Medical bioinformatics in melanoma

Purpose of review Bioinformatic insights from next-generation sequencing has been integral in understanding melanoma biology, resistance to treatment and provided new avenues for melanoma treatment. Whole-genome sequencing, whole-exome sequencing and RNA sequencing has redefined the molecular classification of melanoma, revealed distinct genetic aberrations that define clinical subtypes of melanoma and uncovered the diverse heterogeneity that resides in an individual tumor. Recent findings In this review, we will summarize the recent whole-genome study that catalogs the genomic landscape across many melanoma subtypes, the single-cell RNA sequencing studies that interrogates tumor heterogeneity and the personalized vaccine approaches to melanoma treatment. Summary Whole-genome sequencing of diverse subtypes of melanoma revealed acral and mucosal subtypes to have a different genomic landscape compared with cutaneous melanoma. Acral and mucosal melanomas are characterized by low mutation burden and high structural variants. Single-cell RNA sequencing revealed high intratumoral heterogeneity and the existence of rare intrinsic drug-resistant populations. Lastly, vaccination against tumor neoantigens could be a potential personalized medicine therapy for melanoma patients. In summary, bioinformatics research is deeply ingrained in all aspects of melanoma research and will continue to blossom together for many years to come.
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: MELANOMA AND OTHER SKIN NEOPLASMS: Edited by Reinhard Dummer Source Type: research

Related Links:

In this study, we investigated the CSC targeting effect of the CSC-DC vaccine combined with a dual blockade of programmed death-ligand 1 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA-4) in B16-F10 murine melanoma tumor model. Our data showed that animals treated with the dual blockade of programmed death-ligand 1 and CTLA-4 and CSC-DC vaccine conferred significantly more tumor regression than the CSC-DC vaccine alone. Importantly, the triple combination treatment dramatically eliminated ALDHhigh CSCs in vivo. We observed that CSC-DC vaccine in combination with anti-PD-L1 and anti-CTLA-4 administration resulted in &si...
Source: Journal of Immunotherapy - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Basic Studies Source Type: research
Authors: Pietzner K, Nasser S, Alavi S, Darb-Esfahani S, Passler M, Muallem MZ, Sehouli J Abstract The introduction of checkpoint inhibitors revolutionized immuno-oncology. The efficacy of traditional immunotherapeutics, like vaccines and immunostimulants was very limited due to persistent immune-escape strategies of cancer cells. Checkpoint inhibitors target these escape mechanisms and re-direct the immune system to anti-tumor toxicity. Phenomenal results have been reported in entities like melanoma, where no other therapy was able to demonstrate survival benefit, before the introduction of immunotherapeutics. The...
Source: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology - Category: OBGYN Tags: J Gynecol Oncol Source Type: research
Researchers at the Scripps Research Institute and the University of Texas injected mice with an immunotherapy drug and a chemical called Diprovocim, which made the jab more effective.
Source: the Mail online | Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Researchers at the Scripps Research Institute and the University of Texas injected mice with an immunotherapy drug and a chemical called Diprovocim, which made the jab more effective.
Source: the Mail online | Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
A team of experts has conducted tests in mice for a potent new vaccine against melanoma. So far, the researchers have observed a 100 percent success rate.
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Melanoma / Skin Cancer Source Type: news
Dieke van Dinther, Henrike Veninga, Mirjam Revet, Leoni Hoogterp, Katarzyna Olesek, Joanna Grabowska, Ellen G. F. Borg, Hakan Kalay, Yvette van Kooyk, Joke M. M. den Haan
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
(Scripps Research Institute) The findings suggest these vaccines could increase chances of recovery in cases where a drug therapy alone is not working.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Conditions:   Cutaneous Melanoma, Stage III;   Cutaneous Melanoma, Stage IV Intervention:   Biological: IFx-Hu2.0 Sponsors:   Morphogenesis, Inc.;   H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute Recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
More News: Biology | Cancer & Oncology | Genetics | Melanoma | Molecular Biology | Skin | Skin Cancer | Study | Vaccines