EVI and MDS/EVI are required for adult intestinal stem cell formation during postembryonic vertebrate development Research
The gene ectopic viral integration site 1 (EVI) and its variant myelodysplastic syndrome 1 (MDS)/EVI encode zinc-finger proteins that have been recognized as important oncogenes in various types of cancer. In contrast to the established role of EVI and MDS/EVI in cancer development, their potential function during vertebrate postembryonic development, especially in organ-specific adult stem cells, is unclear. Amphibian metamorphosis is strikingly similar to postembryonic development around birth in mammals, with both processes taking place when plasma thyroid hormone (T3) levels are high. Using the T3-dependent metamorphosis in Xenopus tropicalis as a model, we show here that high levels of EVI and MDS/EVI are expressed in the intestine at the climax of metamorphosis and are induced by T3. By using the transcription activator–like effector nuclease gene editing technology, we have knocked out both EVI and MDS/EVI and have shown that EVI and MDS/EVI are not essential for embryogenesis and premetamorphosis in X. tropicalis. On the other hand, knocking out EVI and MDS/EVI causes severe retardation in the growth and development of the tadpoles during metamorphosis and leads to tadpole lethality at the climax of metamorphosis. Furthermore, the homozygous-knockout animals have reduced adult intestinal epithelial stem cell proliferation at the end of metamorphosis (for the few that survive through metamorphosis) or during T3-induced metamorphosis. These findings reveal a novel...
This year Forbes' 30 Under 30 health care honorees are recognized for fighting cancer, designing prosthetic legs and gene editing applications, among other advances. The annual roundup features 600 individuals from 20 different industries, and 10 Bay Area individuals in health care made the list. Genome editing technology CRISPR continues to fuel scientists in the health field. Kunwoo Lee, a scientist at University of California, Berkeley, co-founded GenEdit to use CRISPR components to develop…
Scientists are reporting progress on a blood test to detect many types of cancer at an early stage
CONCLUSIONS: The most relevant prognostic factor in patients with hepatic colorectal cancer dissemination is the timing of metastasis; the metachronous lesions present better survival when surgically treated. KEY WORDS: Colorectal cancer, Liver, Metastasis, Surgery. PMID: 29339595 [PubMed - in process]
Authors: Rio PD, Viani L, Bertocchi E, Iapichino G, Luzietti E, Dell'Abate P, Sianesi M Abstract AIM: The identification of prognostic factors in gastric cancer is important for predicting patients' survival and determining therapeutic strategies. MATERIALS OF STUDY: A retrospective analysis ofpatients who underwent surgery for gastric cancer between 1996 and 2010. The appropriate cut-off value of tumor size related to survival was determined using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves and it was 2,5 cm. Patients were divided into three groups: a small size group (SSG,
CONCLUSIONS: Perineural invasion is associated with higher stage and poorer survival in surgically treated GBC patients. In patients with locally advanced GBC resection of the extrahepatic biliary duct and frozen section examination of the distal stump must be taken into consideration, especially in cases of tumor arising from the hepatic side of the gallbladder. In cases without residual disease but with pathological evidence of PNI, a careful follow-up is suggested to early detect recurrences. KEY WORDS: Adenocarcinoma, Cancer, Gallbladder, Perineural infiltration, Surgery. PMID: 29339591 [PubMed - in process]
CONCLUSIONS: Major complications after radical resection for rectal cancer are dependent on multiple variables such as male patients, those admitted in emergency and patients with hypoproteinemia. Location of tumor on middle rectum, manual suture of anastomosis, number of lymph nodes> 1 were associated with high rate of morbidity. Patients with coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus didn't had statistical significance, but the rate of morbidity and mortality remains high in this groups. KEY WORDS: Complications, Radical anterior resection, Rectal cancer, Risk factors. PMID: 29339590 [PubMed - in process]
CONCLUSIONS: Survival for pancreatic head cancer at 3 years is not influenced by the margins of resection (R1/R0). Microscopic resection margin involvement is not an independent marker of survival. KEY WORDS: Circumferential margins, Nonstandardized pathologic protocol, Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, Positive margins R1 Survival. PMID: 29339587 [PubMed - in process]
CONCLUSION: COLA scoring systems predict, with reasonable accuracy, the risk of SSI in rectal cancer patients undergoing elective rectal surgery. KEY WORDS: COLA score Rectal surgery, Surgical site infection, Risk prediction, Wound infection. PMID: 29339586 [PubMed - in process]
A U.S. administrative court on Wednesday invalidated a Johnson&Johnson patent on its blockbuster prostate cancer drug Zytiga, bringing rivals closer to selling generic versions.Reuters Health Information
The blood test is dubbed CancerSEEK. It was able to catch cancer cases anywhere from 33 percent to 98 percent of the time, depending on the type.