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The effects of vildagliptin compared with metformin on vascular endothelial function and metabolic parameters: a randomized, controlled trial (Sapporo Athero-Incretin Study 3)

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors may have protective effects in the early stage of atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes, although similar effects in advanced atherosclerosis were not shown...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Original investigation Source Type: research

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Increasing worldwide prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its accompanying pathologies such as obesity, arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia represents one of the most important challenges of current medicine. Despite intensive efforts, high percentage of patients with type 2 diabetes does not achieve treatment goals and struggle with increasing body weight and poor glucose control. While novel classes of antidiabetic medications such as incretin-based therapies and gliflozins have some favorable characteristics compared to older antidiabetics, the only therapeutic option shown to substantially modify the progressi...
Source: Journal of Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
r C Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factors for developing Parkinson's disease (PD). Insulin desensitization is observed in the brains of PD patients, which may be an underlying mechanism that promotes neurodegeneration. Incretin hormones are growth factors that can re-sensitize insulin signalling. We have previously shown that analogues of the incretins GLP-1 or GIP have neuroprotective effects in the MPTP mouse model of PD. Novel dual GLP-1/GIP receptor agonists have been developed as treatments for T2DM. We have tested 3 novel dual receptor agonists DA-JC1, DA-JC4 and DA-CH5 in comparison wit...
Source: Neuropharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Neuropharmacology Source Type: research
Publication date: February 2018 Source:Peptides, Volume 100 Author(s): R.V. Scott, S.R Bloom Globally, 13% of the world’s adult population is obese, and more than 400 million people suffer from diabetes. These conditions are both associated with significant morbidity, mortality and financial cost. Therefore, finding new pharmacological treatments is an imperative. Relative hyperglucagonaemia is seen in all types of diabetes, and has been implicated in its pathogenesis. Consequently, clinical trials are underway using drugs which block glucagon activity to treat type 2 diabetes. Conversely, exogenous glucagon can inc...
Source: Peptides - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: February 2018 Source:Peptides, Volume 100 Author(s): Fiona M. Gribble, Claire L. Meek, Frank Reimann A new strategy under development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity is to mimic some of the effects of bariatric surgery by delivering food-related stimuli to the distal gastrointestinal tract where they should enhance the release of gut hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptideYY (PYY). Methods include inhibition of food digestion and absorption in the upper GI tract, or oral delivery of stimuli in capsules or pelleted form to protect them against gastric degradation. A v...
Source: Peptides - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
We describe how, unexpectedly, relatively low-affinity agonists, which prompt less receptor internalisation than the parent compound, provoke greater insulin secretion and consequent improvements in glycaemia.
Source: Peptides - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: February 2018 Source:Peptides, Volume 100 Author(s): Victor A. Gault, Christian Hölscher Enzyme-resistant receptor agonists of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) have shown positive therapeutic effects in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). T2DM has detrimental effects on brain function and impairment of cognition and memory formation has been described. One of the underlying mechanisms is most likely insulin de-sensitization in the brain, as insulin improves cognitive impairments and enhances learning. Treatment with GLP-1 receptor agonists improves memory formation and i...
Source: Peptides - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: February 2018 Source:Peptides, Volume 100 Author(s): Guillaume Mabilleau, Benoît Gobron, Béatrice Bouvard, Daniel Chappard Bone fractures are common comorbidities of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Bone fracture incidence seems to develop due to increased risk of falls, poor bone quality and/or anti-diabetic medications. Previously, a relation between gut hormones and bone has been suspected. Most recent evidences suggest indeed that two gut hormones, namely glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), may control bone remodeling and quality. The G...
Source: Peptides - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: February 2018 Source:Peptides, Volume 100 Author(s): Erin E. Mulvihill Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) is a widely expressed, serine protease which regulates the bioactivity of many peptides through cleavage and inactivation including the incretin hormones, glucagon like peptide −1 (GLP-1) and glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). Inhibitors of DPP4 are used therapeutically to treat patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) as they potentiate incretin action to regulate islet hormone secretion and improve glycemia and post-prandial lipid excursions. The widespread clinical use of DP...
Source: Peptides - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: SGLT-2i are a reliable second line therapy of T2DM, as they can be combined safely with metformin, sulfonylures, incretin mimetics, insulin as well as in triple combinations. In many studies they were prioritised as monotherapy with satisfying effect regarding HbA1c and FPG level reductions. PMID: 29412124 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research
Bile acids (BAs) are cholesterol-derived metabolites that facilitate the intestinal absorption and transport of dietary lipids. Recently, BAs also emerged as pivotal signaling molecules controlling glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism by binding to the nuclear hormone farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and Takeda G protein receptor 5 (TGR5) in multiple organs, leading to regulation of intestinal incretin secretion, hepatic gluconeogenesis, glycogen synthesis, energy expenditure, inflammation, and gut microbiome configuration. Alterations in BA metabolism and signaling are associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM...
Source: The Journal of Experimental Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Metabolism Review Source Type: research
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