Beyond infection - Maternal immune activation by environmental factors, microglial development, and relevance for autism spectrum disorders.

Beyond infection - Maternal immune activation by environmental factors, microglial development, and relevance for autism spectrum disorders. Exp Neurol. 2017 Jul 08;: Authors: Bilbo SD, Block CL, Bolton JL, Hanamsagar R, Tran PK Abstract Immune molecules such as cytokines and chemokines and the cells that produce them within the brain, notably microglia, are critical for normal brain development. This recognition has in recent years led to the working hypothesis that inflammatory events during pregnancy, e.g. in response to infection, may disrupt the normal expression of immune molecules during critical stages of neural development and thereby contribute to the risk for neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This hypothesis has in large part been shepherded by the work of Dr. Paul Patterson and colleagues, which has elegantly demonstrated that a single viral infection or injection of a viral mimetic to pregnant mice significantly and persistently impacts offspring immune and nervous system function, changes that underlie ASD-like behavioral dysfunction including social and communication deficits. Subsequent studies by many labs - in humans and in non-human animal models - have supported the hypothesis that ongoing disrupted immune molecule expression and/or neuroinflammation contributes to at least a significant subset of ASD. The heterogeneous clinical and biological phenotypes observed in ASD strongly suggest that in genet...
Source: Experimental Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

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We examined small study effects and excess significance. We did analyses under credibility ceilings. This review is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42018091704.Findings46 eligible articles yielded data on 67 environmental risk factors (544 212 cases, 81 708 787 individuals) and 52 biomarkers (15 614 cases, 15 433 controls). Evidence of association was convincing for maternal age of 35 years or over (relative risk [RR] 1·31, 95% CI 1·18–1·45), maternal chronic hypertension (odds ratio [OR] 1·48, 1·29–1·70), maternal gestational hypertension (OR 1·37,...
Source: The Lancet Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 March 2019Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Roger Maldonado-Ruiz, Lourdes Garza-Ocañas, Alberto CamachoAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disease which involves functional and structural defects in selective central nervous system (CNS) regions harming capability to process and respond to external stimuli. In addition to genetic background, etiological causes of ASD have not been fully clarified. Maternal immune activation (MIA) during pregnancy have been proposed as a potential etiological cause leading to aberrant synaptic pruning and m...
Source: Neurochemistry International - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
ASD half as likely in high-risk children if mothers took prenatal vitamins during first month Related items fromOnMedica MHRA tightens licence restrictions on valproate for women Caffeine in pregnancy linked to risk of child overweight Valproate in pregnancy linked to raised autism risk Hunt announces Medicines and Medical Devices Safety Review Most CCGs missing smoking target for pregnant women
Source: OnMedica Latest News - Category: UK Health Source Type: news
AbstractStudies have examined the association between parental body mass index (BMI) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in offspring, with inconsistent results, especially regarding maternal obesity, overweight and underweight. Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed and PsycINFO databases were searched up to March 2018 for relevant observational studies with no language restriction. Our literature search identified 13 eligible studies for meta-analysis (involving 943,293 children and 30,337 cases). For maternal BMI (13 studies), both maternal obesity [OR 1.41 (95% CI 1.19 –1.67)] and maternal overweight [OR 1.16 (95% CI 1....
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Obese, pregnant women with diabetes are more likely to have children with psychiatric disorders, such as ADHD or autism, according to a study published inPediatrics.Reuters
Source: Society for Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: news
(Reuters Health) - Pregnant women who have both severe obesity and diabetes may be more likely to have children with autism, ADHD and other psychiatric disorders than mothers who don't have either condition during pregnancy, a new study suggests.
Source: Reuters: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news
(Natural News) Being obese before getting pregnant has been found to increase the chance of having a child with autism, according to a study. The study, conducted by researchers at Northwestern University, found that mothers whose waists were at least 80 centimeters (cm) before pregnancy had a 65 percent higher chance of giving birth to a child...
Source: - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
PREGNANT women who are overweight before they conceive run a 65 per cent greater risk of having a baby with autism, research suggests.
Source: Daily Express - Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
TUESDAY, March 20, 2018 -- The pre-pregnancy width of a woman's waist -- but not whether or not she is actually obese -- may be tied to autism risk in her children, new research suggests. What's behind the association remains unclear, the...
Source: - Daily MedNews - Category: General Medicine Source Type: news
Purpose of review The current review addresses the importance of the prospective cohort design in large, unselected populations starting early in life for understanding the origins of childhood health disorders. Recent findings Cohort studies originating in healthy populations have contributed to great advances in health, especially in cardiovascular diseases, but have only recently been applied systematically to study the origins of childhood disorders. Several large population-based pregnancy and/or birth cohorts have been developed in different parts of the world, and these are beginning to contribute to better und...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Tags: THERAPEUTICS AND TOXICOLOGY: Edited by Robert O. Wright Source Type: research
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