metastatic iridal melanoma. PMID: 30515574 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Der Ophthalmologe - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tags: Ophthalmologe Source Type: research
ConclusionsVaccination beyond recurrence of the disease with additional re-induction combined with surgery or alone increased long term survival of melanoma patients. However, further studies on larger patient cohorts are required.Trial registrationCentral Evidence of Clinical Trials (EudraCT Number2008 –003373-40)
Source: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
We describe several pivotal clinical trials of systemic immune therapies, targeted immune therapies, and adjuvant vaccine strategies. Finally, we discuss the evidence for selecting the most appropriate treatment regimen(s) for the individual patient.
Source: Journal of Surgical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research
ConclusionThis is the first description of HRQoL in melanoma patients receiving dendritic cell vaccination. We show the expected improvement in global health status after surgical treatment of stage III melanoma. Thus, adjuvant dendritic cell vaccination does not seem to hamper this improvement, as shown in our small explorative study.
Source: Clinical and Translational Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
High rates of early disease relapse are observed in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Due to poor health status, many patients cannot tolerate intensive chemotherapy and/or stem cell transplantation, resulting in a high unmet medical need for new therapy options. Clinical benefit of SCT is associated with immune responses that can control residual leukemia. To replace SCT in non-eligible patients, we designed an autologous dendritic cell (DC) vaccine approach that is given 4 times weekly at the beginning (immunization phase) followed by booster vaccines at week six and then monthly, with the intention to induce i...
Source: Blood - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: 616. Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Novel Therapy, excluding Transplantation: Poster II Source Type: research
Conclusion: We demonstrated the feasibility of MIL expansion from bone marrow mononuclear cells from AML patients. MIL are functionally active and mostly comprised of effector memory T cells. Confirmation of tumor cell antigen specificity will determine whether MIL may deploy a robust anti-tumor activity in vivo.DisclosuresKaryampudi: Iovance Biotherapeutics: Employment, Equity Ownership. Frank: Iovance Biotherapeutics: Employment, Equity Ownership. Blaskovich: Iovance Biotherapeutics: Equity Ownership. Chartier: Iovance Biotherapeutics: Equity Ownership.
Source: Blood - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: 703. Adoptive Immunotherapy Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to measure the prognostic power of HLA-E expression on tumor cells in newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve multiple myeloma (MM) patients. We hypothesized that expression of HLA-E will significantly influence NK cell and reactivity to tumors and their capacity to potentiate tumor-specific CD8 T cells as well as distinguish patients with enhanced natural ability to control the disease. This hypothesis is supported by recent evidence showing that knocking down HLA-E on B16 melanoma cells conferred 100% protection after challenge in mice treated with anti-PD-1 and the GM-CSF-secreting tumor va...
Source: Blood - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: 651. Myeloma: Biology and Pathophysiology, excluding Therapy: Transcriptome Analysis of Myeloma Cells and Their Immune Microenvironment Source Type: research
Conclusions. APAVAC is a simple method for AV with high clinical impact in very bad situations. It could be used in combination with other therapy and for residual disease control. Further clinical studies are planned in solid C as well as in HM.DisclosuresRouquet: URODELIA: Employment. Frayssinet: URODELIA: Employment.
Source: Blood - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: 703. Adoptive Immunotherapy Source Type: research
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Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
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