The effect of melatonin on expression of p53 and ovarian preantral follicle development isolated from vitrified ovary

AbstractOvarian vitrification is a strategy for conservation of fertility of young female patients, suffering from infertility, due to iatrogenic loss of ovarian function, resulting from chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of melatonin on expression of p53 and the developmental rate of preantral follicles isolated from vitrified and non-vitrified ovaries. This experimental study was carried out on 40, 14-day-old female mice (NMRI). One ovary from each mouse was used randomly for the vitrification procedure. Preantral follicles with a diameter of 120 –140 μm derived from vitrified-warmed and non-vitrified ovarian tissues were cultured individually in α-MEM medium supplemented with or without melatonin. The expression of p53, diameter of follicle, survival rate, and number of antral follicles were compared using post hoc LSD,t test, and chi-square test, respectively in four groups: non-vitrified and non-melatonin (NVNM), non-vitrified and melatonin (NVM), vitrified and non-melatonin (VNM), vitrified and melatonin (VM). p53 gene was expressed in four groups and was strongly expressed in the antral follicles of VNM (p = 0.011). The addition of melatonin increased survival rate and the mean diameter of follicles in vitrified group (p = 0.001). There were no significant differences in antral formation of follicles between different groups. Adding melatonin to culture medium reduced e...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - Category: Pathology Source Type: research

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AbstractBackgroundWhile the spermatotoxic properties of cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy are widely recognized, the effect of malignancy itself on male fertility is not clearly understood.ObjectivesTo determine whether malignancy is associated with diminished semen quality prior to spermatotoxic treatment among sperm bankers.Materials and MethodsRetrospective database review of de ‚Äźidentified records was obtained for all episodes of sperm banking performed at a cryobank from January 2004 to May 2017 for one of the following reasons: ‘future use’ (e.g., military deployment and gende...
Source: Andrology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
AbstractAdult survivors of childhood cancers are more prone to developing poor reproductive and obstetrical outcomes than their siblings and the general population as a result of previous exposure to chemotherapy and radiation during childhood. Chemotherapy drugs exert cytotoxic effects systemically and therefore can damage the ovaries, leading to infertility, premature ovarian failure, and, to a lesser extent, spontaneous abortions. They have very limited or no deleterious effects on the uterus that can be recognized clinically. By contrast, radiation is detrimental to both the ovaries and the uterus, thereby causing a gr...
Source: The Oncologist - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review, Gynecologic Oncology Source Type: research
Abstract Adult survivors of childhood cancers are more prone to developing poor reproductive and obstetrical outcomes than their siblings and the general population as a result of previous exposure to chemotherapy and radiation during childhood. Chemotherapy drugs exert cytotoxic effects systemically and therefore can damage the ovaries, leading to infertility, premature ovarian failure, and, to a lesser extent, spontaneous abortions. They have very limited or no deleterious effects on the uterus that can be recognized clinically. By contrast, radiation is detrimental to both the ovaries and the uterus, thereby ca...
Source: The Oncologist - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Oncologist Source Type: research
WebMD wasn't a research option when Ivy Brown was diagnosed with Hodgkin's lymphoma in 1974, so her mother looked up her 12-year-old daughter's condition the old-fashioned way, in a hardcover medical volume. "It just said 'fatal,'" Brown explained. Having moved the family to London a month earlier, Brown's parents were still trying to liaise with her pediatrician in the U.S. "My father told me recently that he was sleeping with the phone on his stomach because of the time change," she said. "They were as scared as you can be when you have a child who you think you might lose," Brown explained....
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - Category: Science Source Type: news
Conclusions Cryopreservation of sperm should be offered before any gonadotoxic chemotherapy takes place. However, micro-TESE and subsequent ICSI could be effective treatment options for patients with persistent postchemotherapy azoospermia whose sperm were not frozen before therapy. Our results suggest that micro-TESE-ICSI could benefit 27 % of such Japanese patients.
Source: International Journal of Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
We describe a case of successful ex vivo sperm extraction and live birth in a patient previously treated with radiation and chronic androgen deprivation for metastatic prostate cancer. The presented case demonstrates that conception after radiation therapy and chronic androgen deprivation is feasible. We propose that fertility counselling and sperm cryopreservation should be considered for all prostate cancer patients. Additionally, for those individuals undergoing external beam radiotherapy, testicular shielding should be routinely offered in the event further family building is desired.
Source: Andrologia - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
The recent advances in cancer therapies for males of pediatric, adolescent, and reproductive ages over the last several decades have led to increases in long-term survival, making post-treatment quality of life increasingly important. Combinations of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy may achieve high remission rates in patients with cancer, but the treatment can be harmful to male fertility. Cytotoxic chemotherapy may lead to irreversible spermatogenic dysfunction. Microdissection testicular sperm extraction (Micro-TESE) is the only method for fertility revival in chemotherapy induced azoospermic patients.
Source: The Journal of Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Infertility: Therapy I Source Type: research
Abstract Tamoxifen (TAM) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) with tissue-specific effects on estrogen signaling used predominantly for treatment and chemoprevention of breast cancers. Recent studies have shown that TAM prevents infertility and decreases follicular loss from common cancer chemotherapy and radiation therapy in preclinical models. Here we review current and novel uses of SERMs and advantages and challenges for translation of TAM for human fertility preservation. PMID: 25810474 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Biology of Reproduction - Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research
Conclusion: there is no increased risk of doing the lymph node dissection early on.   Dr. Eggener-CON   Basics Lymph node dissections rarely done, even for large tumors, because there is no proven therapeutic or staging benefit for low risk patients.  A Mayo study revealed no data showing therapeutic benefit in high risk patients.  For clinically node negative high risk patients, there is staging value but no proven therapeutic benefit. Rate of positive nodes is associated with stage and grade; the higher the stage and grade, the more likely there will be positive nod...
Source: Kidney Cancer Association - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: news
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