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Medical bioinformatics in melanoma

Purpose of review Bioinformatic insights from next-generation sequencing has been integral in understanding melanoma biology, resistance to treatment and provided new avenues for melanoma treatment. Whole-genome sequencing, whole-exome sequencing and RNA sequencing has redefined the molecular classification of melanoma, revealed distinct genetic aberrations that define clinical subtypes of melanoma and uncovered the diverse heterogeneity that resides in an individual tumor. Recent findings In this review, we will summarize the recent whole-genome study that catalogs the genomic landscape across many melanoma subtypes, the single-cell RNA sequencing studies that interrogates tumor heterogeneity and the personalized vaccine approaches to melanoma treatment. Summary Whole-genome sequencing of diverse subtypes of melanoma revealed acral and mucosal subtypes to have a different genomic landscape compared with cutaneous melanoma. Acral and mucosal melanomas are characterized by low mutation burden and high structural variants. Single-cell RNA sequencing revealed high intratumoral heterogeneity and the existence of rare intrinsic drug-resistant populations. Lastly, vaccination against tumor neoantigens could be a potential personalized medicine therapy for melanoma patients. In summary, bioinformatics research is deeply ingrained in all aspects of melanoma research and will continue to blossom together for many years to come.
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: MELANOMA AND OTHER SKIN NEOPLASMS: Edited by Reinhard Dummer Source Type: research

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In this study, we used concomitant intratumoral GET of two cytokines: tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF α), a potent cytotoxic cytokine to induce in situ vaccination, and interleukin 12 (IL-12), an immunostimulatory cytokine to boost the primed local immune response into a systemic one. After performing GET in murine melanoma tumors, both TNFα and IL-12 mRNA levels were significantly increased, whic h resulted in a pronounced delay in tumor growth of 27 days and a prolonged survival time of mice. An antitumor immune response was confirmed by extensive infiltration of immune cells in the tumor site, and expansion...
Source: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Fight Aging! provides a weekly digest of news and commentary for thousands of subscribers interested in the latest longevity science: progress towards the medical control of aging in order to prevent age-related frailty, suffering, and disease, as well as improvements in the present understanding of what works and what doesn't work when it comes to extending healthy life. Expect to see summaries of recent advances in medical research, news from the scientific community, advocacy and fundraising initiatives to help speed work on the repair and reversal of aging, links to online resources, and much more. This content is...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
iPSC vaccine prevented tumor growth in syngeneic murine breast CA, mesothelioma, melanoma models
Source: The Doctors Lounge - Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncology, Pathology, Pharmacy, Journal, Source Type: news
Molecular PharmaceuticsDOI: 10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.7b00894
Source: Molecular Pharmaceutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Source Type: research
Autologous iPSC-Based Vaccines Elicit Anti-tumor Responses In Vivo. Cell Stem Cell. 2018 Feb 08;: Authors: Kooreman NG, Kim Y, de Almeida PE, Termglinchan V, Diecke S, Shao NY, Wei TT, Yi H, Dey D, Nelakanti R, Brouwer TP, Paik DT, Sagiv-Barfi I, Han A, Quax PHA, Hamming JF, Levy R, Davis MM, Wu JC Abstract Cancer cells and embryonic tissues share a number of cellular and molecular properties, suggesting that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may be harnessed to elicit anti-tumor responses in cancer vaccines. RNA sequencing revealed that human and murine iPSCs express tumor-associated antige...
Source: Cell Stem Cell - Category: Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Cell Stem Cell Source Type: research
Abstract Tumor growth and metastasis are closely related to angiogenesis. Basic fibroblast growth factor(bFGF) is an angiogenic factor, and up-regulated expression of bFGF plays a crucial role in the development and metastasis of melanoma. Therefore, in this study, we sought to achieve antitumor activity by immunity targeting bFGF which would inhibit tumor angiogenesis and simultaneously induce bFGF specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes to kill melanoma cells. A human bFGF protein was used as exogenous antigen, coupled with a saponin-liposome adjuvant formulation to enhance CTL response. The results showed th...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research
Immunotherapy is a cut above chemotherapy and radiotherapy: at its best, it is significantly more effective and significantly less harmful to the patient. It has still required years, a great deal of funding, and many failures for those best approaches to arise. Nonetheless, the report here is a cheering example for the sizable fraction of us expected to suffer cancer at some point in the years ahead if the condition is not soon brought under medical control. This immunotherapy appears highly effective, and just importantly, adaptable to many types of cancer. This potential for broad application is the most important aspec...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
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Source: Dermatologic Surgery - Category: Dermatology Tags: Letters and Communications Source Type: research
CD8+ T cell–dependent killing of cancer cells requires efficient presentation of tumor antigens by human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I) molecules. However, the extent to which patient-specific HLA-I genotype influences response to anti–programmed cell death protein 1 or anti–cytotoxic T lymphocyte–associated protein 4 is currently unknown. We determined the HLA-I genotype of 1535 advanced cancer patients treated with immune checkpoint blockade (ICB). Maximal heterozygosity at HLA-I loci ("A," "B," and "C") improved overall survival after ICB compared with patients wh...
Source: ScienceNOW - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Genetics, Immunology, Medicine, Diseases reports Source Type: news
AbstractRecognition and timely adequate treatment of erythema multiforme remain a major challenge. In this review, current diagnostic guidelines, potential pitfalls, and modern/novel treatment options are summarized with the aim to help clinicians with diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making. The diagnosis of erythema multiforme, that has an acute, self-limiting course, is based on its typical clinical picture of targetoid erythematous lesions with predominant acral localization as well as histological findings. Clinically, erythema multiforme can be differentiated into isolated cutaneous and combined mucocutaneous form...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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