The effects of vildagliptin compared with metformin on vascular endothelial function and metabolic parameters: a randomized, controlled trial (Sapporo Athero-Incretin Study 3)

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors may have protective effects in the early stage of atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes, although similar effects in advanced atherosclerosis were not shown...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Original investigation Source Type: research

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AbstractBackgroundOne of the new current treatment options for Diabetes Mellitus is about increasing glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) activity. GLP-1 with its incretin effect showed major role in glucose homeostasis. Gastroileostomy can increase GLP-1 secretion by rapid delivery of undigested food to the terminal ileum. We studied the early effects of a gastroileostomy on serum levels of GLP-1, glucose, and insulin in rats.MethodsGastroileostomies with side-to-side anastomosis were performed on 15 male New Zealand rats. Blood samples were obtained before and 1  week after the gastroileostomy.ResultsOur results showed t...
Source: Obesity Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
AbstractAims/hypothesisIncretin effect —the potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin release induced by the oral vs the i.v. route—is impaired in dysglycaemic states. Despite evidence from human islet studies that NEFA interfere with incretin function, little information is available about the effect in humans. We tested the impact of acute bidirectional NEFA manipulation on the incretin effect in humans.MethodsThirteen individuals with type 2 diabetes and ten non-diabetic volunteers had a 3  h OGTT, and, a week later, an i.v. isoglycaemic glucose infusion (ISO; OGTT matched). Both pairs of studies were ...
Source: Diabetologia - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
ConclusionRYGB improves glucose tolerance and insulin resistance which may be related to BA metabolism and hormone levels, and the nutrient composition of the diet affects the treatment effect of RYGB on T2DM.
Source: Obesity Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Purpose of review Type 2 diabetes is associated with a characteristic dyslipidemia that may exacerbate cardiovascular risk. The causes of, and the effects of new antihyperglycemia medications on, this dyslipidemia, are under investigation. In an unexpected reciprocal manner, lowering LDL-cholesterol with statins slightly increases the risk of diabetes. Here we review the latest findings. Recent findings The inverse relationship between LDL-cholesterol and diabetes has now been confirmed by multiple lines of evidence. This includes clinical trials, genetic instruments using aggregate single nucleotide polymorphisms, as...
Source: Current Opinion in Lipidology - Category: Lipidology Tags: LIPID METABOLISM: Edited by Marit Westerterp and Bart van de Sluis Source Type: research
Critical role of Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV: A therapeutic target for cancer &diabetes. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2018 Apr 22;: Authors: Paira P, Kumar SKA, De S, Banerjee S Abstract Dipeptidyl Peptidase is one of the novel targets for antidiabetic and anticancer drugs. The dipeptidyl amminopeptidase IV, expressed in mammalian, releases X-Pro/Ala dipeptides from the N-terminus of peptides. It is responsible for the degradation of the incretin hormones which regulate blood glucose level. At present several DPP-IV inhibitors are approved for type-2 diabetes mellitus. These enzymes are also expressed in dimeri...
Source: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Mini Rev Med Chem Source Type: research
Older Subjects with β-cell Dysfunction have an Accentuated Incretin Release. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Apr 16;: Authors: Garduno-Garcia JJ, Gastaldelli A, DeFronzo RA, Lertwattanarak R, Holst JJ, Musi N Abstract Objective: Insulin secretion declines with age and this contributes to the increased risk of developing impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in older subjects. Insulin secretion is regulated by the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP) 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). Here we tested the hypotheses that incretin release is re...
Source: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: J Clin Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research
ABSTRACTBackgroundLarge doses of whey protein consumed as a preload before single high –glycemic load meals has been shown to improve postprandial glycemia in type 2 diabetes. It is unclear if this effect remains with smaller doses of whey co-ingested at consecutive mixed-macronutrient meals. Moreover, whether hydrolyzed whey offers further benefit under these conditions is unclear.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to investigate postprandial glycemic and appetite responses after small doses of intact and hydrolyzed whey protein co-ingested with mixed-nutrient breakfast and lunch meals in men with type 2 diabetes.De...
Source: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
Cardiovascular protection following empagliflozin therapy is not entirely attributable to the glucose lowering effect. Increased hematocrit might influence the shear stress that is the main force acting on the...
Source: Cardiovascular Diabetology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Original investigation Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 6 April 2018 Source:Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology Author(s): L. Shcherbina, A. Lindqvist, A.-H. Thorén Fischer, E. Ahlqvist, E. Zhang, S.E. Falkmer, E. Renström, J. Koffert, H. Honka, N. Wierup Impaired incretin effect is a culprit in Type 2 Diabetes. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a regulatory peptide controlling pancreatic islet hormone secretion and beta-cell survival. Here we studied the potential expression of CART in enteroendocrine cells and examined the role of CART as a regulator of incretin secretion and expression. CART expression wa...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Abstract Background: Large doses of whey protein consumed as a preload before single high-glycemic load meals has been shown to improve postprandial glycemia in type 2 diabetes. It is unclear if this effect remains with smaller doses of whey co-ingested at consecutive mixed-macronutrient meals. Moreover, whether hydrolyzed whey offers further benefit under these conditions is unclear. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate postprandial glycemic and appetite responses after small doses of intact and hydrolyzed whey protein co-ingested with mixed-nutrient breakfast and lunch meals in men with type ...
Source: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition - Category: Nutrition Authors: Tags: Am J Clin Nutr Source Type: research
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