Beyond infection - Maternal immune activation by environmental factors, microglial development, and relevance for autism spectrum disorders.

Beyond infection - Maternal immune activation by environmental factors, microglial development, and relevance for autism spectrum disorders. Exp Neurol. 2017 Jul 08;: Authors: Bilbo SD, Block CL, Bolton JL, Hanamsagar R, Tran PK Abstract Immune molecules such as cytokines and chemokines and the cells that produce them within the brain, notably microglia, are critical for normal brain development. This recognition has in recent years led to the working hypothesis that inflammatory events during pregnancy, e.g. in response to infection, may disrupt the normal expression of immune molecules during critical stages of neural development and thereby contribute to the risk for neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This hypothesis has in large part been shepherded by the work of Dr. Paul Patterson and colleagues, which has elegantly demonstrated that a single viral infection or injection of a viral mimetic to pregnant mice significantly and persistently impacts offspring immune and nervous system function, changes that underlie ASD-like behavioral dysfunction including social and communication deficits. Subsequent studies by many labs - in humans and in non-human animal models - have supported the hypothesis that ongoing disrupted immune molecule expression and/or neuroinflammation contributes to at least a significant subset of ASD. The heterogeneous clinical and biological phenotypes observed in ASD strongly suggest that in genet...
Source: Experimental Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: Lower maternal postpartum plasma LDL concentration was associated with increased odds of ASD in offspring among children born to overweight and obese mothers. Our findings suggest that both maternal BMI and lipids should be considered in assessing their role in offspring ASD risk; and additional longitudinal studies are needed to better understand maternal lipid dynamics during pregnancy among normal weight and overweight/obese mothers. PMID: 32919032 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Annals of Epidemiology - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: Ann Epidemiol Source Type: research
This study provides further evidence that maternal PCOS and/or anovulatory infertility, independently and jointly with maternal obesity, perinatal problems, gestational diabetes and cesarean delivery, implies a broad range of adverse effects on offspring neurodevelopment. These findings may potentially help in counseling and managing pregnancies.STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S)This study was supported by the joint research funding of Shandong University and Karolinska Institute (SDU-KI-2019-08 to X.C and C.L.), THL Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare: Drug and pregnancy project [M.G.], the Swedish Research Council ...
Source: Human Reproduction - Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research
Abstract Obesity as determined by BMI is a confounder in clinical evaluations of the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Validated regulatory tests are used to determine whether a chemical acts via a mode of action (MOA) that affects estrogen, androgen, thyroid or steroidogenic pathways. Test batteries for evaluating EDCs include QSAR, in vitro assays, and animal testing. Studies suggest that EDCs pose the greatest risk during prenatal and early infant development when organ systems are developing. Health effects include lowered fertility, endometriosis, and cancers associated with estrogenic activit...
Source: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology : RTP - Category: Toxicology Authors: Tags: Regul Toxicol Pharmacol Source Type: research
Abstract Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) is an endogenous enzyme that promotes gastrointestinal homeostasis by detoxifying inflammatory mediators, tightening the gut barrier and promoting a healthy microbiome. Oral IAP administration was efficacious in ameliorating diabetes in a high fat diet (HFD) induced murine model. In humans, maternal obesity and diabetes during pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In mice, HFD-induced maternal obesity lead to offspring with cognitive deficiency. Here we investigated whether IAP administration to obese dams could ameli...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
AbstractObjectiveTo evaluate the long-term pediatric neuropsychiatric morbidity of children born to obese patients.Study designA population-based cohort analysis was performed comparing all deliveries of obese (maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index of 30  kg/m2 or more) and non-obese patients between 1991 and 2014 at a single tertiary medical center. Hospitalizations of the offspring up to the age of 18  years involving neuropsychiatric morbidities were evaluated according to a pre-defined set of ICD-9 codes, including autistic, eating, sleeping and movement disorders, cerebral palsy, developmental disorders, an...
Source: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
ConclusionOur findings support increased paternal BMI negatively affecting pregnancy and child health outcomes. Future studies must include or adjust for paternal contributions, as the longstanding assumption that only maternal factors are relevant is likely to have considerably confounded prior work.
Source: Obesity Research and Clinical Practice - Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Source Type: research
Authors: Brodowski L, Büter W, Kohls F, Hillemanns P, von Kaisenberg C, Dammann O Abstract Maternal overweight and obesity are prenatal risk factors for obstetrical complications, preterm birth, neonatal morbidity as well as cognitive and behavioural developmental disorders in children. Paediatric morbidity and mortality as well as child development disorders are significantly associated with maternal obesity. Particularly in the neurodevelopmental and psychiatric area, it is becoming increasingly clear that, in children of mothers with an increased body mass index (BMI), there is a high correlation with child...
Source: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde - Category: OBGYN Tags: Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd Source Type: research
We examined small study effects and excess significance. We did analyses under credibility ceilings. This review is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42018091704.Findings46 eligible articles yielded data on 67 environmental risk factors (544 212 cases, 81 708 787 individuals) and 52 biomarkers (15 614 cases, 15 433 controls). Evidence of association was convincing for maternal age of 35 years or over (relative risk [RR] 1·31, 95% CI 1·18–1·45), maternal chronic hypertension (odds ratio [OR] 1·48, 1·29–1·70), maternal gestational hypertension (OR 1·37,...
Source: The Lancet Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 March 2019Source: Neurochemistry InternationalAuthor(s): Roger Maldonado-Ruiz, Lourdes Garza-Ocañas, Alberto CamachoAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disease which involves functional and structural defects in selective central nervous system (CNS) regions harming capability to process and respond to external stimuli. In addition to genetic background, etiological causes of ASD have not been fully clarified. Maternal immune activation (MIA) during pregnancy have been proposed as a potential etiological cause leading to aberrant synaptic pruning and m...
Source: Neurochemistry International - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
ASD half as likely in high-risk children if mothers took prenatal vitamins during first month Related items fromOnMedica MHRA tightens licence restrictions on valproate for women Caffeine in pregnancy linked to risk of child overweight Valproate in pregnancy linked to raised autism risk Hunt announces Medicines and Medical Devices Safety Review Most CCGs missing smoking target for pregnant women
Source: OnMedica Latest News - Category: UK Health Source Type: news
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