Leptomeningeal metastasis.

Leptomeningeal metastasis. Handb Clin Neurol. 2018;149:169-204 Authors: Taillibert S, Chamberlain MC Abstract Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) results from dissemination of cancer cells to both the leptomeninges (pia and arachnoid) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compartment. Breast cancer, lung cancer, and melanoma are the most common solid tumors that cause LM. Recent approval of more active anticancer therapies has resulted in improvement in survival that is partly responsible for an increased incidence of LM. Neurologic deficits, once manifest, are mostly irreversible, and often have a significant impact on patient quality of life. LM-directed therapy is based on symptom palliation, circumscribed use of neurosurgery, limited field radiotherapy, intra-CSF and systemic therapies. Novel methods of detecting LM include detection of CSF circulating tumor cells and tumor cell-free DNA. A recent international guideline for a standardization of response assessment in LM may improve cross-trial comparisons as well as within-trial evaluation of treatment. An increasing number of retrospective studies suggest that molecular-targeted therapy, such as EGFR and ALK inhibitors in lung cancer, trastuzumab in HER2+ breast cancer, and BRAF inhibitors in melanoma, may be effective as part of the multidisciplinary management of LM. Prospective randomized trials with standardized response assessment are needed to further validate these preliminary findings. PMID: 293073...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Handb Clin Neurol Source Type: research

Related Links:

As a pharmacist, Kathy James considers herself well educated about the importance of getting regular cancer screenings. Even though the 55-year-old had no history of cancer in her family, she never skipped her regular mammograms, and she gave herself regular breast exams. So she was dumbfounded when, during one of those self-exams in May 2017, she felt a marble-size lump in her left breast. A visit to the doctor confirmed it. “The radiologist came in with his hands in his pockets and looked down and said, ‘It doesn’t look good,'” James says. After a biopsy, James and her husband learned she had meta...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized breast cancer news Frontiers of Medicine Source Type: news
Publication date: 2018 Source:Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Volume 149 Author(s): Sophie Taillibert, Marc C. Chamberlain Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) results from dissemination of cancer cells to both the leptomeninges (pia and arachnoid) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compartment. Breast cancer, lung cancer, and melanoma are the most common solid tumors that cause LM. Recent approval of more active anticancer therapies has resulted in improvement in survival that is partly responsible for an increased incidence of LM. Neurologic deficits, once manifest, are mostly irreversible, and often have a significant impact on p...
Source: Handbook of Clinical Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Targeted molecular therapy and immunotherapy in LMD may provide favorable treatment options. Current literature is lacking in safety, efficacy, and overall response rates from the use of targeted therapy. Research is needed to draw significant conclusions about the most appropriate therapy for patients with LMD. PMID: 29230121 [PubMed]
Source: Ochsner Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: Ochsner J Source Type: research
Abstract Proteases known as sheddases cleave the extracellular domains of their substrates from the cell surface. The A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinases ADAM10 and ADAM17 are among the most prominent sheddases, being widely expressed in many tissues, frequently over-expressed in cancer, and promiscuously cleaving diverse substrates. It is increasingly clear that the proteolytic shedding of transmembrane receptors impacts pathophysiology and drug response. Receptor substrates of sheddases include the cytokine receptors TNFR1 and IL-6R; the Notch receptors; type-I and -III TGF-β receptors; receptor tyrosine k...
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
Abstract Overcoming the drug resistance remains a crucial issue in cancer treatment. For refractory patients, the use of MET receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors seems to be hopeful. Indeed, important mechanisms underlying drug resistance argue for association of MET inhibitors with targeted therapies, both on first-line to prevent a primary resistance and on the second line to overcoming acquired resistance. Indeed, met gene amplification is the second most common alteration involved in acquired resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapies in non-small cells lung cancer (NSCLC). Hypoxia, fo...
Source: Bulletin du Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Bull Cancer Source Type: research
Conclusions The cost and affordability of anticancer treatments with recent market approval is the major factor contributing to inequity of access to anticancer medications. This is especially true with regards to new medications used in the management of EGFR- or ALK-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer, metastatic melanoma, metastatic renal cell cancer, RAS/RAF wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer, HER2 overexpressed breast cancer and castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer.
Source: Annals of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: special articles Source Type: research
Background: Nivo is an inhibitory antibody against programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1), a regulator of antitumor immunity. Nivo is approved for treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma and disease progression (PD) following ipilimumab or, in BRAF V600 mutation–positive melanoma, following a BRAF inhibitor, and for metastatic squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) following PD during or after platinum-based chemotherapy. Nivo and other immune checkpoint inhibitors are also being investigated in other tumor-types. nab-P is a novel taxane formulation and does not require prophylaxis with immunosuppressive st...
Source: Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Ongoing Clinical Trials Source Type: research
The approval of first-of-a-kind drugs rose last year to forty-one, resulting in the highest level of newly approved U.S. drugs in nineteen years. The total number of new drugs approved last year was even higher at sixty-nine. The rising figures reflect an industry-wide desire to research and develop drugs for rare and hard-to-treat diseases. The newly approved drugs serve to advance medical care and the health of patients suffering from many ailments, including various forms of cancer, heart failure, and cystic fibrosis. Additionally, more than 40% of the new therapies were approved for treatment of rare or "orphan&...
Source: Policy and Medicine - Category: American Health Authors: Source Type: blogs
Dateline City: KENILWORTH, N.J. First-Time Presentation of KEYTRUDA Compared to Chemotherapy in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer From KEYNOTE-010 Study New Findings of KEYTRUDA in Novel Combinations with Other Immunotherapies in Advanced Melanoma First-Time Findings in Multiple Myeloma and ER-Positive/HER2-Negative Breast Cancer as Well as New Findings in Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma KENILWORTH, N.J.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Merck (NYSE:MRK), known as MSD outside the United States and Canada, today announced that data investigating t...
Source: Merck.com - Corporate News - Category: Pharmaceuticals Tags: Oncology Newsroom Corporate News Latest News #Merck #MRK $MRK cancer Keytruda MSD NYSE:MRK Source Type: news
The recent discovery of oncogenic drivers and subsequent development of novel targeted strategies has significantly added to the therapeutic armamentarium of anti-cancer therapies. Targeting BCR-ABL in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) or HER2 in breast cancer has led to practice-changing clinical benefits, while promising therapeutic responses have been achieved by precision medicine approaches in EGFR mutant lung cancer, colorectal cancer and BRAF mutant melanoma. However, although initial therapeutic responses to targeted therapies can be substantial, many patients will develop disease progression within 6-12 months.
Source: Seminars in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
More News: Brain | Breast Cancer | Cancer | Cancer & Oncology | HER2 | Herceptin | Lung Cancer | Melanoma | Neurology | Neurosurgery | Skin Cancer | Study